Bio

Academic Appointments


Honors & Awards


  • OrthoSIG Abstract Star Award, Society for Biomaterials (2017)
  • PC094637 Pre-doctoral Training Grant, DOD (2010-2012)

Publications

All Publications


  • Mesenchymal stem cells in the aseptic loosening of total joint replacements. Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A Pajarinen, J., Lin, T., Nabeshima, A., Jämsen, E., Lu, L., Nathan, K., Yao, Z., Goodman, S. B. 2017; 105 (4): 1195-1207

    Abstract

    Peri-prosthetic osteolysis remains as the main long-term complication of total joint replacement surgery. Research over four decades has established implant wear as the main culprit for chronic inflammation in the peri-implant tissues and macrophages as the key cells mediating the host reaction to implant-derived wear particles. Wear debris activated macrophages secrete inflammatory mediators that stimulate bone resorbing osteoclasts; thus bone loss in the peri-implant tissues is increased. However, the balance of bone turnover is not only dictated by osteoclast-mediated bone resorption but also by the formation of new bone by osteoblasts; under physiological conditions these two processes are tightly coupled. Increasing interest has been placed on the effects of wear debris on the cells of the bone-forming lineage. These cells are derived primarily from multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) residing in bone marrow and the walls of the microvasculature. Accumulating evidence indicates that wear debris significantly impairs MSC-to-osteoblast differentiation and subsequent bone formation. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the effects of biomaterial implant wear debris on MSCs. Emerging treatment options to improve initial implant integration and treat developing osteolytic lesions by utilizing or targeting MSCs are also discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1195-1207, 2017.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jbm.a.35978

    View details for PubMedID 27977880

  • Pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages promote osteogenesis by mesenchymal stem cells via the COX-2-prostaglandin E2 pathway. Journal of orthopaedic research Lu, L. Y., Loi, F., Nathan, K., Lin, T., Pajarinen, J., Gibon, E., Nabeshima, A., Cordova, L., Jämsen, E., Yao, Z., Goodman, S. B. 2017

    Abstract

    Bone fractures are among the most common orthopaedic problems that affect individuals of all ages. Immediately after injury, activated macrophages dynamically contribute to and regulate an acute inflammatory response that involves other cells at the injury site, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). These macrophages and MSCs work in concert to modulate bone healing. In this study, we co-cultured undifferentiated M0, pro-inflammatory M1, and anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages with primary murine MSCs in vitro to determine the cross-talk between polarized macrophages and MSCs and their effects on osteogenesis. After 4 weeks of co-culture, MSCs grown with macrophages, especially M1 macrophages, had enhanced bone mineralization compared to MSCs grown alone. The level of bone formation after 4 weeks of culture was closely associated with prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretion early in osteogenesis. Treatment with celecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) selective inhibitor, significantly reduced bone mineralization in all co-cultures but most dramatically in the M1-MSC co-culture. We also found that the presence of macrophages reduced the secretion of osteoprotegerin (OPG), the decoy RANKL receptor, suggesting that macrophages may indirectly modulate osteoclast activity in addition to enhancing bone formation. Taken together, these findings suggest that an initial pro-inflammatory phase modulated by M1 macrophages promotes osteogenesis in MSCs via the COX-2-PGE2 pathway. Understanding the complex interactions between macrophages and MSCs provide opportunities to optimize bone healing and other regenerative processes via modulation of the inflammatory response. This study provides one possible biological mechanism for the adverse effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on fracture healing and bone regeneration. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jor.23553

    View details for PubMedID 28248001

  • Decreased osteogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells derived from the aged mouse is associated with enhanced NF-?B activity. Journal of orthopaedic research Lin, T., Gibon, E., Loi, F., Pajarinen, J., Córdova, L. A., Nabeshima, A., Lu, L., Yao, Z., Goodman, S. B. 2017; 35 (2): 281-288

    Abstract

    Aging is associated with significant bone loss and delayed fracture healing. NF-κB activation is highly correlated with inflammatory-associated bone diseases including infection, wear particle exposure, and chronic inflammation during natural aging processes. The critical roles of NF-κB in both the pro-inflammatory response and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption have been well defined. However, the biological effects of NF-κB activation in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-mediated bone formation remain largely unknown. In the current study, bone marrow-MSCs were isolated from young (8 weeks old) and aged (72 weeks old) mice. NF-κB activity in MSCs at basal levels and under different biological conditions were determined by our recently established lentiviral vector-based luciferase reporter assay. We found that NF-κB activity was increased in aged MSCs at basal levels or when exposed to low dose (10 or 100 ng/ml) lipopolysaccharide (LPS); this effect was not seen when the cells were exposed to higher dose (1 μg/ml) LPS. During osteogenesis, NF-κB activity was increased in aged MSCs at weeks 1 and 2, but showed no significant difference at week 3. Both Smurf2 and TAZ, the NF-κB target genes that regulate osteogenic differentiation, were increased in aged MSCs. In addition, the expression of RANKL was dramatically increased, and OPG was decreased in aged MSCs. Our findings suggest that targeting NF-κB activity in MSCs has the potential to modulate aging-associated bone loss, or enhance bone-healing in aged patients. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:281-288, 2017.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jor.23270

    View details for PubMedID 27105133

  • Mutant CCL2 protein coating mitigates wear particle-induced bone loss in a murine continuous polyethylene infusion model BIOMATERIALS Nabeshima, A., Pajarinen, J., Lin, T., Jiang, X., Gibon, E., Cordova, L. A., Loi, F., Lu, L., Jamsen, E., Egashira, K., Yang, F., Yao, Z., Goodman, S. B. 2017; 117: 1-9

