All Publications

  • Limited Dishevelled/Axin oligomerization determines efficiency of Wnt/β-catenin signal transduction. eLife Kan, W., Enos, M. D., Korkmazhan, E., Muennich, S., Chen, D. H., Gammons, M. V., Vasishtha, M., Bienz, M., Dunn, A. R., Skiniotis, G., Weis, W. I. 2020; 9


    In Wnt/β-catenin signaling, the transcriptional coactivator β-catenin is regulated by its phosphorylation in a complex that includes the scaffold protein Axin and associated kinases. Wnt binding to its coreceptors activates the cytosolic effector Dishevelled (Dvl), leading to the recruitment of Axin and the inhibition of β-catenin phosphorylation. This process requires interaction of homologous DIX domains present in Dvl and Axin, but is mechanistically undefined. We show that Dvl DIX forms antiparallel, double-stranded oligomers in vitro, and that Dvl in cells forms oligomers typically <10 molecules at endogenous expression levels. Axin DIX (DAX) forms small single-stranded oligomers, but its self-association is stronger than that of DIX. DAX caps the ends of DIX oligomers, such that a DIX oligomer has at most four DAX binding sites. The relative affinities and stoichiometry of the DIX-DAX interaction provide a mechanism for efficient inhibition of β-catenin phosphorylation upon Axin recruitment to the Wnt receptor complex.

    View details for DOI 10.7554/eLife.55015

    View details for PubMedID 32297861

  • Biophysical and functional characterization of Norrin signaling through Frizzled4 (vol 115, pg 8787, 2018) PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Bang, I., Kim, H., Beaven, A. H., Kim, J., Ko, S., Lee, G., Kan, W., Lee, H., Im, W., Seok, C., Chung, K., Choi, H. 2018; 115 (45): E10807
  • M3 Muscarinic Receptor Interaction with Phospholipase C beta(3) Determines Its Signaling Efficiency JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY Kan, W., Adjobo-Hermans, M., Burroughs, M., Faibis, G., Malik, S., Tall, G. G., Smrcka, A. V. 2014; 289 (16): 11206-11218


    Phospholipase Cβ (PLCβ) enzymes are activated by G protein-coupled receptors through receptor-catalyzed guanine nucleotide exchange on Gαβγ heterotrimers containing Gq family G proteins. Here we report evidence for a direct interaction between M3 muscarinic receptor (M3R) and PLCβ3. Both expressed and endogenous M3R interacted with PLCβ in coimmunoprecipitation experiments. Stimulation of M3R with carbachol significantly increased this association. Expression of M3R in CHO cells promoted plasma membrane localization of YFP-PLCβ3. Deletion of the PLCβ3 C terminus or deletion of the PLCβ3 PDZ ligand inhibited coimmunoprecipitation with M3R and M3R-dependent PLCβ3 plasma membrane localization. Purified PLCβ3 bound directly to glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fused M3R intracellular loops 2 and 3 (M3Ri2 and M3Ri3) as well as M3R C terminus (M3R/H8-CT). PLCβ3 binding to M3Ri3 was inhibited when the PDZ ligand was removed. In assays using reconstituted purified components in vitro, M3Ri2, M3Ri3, and M3R/H8-CT potentiated Gαq-dependent but not Gβγ-dependent PLCβ3 activation. Disruption of key residues in M3Ri3N and of the PDZ ligand in PLCβ3 inhibited M3Ri3-mediated potentiation. We propose that the M3 muscarinic receptor maximizes the efficiency of PLCβ3 signaling beyond its canonical role as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Gα.

    View details for DOI 10.1074/jbc.M113.538546

    View details for Web of Science ID 000334638500024

    View details for PubMedID 24596086

  • Purification of Heterotrimeric G Protein alpha Subunits by GST-Ric-8 Association PRIMARY CHARACTERIZATION OF PURIFIED G alpha(olf) JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY Chan, P., Gabay, M., Wright, F. A., Kan, W., Oner, S. S., Lanier, S. M., Smrcka, A. V., Blumer, J. B., Tall, G. G. 2011; 286 (4): 2625-2635


    Ric-8A and Ric-8B are nonreceptor G protein guanine nucleotide exchange factors that collectively bind the four subfamilies of G protein α subunits. Co-expression of Gα subunits with Ric-8A or Ric-8B in HEK293 cells or insect cells greatly promoted Gα protein expression. We exploited these characteristics of Ric-8 proteins to develop a simplified method for recombinant G protein α subunit purification that was applicable to all Gα subunit classes. The method allowed production of the olfactory adenylyl cyclase stimulatory protein Gα(olf) for the first time and unprecedented yield of Gα(q) and Gα(13). Gα subunits were co-expressed with GST-tagged Ric-8A or Ric-8B in insect cells. GST-Ric-8·Gα complexes were isolated from whole cell detergent lysates with glutathione-Sepharose. Gα subunits were dissociated from GST-Ric-8 with GDP-AlF(4)(-) (GTP mimicry) and found to be >80% pure, bind guanosine 5'-[γ-thio]triphosphate (GTPγS), and stimulate appropriate G protein effector enzymes. A primary characterization of Gα(olf) showed that it binds GTPγS at a rate marginally slower than Gα(s short) and directly activates adenylyl cyclase isoforms 3, 5, and 6 with less efficacy than Gα(s short).

    View details for DOI 10.1074/jbc.M110.178897

    View details for Web of Science ID 000286464300028

    View details for PubMedID 21115479

  • Phorbol Ester-Induced Podosomes in Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells JOURNAL OF CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY Xiao, H., Eves, R., Yeh, C., Kan, W., Xu, F., Mak, A. S., Liu, M. 2009; 218 (2): 366-375


    Spreading and migration of the basal cells neighboring a wound is essential for airway epithelial repair. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms that govern these cellular processes, we asked whether normal human airway epithelial cells can form podosomes, a cellular structure discovered from cancer and mesenchymal cells that controls migration and invasion. Herein, we report that phorbol-12, 13-dibutyrate (PDBu), a protein kinase C activator, induced reorganization of cytoskeletal structure in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells, and in normal human airway epithelial BEAS2B cells. Z-stack scanning confocal microscopy showed that PDBu-induced podosome-like structures contain actin-rich columns that arise from the ventral surface of the cell, and also revealed the presence of circular ruffles/waves at the dorsal cell surface. The molecular components of these cytoskeletal structures were determined with immunofluorescent staining. Using in situ zymography, we demonstrated that PDBu-induced podosomes were capable of degrading fibronectin-gelatin-sucrose matrix. PDBu also increased epithelial cell invasion across Transwell chamber. Podosomes and circular dorsal ruffles may be important for epithelial cell migration and invasion, thus contributing to respiratory epithelial repair and regeneration.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jcp.21609

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262270600017

    View details for PubMedID 18932175

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