Bio

Bio


Dr. Chandra earned her B.S. degree, Summa Cum Laude, in Genetics and Cell Biology from the University of Minnesota in 1999. In 2004, she received her medical degree from the University of Chicago’s Pritzker School of Medicine and was elected to the Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Society. Dr. Chandra completed her General Surgery residency at Stanford in 2011 and is a graduate of the Stanford Biodesign program. She continued on to complete the Stanford Vascular Surgery Fellowship.

Dr. Chandra is a member of SSATHI (Stanford South Asian Translational Heart Institute). She also is the co-director of the Stanford Wound Care Center (opening May 2014) and the Vascular Surgery Medical Student Clerkship Director.

Dr. Chandra's research interests include women’s vascular health, radiation safety, technology development and treatment optimization for complex open and endovascular treatment of peripheral vascular and aneurysmal disease.

Clinical Focus


  • Women's Health
  • Carotid Artery Diseases
  • Aortic Aneurysm
  • Peripheral Arterial Disease
  • Vascular Surgery

Academic Appointments


Professional Education


  • Fellowship:Stanford University (2013) CA
  • Board Certification: General Surgery, American Board of Surgery (2012)
  • Residency:Stanford University (2011) CA
  • Residency:Stanford University (2006) CA
  • Internship:Stanford University (2005) CA
  • Medical Education:University of Chicago Pritzker (2004) IL

Publications

Journal Articles


  • Monitoring of fetal radiation exposure during pregnancy JOURNAL OF VASCULAR SURGERY Chandra, V., Dorsey, C., Reed, A. B., Shaw, P., Banghart, D., Zhou, W. 2013; 58 (3): 710-714

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: One unique concern of vascular surgeons and trainees is radiation exposure associated with increased endovascular practice. The safety of childbearing is a particular worry for current and future women in vascular surgery. Little is known regarding actual fetal radiation exposure. This multi-institutional study aimed to evaluate the radiation dosages recorded on fetal dosimeter badges and compare them to external badges worn by the same cohort of women. METHODS: All women who declared pregnancy with potential radiation exposure were required to wear two radiation monitors at each institution, one outside and the other inside the lead apron. Maternal (external) and fetal monitor dosimeter readings were analyzed. Maternal radiation exposures prior to, during, and postpregnancy were also assessed to determine any associated behavior modification. RESULTS: Eighty-one women declared pregnancy from 2008 to 2011 and 32 had regular radiation exposure during pregnancy. Maternal whole-body exposures ranged from 21-731 mrem. The average fetal dosimeter recordings for the cohort rounded to zero. Only two women had positive fetal dosimeter recordings; one had a single recording of 3 mrem and the other had a single recording of 7 mrem. There was no significant difference between maternal exposures prior to, during, and postpregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Lack of knowledge of fetal radiation exposure has concerned many vascular surgeons, prompting them to wear double lead aprons during pregnancy, and perhaps prevented numerous other women from entering the field. Our study showed negligible radiation exposure on fetal monitoring suggesting that with the appropriate safety precautions, these concerns may be unwarranted.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jvs.2013.01.052

    View details for Web of Science ID 000323616800019

    View details for PubMedID 23591191

  • Preoperative embolization of replaced right hepatic artery prior to pancreaticoduodenectomy JOURNAL OF SURGICAL ONCOLOGY Cloyd, J. M., Chandra, V., Louie, J. D., Rao, S., Visser, B. C. 2012; 106 (4): 509-512

    Abstract

    Aberrancy of the hepatic arterial anatomy is common. Because of its course directly adjacent to the head of the pancreas, a replaced right hepatic artery (RHA) is vulnerable to invasion by peri-pancreatic malignancies. Division of the RHA at the time of pancreaticoduodenectomy, however, may result in hepatic infarction and/or bilioenteric anastomotic complications. We report two cases of patients undergoing preoperative embolization of tumor encased replaced RHAs to allow for sufficient collateralization prior to pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jso.23082

    View details for Web of Science ID 000307550900026

    View details for PubMedID 22374866

  • A comparison of laparoscopic and robotic assisted suturing performance by experts and novices SURGERY Chandra, V., Nehra, D., Parent, R., Woo, R., Reyes, R., Hernandez-Boussard, T., Dutta, S. 2010; 147 (6): 830-839