    Abstract

    Wear particle-induced osteolysis limits the long-term survivorship of total joint replacement (TJR). Monocyte/macrophages are the key cells of this adverse reaction. Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) is the most important chemokine regulating trafficking of monocyte/macrophages in particle-induced inflammation. 7ND recombinant protein is a mutant of CCL2 that inhibits CCL2 signaling. We have recently developed a layer-by-layer (LBL) coating platform on implant surfaces that can release biologically active 7ND. In this study, we investigated the effect of 7ND on wear particle-induced bone loss using the murine continuous polyethylene (PE) particle infusion model with 7ND coating of a titanium rod as a local drug delivery device. PE particles were infused into hollow titanium rods with or without 7ND coating implanted in the distal femur for 4 weeks. Specific groups were also injected with RAW 264.7 as the reporter macrophages. Wear particle-induced bone loss and the effects of 7ND were evaluated by microCT, immunohistochemical staining, and bioluminescence imaging. Local delivery of 7ND using the LBL coating decreased systemic macrophage recruitment, the number of osteoclasts and wear particle-induced bone loss. The development of a novel orthopaedic implant coating with anti-CCL2 protein may be a promising strategy to mitigate peri-prosthetic osteolysis.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2016.11.039

    View details for Web of Science ID 000392777900001

    View details for PubMedID 27918885

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5180610

  • The effect of local IL-4 delivery or CCL2 blockade on implant fixation and bone structural properties in a mouse model of wear particle induced osteolysis. Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A Sato, T., Pajarinen, J., Behn, A., Jiang, X., Lin, T., Loi, F., Yao, Z., Egashira, K., Yang, F., Goodman, S. B. 2016; 104 (9): 2255-2262

    Abstract

    Modulation of macrophage polarization and prevention of CCL2-induced macrophage chemotaxis are emerging strategies to reduce wear particle induced osteolysis and aseptic total joint replacement loosening. In this study, the effect of continuous IL-4 delivery or bioactive implant coating that constitutively releases a protein inhibitor of CCL2 signaling (7ND) on particle induced osteolysis were studied in the murine continuous femoral intramedullary particle infusion model. Polyethylene particles with or without IL-4 were infused into mouse distal femurs implanted with hollow titanium rods using subcutaneous infusion pumps. In another experimental group, particles were infused into the femur through a 7ND coated rod. After four weeks, fixation of the implant was assessed using a pullout test. The volume of trabecular bone and the geometry of the local cortical bone were assessed by µCT and the corresponding structural properties of the cortical bone determined by torsional testing. Continuous IL-4 delivery led to increased trabecular bone volume as well as enhanced local bone geometry and structural properties, while 7ND implant coating did not have effect on these parameters. The results suggest that local IL-4 treatment is a promising strategy to mitigate wear particle induced osteolysis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jbm.a.35759

    View details for PubMedID 27114284

  • NF-?B decoy oligodeoxynucleotide mitigates wear particle-associated bone loss in the murine continuous infusion model. Acta biomaterialia Lin, T., Pajarinen, J., Sato, T., Loi, F., Fan, C., Córdova, L. A., Nabeshima, A., Gibon, E., Zhang, R., Yao, Z., Goodman, S. B. 2016; 41: 273-281

    Abstract

    Total joint replacement is a cost-effective surgical procedure for patients with end-stage arthritis. Wear particle-induced chronic inflammation is associated with the development of periprosthetic osteolysis. Modulation of NF-κB signaling in macrophages, osteoclasts, and mesenchymal stem cells could potentially mitigate this disease. In the current study, we examined the effects of local delivery of decoy NF-κB oligo-deoxynucleotide (ODN) on wear particle-induced bone loss in a murine continuous femoral particle infusion model. Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene particles (UHMWPE) with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were infused via osmotic pumps into hollow titanium rods placed in the distal femur of mice for 4 weeks. Particle-induced bone loss was evaluated by μCT, and immunohistochemical analysis of sections from the femur. Particle infusion alone resulted in reduced bone mineral density and trabecular bone volume fraction in the distal femur. The decoy ODN reversed the particle-associated bone volume fraction loss around the implant, irrespective of the presence of LPS. Particle-infusion with LPS increased bone mineral density in the distal femur compared with particle-infusion alone. NF-κB decoy ODN reversed or further increased the bone mineral density in the femur (3-6mm from the distal end) exposed to particles alone or particles plus LPS. NF-κB decoy ODN also inhibited macrophage infiltration and osteoclast number, but had no significant effects on osteoblast numbers in femurs exposed to wear particles and LPS. Our study suggests that targeting NF-κB activity via local delivery of decoy ODN has great potential to mitigate wear particle-induced osteolysis.Total joint replacement is a cost-effective surgical procedure for patients with end-stage arthritis. Chronic inflammation is crucial for the development of wear particle-associated bone loss. Modulation of NF-κB signaling in macrophages (pro-inflammatory cells), osteoclasts (bone-resorbing cells), and osteoblasts (bone-forming cells) could potentially mitigate this disease. Here we demonstrated that local delivery of decoy NF-κB oligo-deoxynucleotide (ODN) mitigated ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) wear particleinduced bone loss in a clinically relevant murine model. The protective effects of decoy ODN was associated with reduced macrophage infiltration and osteoclast activation, but had no significant effects on osteoblast numbers. Our study suggests that targeting NF-κB activity via local delivery of decoy ODN has great potential to mitigate wear particle-induced bone loss.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.actbio.2016.05.038

