Hand hygiene of medical students and resident physicians: predictors of attitudes and behaviour.
Postgraduate medical journal
2016; 92 (1091): 497-500
Mortality risk among recent-onset injection drug users in five US Cities
SUBSTANCE USE & MISUSE
2008; 43 (3-4): 413-428
Multilevel community-based intervention to increase access to sterile syringes among injection drug users through pharmacy sales in New York City
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH
2007; 97 (1): 117-124
We measured medical students' and resident trainees' hand hygiene behaviour, knowledge and attitudes in order to identify important predictors of hand hygiene behaviour in this population.An anonymous, web-based questionnaire was distributed to medical students and residents at Stanford University School of Medicine in August of 2012. The questionnaire included questions regarding participants' behaviour, knowledge, attitude and experiences about hand hygiene. Behaviour, knowledge and attitude indices were scaled from 0 to 1, with 1 representing superior responses. Using multivariate regression, we identified positive and negative predictors of superior hand hygiene behaviour. We investigated effectiveness of interventions, barriers and comfort reminding others.280 participants (111 students and 169 residents) completed the questionnaire (response rate 27.8%). Residents and medical students reported hand hygiene behaviour compliance of 0.45 and 0.55, respectively (p=0.02). Resident and medical student knowledge was 0.80 and 0.73, respectively (p=0.001). The attitude index for residents was 0.56 and 0.55 for medical students. Regression analysis identified experiences as predictors of hand hygiene behaviour (both positive and negative influence). Knowledge was not a significant predictor of behaviour, but a working gel dispenser and observing attending physicians with good hand hygiene practices were reported by both groups as the most effective strategy in influencing trainees.Medical students and residents have similar attitudes about hand hygiene, but differ in their level of knowledge and compliance. Concerns about hierarchy may have a significant negative impact on hand hygiene advocacy.
View details for DOI 10.1136/postgradmedj-2015-133509
View details for PubMedID 26912501
Research has indicated that there is minimal use of pharmacies among injection drug users (IDUs) in specific neighborhoods and among Black and Hispanic IDUs. We developed a community-based participatory research partnership to determine whether a multilevel intervention would increase sterile syringe access through a new policy allowing nonprescription syringe sales in pharmacies.We targeted Harlem, NY (using the South Bronx for comparison), and disseminated informational material at community forums, pharmacist training programs, and counseling or outreach programs for IDUs. We compared cross-sectional samples in 3 target populations (pre- and postintervention): community members (attitudes and opinions), pharmacists (opinions and practices), and IDUs (risk behaviors).Among community members (N = 1496) and pharmacists (N = 131), negative opinions of IDU syringe sales decreased in Harlem whereas there was either no change or an increase in negative opinions in the comparison community. Although pharmacy use by IDUs (N=728) increased in both communities, pharmacy use increased significantly among Black IDUs in Harlem, but not in the comparison community; syringe reuse significantly decreased in Harlem, but not in the comparison community.Targeting the individual and the social environment through a multilevel community-based intervention reduced high-risk behavior, particularly among Black IDUs.
View details for DOI 10.2105/AJPH.2005.069591
View details for Web of Science ID 000243310600021
View details for PubMedID 17138929