Honors & Awards

  • Member, Alpha Omega Alpha Medical Honor Society (2014)

Professional Education

  • BS, Brigham Young University (2007)
  • MD, Eastern Virginia Medical School (2014)


All Publications

  • Urinary Stone Disease in Pregnancy: Current Management Practices in a Large National Cohort. Urology Spradling, K., Sohlberg, E. M., Li, S., Zhang, C. A., Brubaker, W. D., Dallas, K., Pao, A. C., Liao, J., Leppert, J. T., Elliott, C. S., Chung, B. I., Min, G. E., Conti, S. L. 2020


    To define current national practice patterns of imaging modalities and urologic procedures in pregnant women with urinary stone disease.Using the IBM® MarketScan® national insurance claims database, we identified pregnant women with urinary stone disease and their corresponding gestational age between 2011-2016 using administrative claims data. We then assessed each encounter for urinary stone disease or stone-related urologic procedure during their pregnancy. We abstracted demographic information as well as codes for stone procedures and imaging.We identified 14,298 pregnant women with urinary stone disease during the study period. Of the 12,315 undergoing abdominal imaging (86.1%), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 2.8%, x-ray in 9%, and ultrasound in 74.3%. Computed tomography was not used as a diagnostic modality during pregnancy. Procedural intervention was performed in 749 women (5.2%): 476 (3.3%) ureteral stent placement without definitive stone treatment, 93 (0.6%) percutaneous nephrostomy placement, and 180 (1.3%) ureteroscopy (URS) for definitive stone treatment. URS was most commonly performed before 34 weeks gestation with only 27 cases (15%) performed after.This large national cohort reveals the current imaging and procedural practice patterns for urinary stone disease during pregnancy and provides a critical baseline as these practice patterns evolve in the future.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.urology.2020.03.050

    View details for PubMedID 32311447

  • Urinary Stone Disease in Pregnancy: A Claims-Based Analysis of 1.4 Million Patients. The Journal of urology Sohlberg, E. M., Brubaker, W. D., Zhang, C. A., Anderegg, L. D., Dallas, K., Song, S., Ganesan, C., Chertow, G., Pao, A., Liao, J., Leppert, J. T., Elliott, C. S., Conti, S. L. 2019: 101097JU0000000000000657


    PURPOSE: Urinary stone disease during pregnancy is poorly understood but is thought to be associated with increased maternal and fetal morbidity. We sought to determine the prevalence of urinary stone disease in pregnancy and whether urinary stone disease during pregnancy is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes.MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified all pregnant women from 2003 through 2017 in the Optum national insurance claims database. We used diagnosis claims to identify urinary stone disease and assess medical comorbidity. We established the prevalence of urinary stone disease during pregnancy, stratified by week of pregnancy. We further evaluated associations among urinary stone disease and maternal complications and pregnancy outcomes in both univariable and multivariable analyses.RESULTS: Urinary stone disease affects 8/1000 pregnancies and is more common in white women and women with more comorbid conditions. In fully adjusted models, pregnancies complicated by urinary stone disease had higher rates of adverse fetal outcomes, including prematurity and spontaneous abortions. This analysis is limited by its retrospective administrative claims design.CONCLUSIONS: The rate of urinary stone disease during pregnancy is higher than previously reported. Urinary stone disease is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/JU.0000000000000657

    View details for PubMedID 31738114

  • Crowdsourced Assessment of Ureteroscopy with Laser Lithotripsy Video Feed Does Not Correlate with Trainee Experience JOURNAL OF ENDOUROLOGY Conti, S. L., Brubaker, W., Chung, B. I., Sofer, M., Hsi, R. S., Shinghal, R., Elliott, C. S., Caruso, T., Leppert, J. T. 2019; 33 (1): 42–49
  • Payer Type, Race/Ethnicity, and the Timing of Surgical Management of Urinary Stone Disease. Journal of endourology Brubaker, W. D., Dallas, K., Elliott, C. S., Pao, A. C., Chertow, G., Leppert, J. T., Conti, S. L. 2018