    View details for PubMedID 27260104

  • Inflammation, fracture and bone repair. Bone Loi, F., Córdova, L. A., Pajarinen, J., Lin, T., Yao, Z., Goodman, S. B. 2016; 86: 119-130

    Abstract

    The reconstitution of lost bone is a subject that is germane to many orthopaedic conditions including fractures and non-unions, infection, inflammatory arthritis, osteoporosis, osteonecrosis, metabolic bone disease, tumors, and periprosthetic particle-associated osteolysis. In this regard, the processes of acute and chronic inflammation play an integral role. Acute inflammation is initiated by endogenous or exogenous adverse stimuli, and can become chronic in nature if not resolved by normal homeostatic mechanisms. Dysregulated inflammation leads to increased bone resorption and suppressed bone formation. Crosstalk amongst inflammatory cells (polymorphonuclear leukocytes and cells of the monocyte-macrophage-osteoclast lineage) and cells related to bone healing (cells of the mesenchymal stem cell-osteoblast lineage and vascular lineage) is essential to the formation, repair and remodeling of bone. In this review, the authors provide a comprehensive summary of the literature related to inflammation and bone repair. Special emphasis is placed on the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms, and potential interventions that can favorably modulate the outcome of clinical conditions that involve bone repair.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bone.2016.02.020

    View details for PubMedID 26946132

  • The biological response to orthopedic implants for joint replacement. II: Polyethylene, ceramics, PMMA, and the foreign body reaction. Journal of biomedical materials research. Part B, Applied biomaterials Gibon, E., Córdova, L. A., Lu, L., Lin, T., Yao, Z., Hamadouche, M., Goodman, S. B. 2016

    Abstract

    Novel evidence-based prosthetic designs and biomaterials facilitate the performance of highly successful joint replacement (JR) procedures. To achieve this goal, constructs must be durable, biomechanically sound, and avoid adverse local tissue reactions. Different biomaterials such as metals and their alloys, polymers, ceramics, and composites are currently used for JR implants. This review focuses on (1) the biological response to the different biomaterials used for TJR and (2) the chronic inflammatory and foreign-body response induced by byproducts of these biomaterials. A homeostatic state of bone and surrounding soft tissue with current biomaterials for JR can be achieved with mechanically stable, infection free and intact (as opposed to the release of particulate or ionic byproducts) implants. Adverse local tissue reactions (an acute/chronic inflammatory reaction, periprosthetic osteolysis, loosening and subsequent mechanical failure) may evolve when the latter conditions are not met. This article (Part 2 of 2) summarizes the biological response to the non-metallic materials commonly used for joint replacement including polyethylene, ceramics, and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), as well as the foreign body reaction to byproducts of these materials. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2016.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jbm.b.33676

    View details for PubMedID 27080740

  • The effects of immunomodulation by macrophage subsets on osteogenesis in vitro STEM CELL RESEARCH & THERAPY Loi, F., Cordova, L. A., Zhang, R., Pajarinen, J., Lin, T., Goodman, S. B., Yao, Z. 2016; 7
  • Local delivery of mutant CCL2 protein-reduced orthopaedic implant wear particle-induced osteolysis and inflammation in vivo. Journal of orthopaedic research Jiang, X., Sato, T., Yao, Z., Keeney, M., Pajarinen, J., Lin, T., Loi, F., Egashira, K., Goodman, S., Yang, F. 2016; 34 (1): 58-64

    Abstract

    Total joint replacement (TJR) has been widely used as a standard treatment for late-stage arthritis. One challenge for long-term efficacy of TJR is the generation of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene wear particles from the implant surface that activates an inflammatory cascade that may lead to bone loss, prosthetic loosening and eventual failure of the procedure. Here we investigate the efficacy of local administration of mutant CCL2 proteins, such as 7ND, on reducing wear particle-induced inflammation and osteolysis in vivo using a mouse calvarial model. Mice were treated with local injection of 7ND or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) every other day for up to 14 days. Wear particle-induced osteolysis and the effects of 7ND treatment were evaluated using micro-CT, histology and immunofluorescence staining. Compared with the PBS control, 7ND treatment significantly decreased wear particle-induced osteolysis, which led to a higher bone volume fraction and bone mineral density. Furthermore, immunofluorescence staining showed 7ND treatment decreased the number of recruited inflammatory cells and osteoclasts. Together, our results support the feasibility of local delivery of 7ND for mitigating wear particle-induced inflammation and osteolysis, which may offer a promising strategy for extending the life time of TJRs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jor.22977

    View details for PubMedID 26174978

  • NF-B decoy oligodeoxynucleotide inhibits wear particle-induced inflammation in a murine calvarial model JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS RESEARCH PART A Sato, T., Pajarinen, J., Lin, T., Tamaki, Y., Loi, F., Egashira, K., Yao, Z., Goodman, S. B. 2015; 103 (12): 3872-3878

    Abstract

    Wear particles induce periprosthetic inflammation and osteolysis through activation of Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-κB) in macrophages, which up-regulates the downstream target gene expression for pro-inflammatory cytokines. It is hypothesized that direct suppression of NF-κB activity in the early phases of this disorder is a therapeutic strategy for mitigating the inflammatory response to wear particles, potentially mitigating osteolysis. NF-κB activity can be suppressed via competitive binding with double stranded NF-κB decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) that block this transcription factor from binding to the promoter regions of targeted genes. In this murine calvarial study, clinically relevant polyethylene particles (PEs) with/without ODN were subcutaneously injected over the calvarial bone. In the presence of PE particles, macrophages migrated to the inflammatory site and induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor kappa-B Ligand (RANKL) expression, resulting in an increase in the number of osteoclasts. Local injections of ODN mitigated the expression of TNF-α, RANKL, and induced the expression of two anti-inflammatory, anti-resorptive cytokines: Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) and Osteoprotegerin (OPG). Local intervention with NF-κB decoy ODN in early cases of particle-induced inflammation in which the prosthesis is still salvageable may potentially preserve periprosthetic bone stock. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jbm.a.35532

