Academic Appointments

  • Clinical Assistant Professor, Obstetrics & Gynecology


All Publications

  • HIV and contraception CURRENT OPINION IN OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY Fok, W., Blumenthal, P. D. 2017; 29 (6): 419–26


    Contraception is a vital component of medical care for women with HIV or at high risk of acquiring HIV. Over the last several years, there has been emerging evidence regarding the safety and effectiveness of various contraceptive methods, ultimately leading to a revision in the WHO Medical Eligibility Criteria for contraceptive use.Progestogen-only injectables may be associated with an increased risk of HIV acquisition and its use has been revised to category 2 from category 1. Etonogestrel and levonorgestrel levels are lower in women who concurrently use contraceptive implant and efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy. Multipurpose technology, aimed at providing antiretroviral medication and contraception, is an area of ongoing research but is not yet clinically available.It is important for providers who care for women with HIV or at high risk of HIV to inquire about pregnancy intentions. If contraception is desired, these women should be offered all available methods, with counseling regarding possible risks of contraceptive failure or HIV acquisition.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/GCO.0000000000000405

    View details for Web of Science ID 000415091000009

    View details for PubMedID 28863005

  • Update on emergency contraception. Current opinion in obstetrics & gynecology Fok, W. K., Blumenthal, P. D. 2016; 28 (6): 522-529


    Emergency contraception provides a critical and time-sensitive opportunity for women to prevent undesired pregnancy after intercourse. Both access and available options for emergency contraception have changed over the last several years.Emergency contraceptive pills can be less effective in obese women. The maximum achieved serum concentration of levonorgestrel (LNG) is lower in obese women than women of normal BMI, and doubling the dose of LNG (3 mg) increases its concentration maximum, approximating the level in normal BMI women receiving one dose of LNG. Repeated use of both LNG and ulipristal acetate (UPA) is well tolerated. Hormonal contraception can be immediately started following LNG use, but should be delayed for 5 days after UPA use to avoid dampening the efficacy of UPA. The copper intrauterine device (IUD) is the only IUD approved for emergency contraception (and the most effective method of emergency contraception), but use of LNG IUD as emergency contraception is currently being investigated. Accurate knowledge about emergency contraception remains low both for patients and healthcare providers.Emergency contraception is an important yet underutilized tool available to women to prevent pregnancy. Current options including copper IUD and emergency contraceptive pills are safe and well tolerated. Significant gaps in knowledge of emergency contraception on both the provider and user level exist, as do barriers to expedient access of emergency contraception.

    View details for PubMedID 27676405