    PURPOSE: Surgery for upper tract urinary stone disease is often reserved for symptomatic patients and those whose stone does not spontaneously pass after a trial of passage. Our objective was to determine whether payer type or race/ethnicity is associated with the timeliness of kidney stone surgery.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Population-based cohort study using the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development dataset from 2010 to 2012. We identified patients who were discharged from an emergency department with a stone diagnosis and who subsequently underwent a stone surgery. Primary outcome was time from emergency department discharge to urinary stone surgery in days. Secondary outcomes included potential harms resulting from delayed stone surgery.RESULTS: Over the study period, 15,193 patients met the inclusion criteria. Median time from emergency department discharge to stone surgery was 28 days. On multivariable analysis patients with Medicaid, Medicare, and self-pay coverage experienced adjusted mean increases of 46%, 42%, and 60% in time to surgery, respectively, when compared with private insurance. Additionally, patients of Black and Hispanic race/ethnicity, respectively experienced adjusted mean increases of 36% and 20% in time to surgery relative to their white counterparts. Prior to a stone surgery, underinsured patients were more likely to revisit an emergency department three or more times, undergo two or more CT imaging studies, and receive upper urinary tract decompression.CONCLUSIONS: Underinsured and minority patients are more likely to experience a longer time to stone surgery after presenting to an emergency department and experience potential harm from this delay.

    View details for PubMedID 30343603

  • Increased risk of autoimmune disorders in infertile men: analysis of US claims data. Andrology Brubaker, W. D., Li, S., Baker, L. C., Eisenberg, M. L. 2018; 6 (1): 94–98


    Aberrations in reproductive fitness may be a harbinger of medical diseases in men. Existing data suggest that female infertility is associated with autoimmune disorders; however, this has not been examined in men. As immune surveillance and hormonal factors can impact male fertility and autoimmunity, we sought to determine the association between male infertility and incident autoimmune disorders. We analyzed subjects from the Truven Health MarketScan claims database from 2001 to 2008. Infertile men were identified through diagnosis and treatment codes. We examined the most common immune disorders, which were identified by ICD9 diagnosis codes. Men diagnosed with an immune disorder at baseline or within 1 year of follow-up were excluded. Infertile men were compared to vasectomized men (i.e., men who are likely fertile) and to age-matched control (10 : 1) group using Cox regression analysis. A total of 33,077 infertile men (mean age of 33 years), 77,693 vasectomized men (mean age 35), and 330,770 age-matched control men (mean age 33) were assembled with a total follow-up of 1.49 M person-years. Overall, immune disorders were rare in the group with the individual conditions occurring in <0.1% of men. However, infertile men displayed the highest risk of many conditions. Infertile men had a higher risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis compared to both vasectomized men (HR 1.56, 95% CI 1.19-2.05) and age-matched controls (HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.02-1.62). Additionally, this higher risk was seen in general immune disorders (under which systemic lupus erythematosus is categorized) compared to vasectomized men (HR 3.11, 95% CI 2.00-4.86) and age-matched men (HR 2.12, 95% CI 1.52-2.96). This same risk trend was seen in psoriasis, when compared to vasectomized men (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.09-1.50) and age-matched controls (HR 1.20, 95% CI 1.04-1.37). A similar trend was seen in the analysis comparing infertile men and vasectomized men in developing multiple sclerosis (HR 1.91, 95% CI 1.10-3.31) and Grave's disease (HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.10-1.92), as well as the higher risk of infertile men compared to the age-matched group at developing thyroiditis (HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.02-2.52). The current analysis shows that infertile men have a higher risk of developing certain autoimmune disorders in the years following an infertility evaluation. Specifically, infertile men had higher rates of developing rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, thyroiditis, and Grave's disease. Given these findings, further research should focus on confirmation of these associations and elucidation of the pathways between fertility and immunity.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/andr.12436

    View details for PubMedID 29179258

  • Adherence to Hepatitis B Immunoglobulin (HBIG) After Liver Transplantation TRANSPLANTATION Chang, M. S., Stiles, J. B., Lukose, T. S., Balducci, A., Brubaker, W. D., Burman, B. E., Emond, J. C., Brown, R. S. 2013; 96 (11): E84-E85
  • Prevention of De Novo Hepatitis B in Recipients of Core Antibody-Positive Livers With Lamivudine and Other Nucleos(t)ides: A 12-Year Experience TRANSPLANTATION Chang, M. S., Olsen, S. K., Pichardo, E. M., Stiles, J. B., Rosenthal-Cogan, L., Brubaker, W. D., Guarrera, J. V., Emond, J. C., Brown, R. S. 2013; 95 (7): 960-965