    View details for Web of Science ID 000363879200018

    View details for PubMedID 26123702

  • Modulation of mouse macrophage polarization in vitro using IL-4 delivery by osmotic pumps. Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A Pajarinen, J., Tamaki, Y., Antonios, J. K., Lin, T., Sato, T., Yao, Z., Takagi, M., Konttinen, Y. T., Goodman, S. B. 2015; 103 (4): 1339-1345

    Abstract

    Modulation of macrophage polarization is emerging as promising means to mitigate wear particle-induced inflammation and periprosthetic osteolysis. As a model for continuous local drug delivery, we used miniature osmotic pumps to deliver IL-4 in order to modulate macrophage polarization in vitro from nonactivated M0 and inflammatory M1 phenotypes towards a tissue regenerative M2 phenotype. Pumps delivered IL-4 into vials containing mouse bone marrow macrophage (mBMM) media. This conditioned media (CM) was collected at seven day intervals up to four weeks (week 1 to week 4 samples). IL-4 concentration in the CM was determined by ELISA and its biological activity was assayed by exposing M0 and M1 mBMMs to week 1 or week 4 CM. The IL-4 concentration in the CM approximated the mathematically calculated amount, and its biological activity was well retained, as both M0 and M1 macrophages exposed to either the week 1 or week 4 CM assumed M2-like phenotype as determined by qRT-PCR, ELISA, and immunocytochemistry. The results show that IL-4 can be delivered using osmotic pumps and that IL-4 delivered can modulate macrophage phenotype. Results build a foundation for in vivo studies using our previously validated animal models and provide possible strategies to locally mitigate wear particle-induced macrophage activation and periprosthetic osteolysis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2014.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jbm.a.35278

    View details for PubMedID 25044942

  • NF-?B Decoy Oligodeoxynucleotide Enhanced Osteogenesis in Mesenchymal Stem Cells Exposed to Polyethylene Particle. Tissue engineering. Part A Lin, T., Sato, T., Barcay, K. R., Waters, H., Loi, F., Zhang, R., Pajarinen, J., Egashira, K., Yao, Z., Goodman, S. B. 2015; 21 (5-6): 875-883

    Abstract

    Excessive generation of wear particles after total joint replacement may lead to local inflammation and periprosthetic osteolysis. Modulation of the key transcription factor NF-κB in immune cells could potentially mitigate the osteolytic process. We previously showed that local delivery of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) particles recruited osteoprogenitor cells and reduced osteolysis. However, the biological effects of modulating the NF-κB signaling pathway on osteoprogenitor/mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) remain unclear. Here we showed that decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) increased cell viability when primary murine MSCs were exposed to UHMWPE particles, but had no effects on cellular apoptosis. Decoy ODN increased TGF-β1 and osteoprotegerin in MSCs exposed to UHMWPE particles. Mechanistic studies showed that decoy ODN up-regulated osteoprotegerin expression through a TGF-β1 dependent pathway. By measuring alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin levels, Runx2 and osteopontin expression, and performing a bone mineralization assay, we found that decoy ODN increased MSC osteogenic ability when the cells were exposed to UHMWPE particles. Furthermore, the cellular response to decoy ODN and UHMWPE particles with regards to cell phenotype, cell viability and osteogenic ability were confirmed using primary human MSCs. Our results suggest that modulation of wear particle induced inflammation by NF-κB decoy ODN had no adverse effects on MSCs, and may potentially further mitigate peri-prosthetic osteolysis by protecting MSC viability and osteogenic ability.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/ten.TEA.2014.0144

    View details for PubMedID 25518013

  • Exposure of polyethylene particles induces interferon-? expression in a natural killer T lymphocyte and dendritic cell coculture system in vitro: a preliminary study. Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A Lin, T., Kao, S., Sato, T., Pajarinen, J., Zhang, R., Loi, F., Goodman, S. B., Yao, Z. 2015; 103 (1): 71-75

    Abstract

    Two major issues in total joint arthroplasty are loosening of implants and osteolysis caused by wear particle-induced inflammation. Wear particles stimulate the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and other inflammatory mediators from macrophages and other cells. Although the biological response of macrophages to wear debris is well established, the role of other cell types such as natural killer T lymphocytes (NKT) and dendritic cells (DCs) is limited. Here we show that ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) particles stimulate NKT cells to secrete Interferon-γ (IFN-γ); co-culture with DCs further enhanced IFN-γ secretion. Furthermore, UHMWPE particles did not stimulate NKT cells to secrete IL-4, while the NKT cell natural ligand α -Galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) treatment in the co-culture system significantly enhanced both IFN-γ and IL-4 expression by NKT cells. Comparatively, NKT cells and/or DCs exposed to polymethylmethacrylate particles did not stimulate Interferon-γ or IL-4 expression. Mouse bone marrow derived macrophage polarization by lipopolysaccharide and conditioned medium from NKT cells and/or DCs exposed to UHMWPE particles increased TNF-α, but reduced arginase-1 expression in macrophages. The current findings indicate that UHMWPE particles stimulate NKT cells/DCs to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines; this pathway is a novel therapeutic target to mitigate wear particle induced peri-prosthetic osteolysis.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jbm.a.35159