    Abstract

    Surgical robotics has been promoted as an enabling technology. This study tests the hypothesis that use of the robotic surgical system can significantly improve technical ability by comparing the performance of both experts and novices on a complex laparoscopic task and a robotically assisted task.Laparoscopic experts (LE) with substantial laparoscopic and robotic experience (n = 9) and laparoscopic novices (LN) (n = 20) without any robotic experience performed sequentially 10 trials of a suturing task using either robotic or standard laparoscopic instrumentation fitted to the ProMIS surgical simulator. Objective performance metrics provided by ProMIS (total task time, instrument pathlength, and smoothness) and an assessment of learning curves were analyzed.Compared with LNs, the LEs demonstrated significantly better performance on all assessment measures. Within the LE group, there was no difference in smoothness (328 +/- 159 vs 355 +/- 174; P = .09) between robot-assisted and standard laparoscopic tasks. An improvement was noted in total task time (113 +/- 41 vs 132 +/- 55 sec; P < .05) and instrument pathlengths (371 +/- 163 vs 645 +/- 269 cm; P < .05) when using the robot. This advantage in terms of total task time, however, was lost among the LEs by the last 3 trials (114 +/- 40 vs 118 +/- 49 s; P = .84), while instrument pathlength remained better consistently throughout all the trials. For the LNs, performance was significantly better in the robotic trials on all 3 measures throughout all the trials.The ProMIS surgical simulator was able to distinguish between skill levels (expert versus novice) on robotic suturing tasks, suggesting that the ProMIS is a valid tool for measuring skill in robot-assisted surgery. For all the ProMIS metrics, novices demonstrated consistently better performance on a suturing task using robotics as compared to a standard laparoscopic setup. This effect was less evident for experts who demonstrated improvements only in their economy of movement (pathlength), but not in the speed or smoothness of performance. Robotics eliminated the early learning curve for novices, which was present when they used standard laparoscopic tools. Overall, this study suggests that, when performing complex tasks such as knot tying, surgical robotics is most useful for inexperienced laparoscopists who experience an early and persistent enabling effect. For experts, robotics is most useful for improving economy of motion, which may have implications for the highly complex procedures in limited workspaces (eg, prostatectomy).

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.surg.2009.11.002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000278532300011

    View details for PubMedID 20045162

  • Surgical robotics and image guided therapy in pediatric surgery: emerging and converging minimal access technologies. Seminars in pediatric surgery Chandra, V., Dutta, S., Albanese, C. T. 2006; 15 (4): 267-275

    Abstract

    Minimal access surgery (MAS) is now commonplace in the armamentarium of the pediatric surgeon, and is being applied to a growing list of pediatric surgical diseases. Robot-assisted surgery and image guided therapy (IGT) have evolved as innovative minimal access approaches, and hold the promise of advancing MAS far beyond what is currently possible. The aims of this article are to describe the currently available robotic, and image guided therapy systems, review their present and potential applications, and discuss the future directions of these converging technologies.

    View details for PubMedID 17055957

Conference Proceedings


  • Cost Impact of Extension Cuff Utilization During Endovascular Aneurysm Repair Chandra, V., Greenberg, J. I., Al-Khatib, W. K., Harris, E. J., Dalman, R. L., Lee, J. T. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2012: 86-92

    Abstract

    Modular stent-graft systems for endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) most often require two to three components, depending on the device. Differences in path lengths and availability of main body systems often require additional extensions for appropriate aneurysm exclusion. These additional devices usually result in added expenses and can affect the financial viability of an EVAR program within a hospital. The purpose of this study was to analyze the use of extensions during EVAR, focusing on incidence, clinical impact, and financial impact, as well as determining the associated cost differences between two- and three-component EVAR device systems.We reviewed available clinical data, images, and follow-up of 218 patients (203 males and 15 females, mean age: 74 ± 9 years) who underwent elective EVAR at a single academic center from 2004 to 2007. Patients were divided into two groups: patients undergoing EVAR using the standard number of pieces, that is, no extensions used (group A, n = 98), and those needing proximal or distal extensions during the index procedure (group B, n = 120).Both groups were similar in terms of demographics; preoperative characteristics, including aneurysm morphology; as well as intraoperative, postoperative, and midterm outcomes. Overall, 30-day operative mortality was 1.4%, with a mean follow-up of 24 months. Group A patients underwent repair with two-piece modular devices 41% of the time and three-piece systems 59% of the time, whereas group B patients underwent repair with two-piece modular systems 82% of the time and three-piece modular systems 18% of the time. The number of additional extensions per patient ranged from one to four (median: one piece). There was a 30% cost increase in overall mean device-related cost when using extensions versus the standard number of pieces (group A: $13,220 vs. group B: $17,107, p < 0.01).Clinical midterm aneurysm-related outcomes after EVAR in patients who required additional extensions was comparable with those treated with the standard number of pieces. An increased number of extensions led to increased costs and could have potentially been minimized with appropriate preoperative planning or device selection. Consideration should be made toward per-case pricing instead of per-piece pricing to further improve cost efficiency without compromising long-term patient outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.avsg.2011.10.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298325900011