    Lamivudine (LAM) has been shown to prevent de novo hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in recipients of hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb)-positive liver transplants (LT) but primarily in small studies with limited follow-up.We conducted a retrospective cohort study of HBcAb+ graft recipients at our institution from October 1999 to August 2008.One hundred nineteen recipients without prior HBV were identified (median age, 54 years; 70% male), of which 62 received LAM. The median follow-up was 2.6 years overall and 5.3 years in the LAM group. Among LAM recipients, 44% were HBV naïve (HBsAb-/HBcAb-) at LT, of which 6% developed HBsAb+ and 3% developed HBcAb+ after LT. Eight percent developed de novo HBV: two recipients became hepatitis B surface antigen positive at 70 and 23 months and three experienced breakthrough with HBV DNA more than 2000 IU at 1 to 9 months after LT. Sixty percent (3 of 5) were HBV naïve. Four (6%) other recipients also had transiently detectable HBV less than 2000 IU, which did not require any changes to their prophylaxis regimen. When compared with recipients who received other nucleos(t)ide analogues, there was no difference in de novo rates: LAM 8% (5 of 62), adefovir 15% (5 of 33), tenofovir 0% (0 of 3), entecavir 0% (0 of 1), and 5% (1 of 20) for those not given prophylaxis (P=0.59).LAM monoprophylaxis was effective in preventing de novo HBV in the vast majority of recipients over long-term follow-up. Adefovir had a higher rate of de novo infections numerically, whereas tenofovir and entecavir had no cases and may be more effective, but this was limited by a small sample size.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/TP.0b013e3182845f97

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316990300020

    View details for PubMedID 23545507

  • Diabetes, Body Mass Index, and Outcomes in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Undergoing Liver Transplantation TRANSPLANTATION Siegel, A. B., Lim, E. A., Wang, S., Brubaker, W., Rodriguez, R. D., Goyal, A., Jacobson, J. S., Hershman, D. L., Verna, E. C., Zaretsky, J., Halazun, K., Dove, L., Brown, R. S., Neugut, A. I., Kato, T., Remotti, H., Coppleson, Y. J., Emond, J. C. 2012; 94 (5): 539-543


    For many cancers, features of the metabolic syndrome, such as diabetes and obesity, have been associated with both increased risk of cancer development and poor outcomes.We examined a large retrospective cohort of 342 consecutive patients who underwent liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma between January 1999 and July 2010 at our institution. We evaluated the relationship between diabetes, obesity, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence, and overall survival.We found that a body mass index (BMI) higher than 30 was an independent predictor of poor overall survival in a multivariable Cox model, approximately doubling the risk of death after transplantation. A BMI higher than 30 was also a predictor of recurrent HCC, although this was of borderline statistical significance (hazard ratio for recurrence, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 0.9-4.1). We also found increased BMI to be an independent predictor of microvascular invasion within HCC tumors, lending a possible explanation to these results. Those with diabetes showed worsened overall survival compared with those without diabetes in univariate but not multivariable analysis, possibly related to longer wait times.Our findings suggest a relationship between higher BMI, tumor vascular invasion, increased recurrence, and worsened overall survival. These findings may help explain why those with high BMI have worse outcomes from their cancers. A better understanding of the role of obesity and diabetes in patients with cancer should help develop better predictors of outcome and improved treatment options for patients with HCC.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/TP.0b013e31825c58ea

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308668000025

    View details for PubMedID 22864187

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3605709

  • Smoking and hepatocellular carcinoma mortality EXPERIMENTAL AND THERAPEUTIC MEDICINE Siegel, A. B., Conner, K., Wang, S., Jacobson, J. S., Hershman, D. L., Hidalgo, R., Verna, E. C., Halazun, K., Brubaker, W., Zaretsky, J., Moniodis, A., Delgado-Cruzata, L., Dove, L., Emond, J., Kato, T., Brown, R. S., Neugut, A. I. 2012; 3 (1): 124-128


    The association between cigarette smoking and mortality from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is ambiguous. We analyzed the association between smoking and mortality in HCC patients seen at our center. We collected data retrospectively on patients diagnosed with HCC between 2002 and 2009. We estimated the association of smoking history with demographic, clinical and treatment factors. We then modeled these factors as predictors of mortality. Among smokers, we analyzed the effects of pack-year history and cessation times on survival. Two hundred and twenty-three out of 444 patients with HCC had a history of smoking. Smokers were more likely to be younger at diagnosis, to have α fetoprotein (AFP) values less than the median, and to have had surgery (p=0.04) compared to non-smokers. In a Cox model, younger age, lower AFP and Child's Class were all independently predictive of survival, but smoking was not. Smokers with over 20 pack-years did not have worse survival than lighter smokers, and cessation times also did not affect survival after controlling for age. We found a significant interaction between smoking and drinking. In our data, smoking was not independently associated with HCC survival in a multivariable model. Smoking was associated with favorable prognostic features which likely outweighed any independent effect of smoking.

    View details for DOI 10.3892/etm.2011.351

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298124900022

    View details for PubMedID 22969856

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3438642

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