    View details for PubMedID 24616165

  • Establishment of Green Fluorescent Protein and Firefly Luciferase Expressing Mouse Primary Macrophages for In Vivo Bioluminescence Imaging. PloS one Pajarinen, J., Lin, T., Sato, T., Loi, F., Yao, Z., Konttinen, Y. T., Goodman, S. B. 2015; 10 (11)

    Abstract

    Macrophages play a key role in tissue homeostasis as well as in a range of pathological conditions including atherosclerosis, cancer, and autoimmunity. Many aspects of their in vivo behavior are, however, poorly understood. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and firefly luciferase (FLUC) labelled autologous reporter macrophages could potentially offer a powerful tool to study macrophage biology, but this approach has been hindered by the relative difficulty of efficient gene transfer into primary macrophages. Here we describe a straightforward method for producing large numbers of GFP/FLUC expressing mouse primary macrophages utilizing lentivirus vector, cyclosporine, and a double infection strategy. Using this method we achieved up to 60% of macrophages to express GFP with correspondingly high FLUC signal. When injected into the circulation using a mouse model of local biomaterial induced inflammation and osteolysis, macrophages were initially detectable within the lungs, followed by systemic homing to the local area of chronic inflammation in the distal femur. In addition, transduced macrophages maintained their ability to assume M1 and M2 phenotypes although the GFP/FLUC expression was altered by the polarizing signals. These reporter macrophages could prove to be valuable tools to study the role of macrophages in health and disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0142736

    View details for PubMedID 26555613

  • Exposure of polyethylene particles induces interferon-gamma expression in a natural killer T lymphocyte and dendritic cell coculture system in vitro: A preliminary study JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS RESEARCH PART A Lin, T., Kao, S., Sato, T., Pajarinen, J., Zhang, R., Loi, F., Goodman, S. B., Yao, Z. 2015; 103 (1): 71-75
  • Mutant monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 protein attenuates migration of and inflammatory cytokine release by macrophages exposed to orthopedic implant wear particles. Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A Yao, Z., Keeney, M., Lin, T., Pajarinen, J., Barcay, K., Waters, H., Egashira, K., Yang, F., Goodman, S. 2014; 102 (9): 3291-3297

    Abstract

    Wear particles generated from total joint replacements can stimulate macrophages to release chemokines, such as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), which is the most important chemokine regulating systemic and local cell trafficking and infiltration of monocyte/macrophages in chronic inflammation. One possible strategy to curtail the adverse events associated with wear particles is to mitigate migration and activation of monocyte/macrophages. The purpose of this study is to modulate the adverse effects of particulate biomaterials and inflammatory stimuli such as endotoxin by interfering with the biological effects of the chemokine MCP-1. In the current study, the function of MCP-1 was inhibited by the mutant MCP-1 protein called 7ND, which blocks its receptor, the C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) on macrophages. Addition of 7ND decreased MCP-1-induced migration of THP-1 cells in cell migration experiments in a dose-dependent manner. Conditioned media from murine macrophages exposed to clinically relevant polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) particles with/without endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] had a chemotactic effect on human macrophages, which was decreased dramatically by 7ND. 7ND demonstrated no adverse effects on the viability of macrophages, and the capability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to form bone at the doses tested. Finally, proinflammatory cytokine production was mitigated when macrophages were exposed to PMMA particles with/without LPS in the presence of 7ND. Our studies confirm that the MCP-1 mutant protein 7ND can decrease macrophage migration and inflammatory cytokine release without adverse effects at the doses tested. Local delivery of 7ND at the implant site may provide a therapeutic strategy to diminish particle-associated periprosthetic inflammation and osteolysis. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jbm.a.34981

    View details for PubMedID 24123855

  • Suppression of wear-particle-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in macrophages via NF-?B decoy oligodeoxynucleotide: A preliminary report. Acta biomaterialia Lin, T., Yao, Z., Sato, T., Keeney, M., Li, C., Pajarinen, J., Yang, F., Egashira, K., Goodman, S. B. 2014; 10 (8): 3747-3755

    Abstract

    Total joint replacement (TJR) is a very cost-effective surgery for end-stage arthritis. One important goal is to decrease the revision rate especially because TJR has been extended to younger patients. Continuous production of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) wear particles induces macrophage infiltration and chronic inflammation, which can lead to peri-prosthetic osteolysis. Targeting individual pro-inflammatory cytokines directly has not reversed the osteolytic process in clinical trials, due to compensatory upregulation of other pro-inflammatory factors. We hypothesized that targeting the important transcription factor NF-κB could mitigate the inflammatory response to wear particles, potentially diminishing osteolysis. In the current study, we suppressed NF-κB activity in mouse RAW264.7 and human THP1 macrophage cell lines, as well as primary mouse and human macrophages, via competitive binding with double strand decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) containing an NF-κB binding element. We found that macrophage exposure to UHMWPE particles induced multiple pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression including TNF-α, MCP1, MIP1α and others. Importantly, the decoy ODN significantly suppressed the induced cytokine and chemokine expression in both murine and human macrophages, and resulted in suppression of macrophage recruitment. The strategic use of decoy NF-κB ODN, delivered locally, could potentially diminish particle-induced peri-prosthetic osteolysis.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.actbio.2014.04.034

    View details for PubMedID 24814879

  • Novel biological strategies for treatment of wear particle-induced periprosthetic osteolysis of orthopaedic implants for joint replacement. Journal of the Royal Society, Interface / the Royal Society Goodman, S. B., Gibon, E., Pajarinen, J., Lin, T., Keeney, M., Ren, P., Nich, C., Yao, Z., Egashira, K., Yang, F., KONTTINEN, Y. T. 2014; 11 (93): 20130962-?