    View details for PubMedID 22176878

  • Early results of a highly selective algorithm for surgery on patients with neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome Chandra, V., Olcott, C., Lee, J. T. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2011: 1698-1705

    Abstract

    Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (nTOS) encompasses a wide spectrum of disabling symptoms that are often vague and difficult to diagnose and treat. We developed and prospectively analyzed a treatment algorithm for nTOS utilizing objective disability criteria, thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS)-specific physical therapy, radiographic evaluation of the thoracic outlet, and selective surgical decompression.Patients treated for nTOS from 2000-2009 were reviewed (n = 93). In period 1, most patients were offered surgery with documentation of appropriate symptoms. A prospective observational study began in 2007 (period 2) and was aimed at determining which patients benefited most from surgical intervention. Evaluation began with a validated mini-QuickDASH (QD) quality-of-life scale (0-100, 100 = worse) and duplex imaging of the thoracic outlet. Patients then participated in TOS-specific physical therapy (PT) for 2 to 4 months and were offered surgery based on response to PT and improvement in symptoms.Thirty-four patients underwent first rib resection in period 1 (68% female, mean age 39, 18% athletes, 15% workers comp). In operated patients undergoing duplex imaging, 47% showed compression of their thoracic outlet arterial flow on provocative positioning. Based on subjective improvement of symptoms, 56% of patients at 1 year had a positive outcome. In period 2 during the prospective cohort, 59 consecutive patients were evaluated for nTOS (64% female, mean age 36, 32% athletes, 12% workers comp) with a mean pre-PT QD disability score of 55.1. All patients were prescribed PT, and 24 (41%) were eventually offered surgical decompression based on compliance with PT, interval improvement on QD score, and duplex compression of the thoracic outlet. Twenty-one patients underwent surgery (SURG group) consisting of first rib resection, middle and anterior scalenectomy, and brachial plexus neurolysis. There were significant differences between the SURG and non-SURG cohorts with respect to age, participation in competitive athletics, history of trauma, and symptom improvement with PT. At 1-year follow-up, 90% of patients expressed symptomatic improvement with the mean post-op QD disability score decreasing to 24.9 (P = .005) and 1-year QD scores improving down to 20.5 (P = .014).This highly-selective algorithm for nTOS surgery leads to improvement in overall success rates documented subjectively and objectively. Compliance with TOS-specific PT, improvement in QD scores after PT, young age, and competitive athletics are associated with improved surgical outcomes. Long-term follow-up will be necessary to document sustained symptom relief and to determine who the optimal surgical candidates are.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jvs.2011.05.105

    View details for Web of Science ID 000297823400022

    View details for PubMedID 21803527

  • Long-term impact of a preclinical endovascular skills course on medical student career choices Lee, J. T., Son, J. H., Chandra, V., Lilo, E., Dalman, R. L. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2011: 1193-1200

    Abstract

    Surging interest in the 0 + 5 integrated vascular surgery (VS) residency and successful recruitment of the top students in medical school requires early exposure to the field. We sought to determine the impact of a high-fidelity simulation-based preclinical endovascular skills course on medical student performance and ultimate career specialty choices.Fifty-two preclinical medical students enrolled in an 8-week VS elective course from 2007 to 2009. Students completed a baseline and postcourse survey and performed a renal angioplasty/stent procedure on an endovascular simulator (pretest). A curriculum consisting of didactic teaching covering peripheral vascular disease and weekly mentored simulator sessions concluded with a final graded procedure (posttest). Long-term follow-up surveys 1 to 3 years after course completion were administered to determine ultimate career paths of participants as well as motivating factors for career choice.Objective and subjective performance measured on the simulator and through structured global assessment scales improved in all students from pre- to posttest, particularly with regard to technical skill and overall procedural competency (P < .001). Prior to enrolling in the course, 9% of the students expressed high interest in VS, and after completing the course, this response nearly tripled in terms of seriously considering VS as a career option (P = .03). Overall interest postcourse in VS and procedural-based surgical specialties was nearly 90%. In long-term follow-up, 25% were still strongly considering integrated VS residencies, with other top career choices including surgical subspecialties (64%), radiology (10%), and cardiology (6%). Most respondents indicated major reasons for continued interest in VS were the ability to practice endovascular procedures on the simulator (92%) and mentorship from VS faculty (70%).Basic endovascular skills can be efficiently introduced through a simulation-based curriculum and lead to improved novice performance. Early exposure of preclinical medical students provides an effective teaching and recruitment tool for procedural-based fields, particularly surgical subspecialties. Mentored exposure to endovascular procedures on the simulator positively impacts long-term medical student attitudes toward vascular surgery and ultimate career choices.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jvs.2011.04.052

    View details for Web of Science ID 000295562800042

    View details for PubMedID 21723068

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