    Abstract

    Wear particles and by-products from joint replacements and other orthopaedic implants may result in a local chronic inflammatory and foreign body reaction. This may lead to persistent synovitis resulting in joint pain and swelling, periprosthetic osteolysis, implant loosening and pathologic fracture. Strategies to modulate the adverse effects of wear debris may improve the function and longevity of joint replacements and other orthopaedic implants, potentially delaying or avoiding complex revision surgical procedures. Three novel biological strategies to mitigate the chronic inflammatory reaction to orthopaedic wear particles are reported. These include (i) interference with systemic macrophage trafficking to the local implant site, (ii) modulation of macrophages from an M1 (pro-inflammatory) to an M2 (anti-inflammatory, pro-tissue healing) phenotype in the periprosthetic tissues, and (iii) local inhibition of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) by delivery of an NF-κB decoy oligodeoxynucleotide, thereby interfering with the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. These three approaches have been shown to be viable strategies for mitigating the undesirable effects of wear particles in preclinical studies. Targeted local delivery of specific biologics may potentially extend the lifetime of orthopaedic implants.

    View details for DOI 10.1098/rsif.2013.0962

    View details for PubMedID 24478281

  • Chronic inflammation in biomaterial-induced periprosthetic osteolysis: NF-?B as a therapeutic target. Acta biomaterialia Lin, T., Tamaki, Y., Pajarinen, J., Waters, H. A., Woo, D. K., Yao, Z., Goodman, S. B. 2014; 10 (1): 1-10

    Abstract

    Biomaterial-induced tissue responses in patients with total joint replacement are associated with the generation of wear particles, which may lead to chronic inflammation and local bone destruction (periprosthetic osteolysis). Inflammatory reactions associated with wear particles are mediated by several important signaling pathways, the most important of which involves the transcription factor NF-κB. NF-κB activation is essential for macrophage recruitment and maturation, as well as the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and MCP1. In addition, NF-κB activation contributes to osteoclast differentiation and maturation via RANK/RANKL signaling, which increases bone destruction and reduces bone formation. Targeting individual downstream cytokines directly (such as TNF-α or IL-1β) may not effectively prevent wear particle induced osteolysis. A more logical upstream therapeutic approach may be provided by direct modulation of the core IκB/IKKα/β/NF-κB signaling pathway in the local environment. However, the timing, dose and strategy for administration should be considered. Suppression of chronic inflammation via inhibition of NF-κB activity in patients with malfunctioning joint replacements may be an effective strategy to mitigate wear particle induced periprosthetic osteolysis.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.actbio.2013.09.034

    View details for PubMedID 24090989

  • Suppression of NF-?B signaling mitigates polyethylene wear particle-induced inflammatory response. Inflammation and cell signaling Lin, T., Goodman, S. B. 2014; 1 (4)

    Abstract

    In end-stage arthritis patients, total joint replacement is a very effective surgical procedure. Nevertheless, the high revision rate after surgery remains a major concern. The wear particles generated from biomaterial-induced tissue responses may lead to chronic inflammation and local bone destruction (periprosthetic osteolysis). Several important signaling pathways are involved in wear particles induced inflammatory reactions, including the transcription factor NF-κB. We recently reported that RAW264.7 macrophage cell exposure to ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) particles significantly increased the NF-κB activity in a generated NF-κB responsive luciferase reporter cell clone. The NF-κB activity induced by UHMWPE particles in a mouse RAW264.7 macrophage cell line, bone marrow derived macrophages, and human THP1 macrophage cell line, were suppressed by double strand decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) containing an NF-κB binding element. Macrophages exposure to UHMWPE particles with or without endotoxin induced pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression including TNF-α, MCP1, MIP1α, and others. Finally, the decoy ODN significantly suppressed the induced cytokine and chemokine expression in both murine and human macrophages, consequently reducing macrophage recruitment by cellular conditioned medium exposed to wear particles. These findings suggest that local suppression of inflammatory cytokine production via inhibition of NF-κB activity with decoy ODN in total joint replacement patients could potentially be an effective strategy to alleviate wear particle-induced chronic inflammation.

    View details for PubMedID 26052541

  • The wedelolactone derivative inhibits estrogen receptor-mediated breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancer cells growth. BioMed research international Xu, D., Lin, T. H., Yeh, C. R., Cheng, M. A., Chen, L. M., Chang, C., Yeh, S. 2014; 2014: 713263

    Abstract

    Estrogen and estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated signaling pathways play important roles in the etiology and progression of human breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers. Attenuating ER activities by natural products and their derivatives is a relatively practical strategy to control and reduce breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancer risk. Here, we found 3-butoxy-1,8,9-trihydroxy-6H-benzofuro[3,2-c]benzopyran-6-one (BTB), a new derivative of wedelolactone, could effectively inhibit the 17-estradiol (E2)-induced ER transactivation and suppress the growth of breast cancer as well as endometrial and ovarian cancer cells. Our results indicate that 2.5 μM BTB effectively suppresses ER-positive, but not ER-negative, breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, our data indicate that BTB can modulate ER transactivation and suppress the expression of E2-mediated ER target genes (Cyclin D1, E2F1, and TERT) in the ER-positive MCF-7, Ishikawa, and SKOV-3 cells. Importantly, this BTB mediated inhibition of ER activity is selective since BTB does not suppress the activities of other nuclear receptors, including glucocorticoid receptor and progesterone receptor, suggesting that BTB functions as a selective ER signaling inhibitor with the potential to treat breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers.

    View details for DOI 10.1155/2014/713263

    View details for PubMedID 25221777

  • Targeting androgen receptor in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells leads to better transplantation therapy efficacy in liver cirrhosis HEPATOLOGY Huang, C., Lee, S. O., Lai, K., Ma, W., Lin, T., Tsai, M., Luo, J., Chang, C. 2013; 57 (4): 1550-1563

    Abstract

    Transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) has been considered as an alternative therapy, replacing liver transplantation in clinical trials, to treat liver cirrhosis, an irreversible disease that may eventually lead to liver cancer development. However, low survival rate of the BM-MSCs leading to unsatisfactory efficacy remains a major concern. Gender differences have been suggested in BM-MSCs therapeutic application, but the effect of the androgen receptor (AR), a key factor in male sexual phenotype, in this application is not clear. Using two liver cirrhosis mouse models induced by CCl4 or thioacetamide, we showed that targeting AR in the BM-MSCs improved their self-renewal and migration potentials and increased paracrine effects to exert anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic actions to enhance liver repair. Mechanism dissection studies suggested that knocking out AR in BM-MSCs led to improved self-renewal and migration by alteration of the signaling of epidermal growth factor receptor and matrix metalloproteinase 9 and resulted in suppression of infiltrating macrophages and hepatic stellate cell activation through modulation of interleukin (IL)1R/IL1Ra signaling. Therapeutic approaches using either AR/small interfering RNA or the AR degradation enhancer, ASC-J9, to target AR in BM-MSCs all led to increased efficacy for liver repair.Targeting AR, a key factor in male sexual phenotype, in BM-MSCs improves transplantation therapeutic efficacy for treating liver fibrosis.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/hep.26135

    View details for Web of Science ID 000317363600028

    View details for PubMedID 23150236

  • New therapy targeting differential androgen receptor signaling in prostate cancer stem/progenitor vs. non-stem/progenitor cells JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR CELL BIOLOGY Lee, S. O., Ma, Z., Yeh, C., Luo, J., Lin, T., Lai, K., Yamashita, S., Liang, L., Tian, J., Li, L., Jiang, Q., Huang, C., Niu, Y., Yeh, S., Chang, C. 2013; 5 (1): 14-26

    Abstract

    The androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) to systematically suppress/reduce androgens binding to the androgen receptor (AR) has been the standard therapy for prostate cancer (PCa); yet, most of ADT eventually fails leading to the recurrence of castration resistant PCa. Here, we found that the PCa patients who received ADT had increased PCa stem/progenitor cell population. The addition of the anti-androgen, Casodex, or AR-siRNA in various PCa cells led to increased stem/progenitor cells, whereas, in contrast, the addition of functional AR led to decreased stem/progenitor cell population but increased non-stem/progenitor cell population, suggesting that AR functions differentially in PCa stem/progenitor vs. non-stem/progenitor cells. Therefore, the current ADT might result in an undesired expansion of PCa stem/progenitor cell population, which explains why this therapy fails. Using various human PCa cell lines and three different mouse models, we concluded that targeting PCa non-stem/progenitor cells with AR degradation enhancer ASC-J9 and targeting PCa stem/progenitor cells with 5-azathioprine and γ-tocotrienol resulted in a significant suppression of the tumors at the castration resistant stage. This suggests that a combinational therapy that simultaneously targets both stem/progenitor and non-stem/progenitor cells will lead to better therapeutic efficacy and may become a new therapy to battle the PCa before and after castration resistant stages.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/jmcb/mjs042

    View details for Web of Science ID 000315223900003

    View details for PubMedID 22831834

  • Differential Androgen Deprivation Therapies with Anti-androgens Casodex/Bicalutamide or MDV3100/Enzalutamide versus Anti-androgen Receptor ASC-J9(R) Lead to Promotion versus Suppression of Prostate Cancer Metastasis. The Journal of biological chemistry Lin, T. H., Lee, S. O., Niu, Y., Xu, D., Liang, L., Li, L., Yeh, S. D., Fujimoto, N., Yeh, S., Chang, C. 2013; 288 (27): 19359–69

    Abstract

    Despite the fact that androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) can effectively reduce prostate cancer (PCa) size, its effect on PCa metastasis remains unclear. We examined the existing data on PCa patients treated with ADT plus anti-androgens to analyze ADT effects on primary tumor size, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values, and metastatic incidence. We found that the current ADT with anti-androgens might lead to primary tumor reduction, with PSA decreased yet metastases increased in some PCa patients. Using in vitro and in vivo metastasis models with four human PCa cell lines, we evaluated the effects of the currently used anti-androgens, Casodex/bicalutamide and MDV3100/enzalutamide, and the newly developed anti-AR compounds, ASC-J9® and cryptotanshinone, on PCa cell growth and invasion. In vitro results showed that 10 μm Casodex or MDV3100 treatments suppressed PCa cell growth and reduced PSA level yet significantly enhanced PCa cell invasion. In vivo mice studies using an orthotopic xenograft mouse model also confirmed these results. In contrast, ASC-J9® led to suppressed PCa cell growth and cell invasion in in vitro and in vivo models. Mechanism dissection indicated these Casodex/MDV3100 treatments enhanced the TGF-β1/Smad3/MMP9 pathway, but ASC-J9® and cryptotanshinone showed promising anti-invasion effects via down-regulation of MMP9 expression. These findings suggest the potential risks of using anti-androgens and provide a potential new therapy using ASC-J9® to battle PCa metastasis at the castration-resistant stage.

    View details for DOI 10.1074/jbc.M113.477216

    View details for PubMedID 23687298

  • Anti-androgen receptor ASC-J9 versus anti-androgens MDV3100 (Enzalutamide) or Casodex (Bicalutamide) leads to opposite effects on prostate cancer metastasis via differential modulation of macrophage infiltration and STAT3-CCL2 signaling. Cell death & disease Lin, T., Izumi, K., Lee, S. O., Lin, W., Yeh, S., Chang, C. 2013; 4

    Abstract

    Despite androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) suppression of prostate cancer (PCa) growth, its overall effects on PCa metastasis remain unclear. Using human (C4-2B/THP1) and mouse (TRAMP-C1/RAW264.7) PCa cells-macrophages co-culture systems, we found currently used anti-androgens, MDV3100 (enzalutamide) or Casodex (bicalutamide), promoted macrophage migration to PCa cells that consequently led to enhanced PCa cell invasion. In contrast, the AR degradation enhancer, ASC-J9, suppressed both macrophage migration and subsequent PCa cell invasion. Mechanism dissection showed that Casodex/MDV3100 reduced the AR-mediated PIAS3 expression and enhanced the pSTAT3-CCL2 pathway. Addition of CCR2 antagonist reversed the Casodex/MDV3100-induced macrophage migration and PCa cell invasion. In contrast, ASC-J9 could regulate pSTAT3-CCL2 signaling using two pathways: an AR-dependent pathway via inhibiting PIAS3 expression and an AR-independent pathway via direct inhibition of the STAT3 phosphorylation/activation. These findings were confirmed in the in vivo mouse model with orthotopically injected TRAMP-C1 cells. Together, these results may raise the potential concern about the currently used ADT with anti-androgens that promotes PCa metastasis and may provide some new and better therapeutic strategies using ASC-J9 alone or a combinational therapy that simultaneously targets androgens/AR signaling and PIAS3-pSTAT3-CCL2 signaling to better battle PCa growth and metastasis at castration-resistant stage.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/cddis.2013.270

    View details for PubMedID 23928703

  • The selective inhibitory effect of a synthetic tanshinone derivative on prostate cancer cells PROSTATE Xu, D., Lin, T., Zhang, C., Tsai, Y., Li, S., Zhang, J., Yin, M., Yeh, S., Chang, C. 2012; 72 (7): 803-816

    Abstract

    Androgen receptor (AR) is the main therapeutic target for the treatment of prostate cancer (PCa). Anti-androgens to reduce or prevent androgens binding to AR are widely used to suppress AR-mediated PCa growth; however, the androgen depletion therapy (ADT) is only effective for a short period of time. Here we tested PTS33, a new sodium derivative of cryptotanshinone, which can effectively inhibit the DHT-induced AR transactivation and PCa cell growth, and then explored the effects of PTS33 on inhibiting the expressions of AR target genes and proteins.PCa cells, LNCaP, CWR22Rv1, C4-2, PC-3, and DU145, were treated with PTS33 and luciferase assay was used to evaluate the ability of each to regulate AR transactivation. RT-PCR was used to evaluate the mRNA levels of AR target genes such as PSA, TMPRSS2, and TMEPA1. Western blot was used to determine AR, PSA, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and progesterone receptor (PR) protein expression. Cell growth and IC50 were determined by MTT assay after 48 hr treatment.Our data showed that PTS33 selectively inhibits AR activities, but PTS33 does not repress the activities of other nuclear receptors, including ERα, GR, and PR. At a low concentration, 2 µM of PTS33 effectively suppresses the growth of AR-positive PCa cells, and has little effect on AR-negative PCa cells. Furthermore, our data indicated that PTS33 could modulate AR transactivation and suppress the AR target genes (PSA, TMPRSS2, and TMEPA1) expression in both androgen responsive PCa LNCaP cells and castration-resistant C4-2 cells. In addition, PTS33 can also inhibit estrogen/Δ5-androstenediol induced AR activities. The mechanistic studies indicate that PTS33 can inhibit AR function by suppression of AR protein expression, the AR N-C interaction, and AR-coregulator interaction.PTS33 has shown a good efficacy to inhibit AR transactivation, block AR regulated gene expression, and reduce cell growth in AR positive PCa cells. The structure of PTS33 could be used as a base for development of novel AR signaling inhibitors to treat PCa.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/pros.21474

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303197200012

    View details for PubMedID 21932429

  • Cryptotanshinone suppresses androgen receptor-mediated growth in androgen dependent and castration resistant prostate cancer cells CANCER LETTERS Xu, D., Lin, T., Li, S., Da, J., Wen, X., Ding, J., Chang, C., Yeh, S. 2012; 316 (1): 11-22

    Abstract

    Androgen receptor (AR) is the major therapeutic target for the treatment of prostate cancer (PCa). Anti-androgens to reduce or prevent androgens binding to AR are widely used to suppress AR-mediated PCa growth; however, the androgen depletion therapy is only effective for a short period of time. Here we found a natural product/Chinese herbal medicine cryptotanshinone (CTS), with a structure similar to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), can effectively inhibit the DHT-induced AR transactivation and prostate cancer cell growth. Our results indicated that 0.5 μM CTS effectively suppresses the growth of AR-positive PCa cells, but has little effect on AR negative PC-3 cells and non-malignant prostate epithelial cells. Furthermore, our data indicated that CTS could modulate AR transactivation and suppress the DHT-mediated AR target genes (PSA, TMPRSS2, and TMEPA1) expression in both androgen responsive PCa LNCaP cells and castration resistant CWR22rv1 cells. Importantly, CTS selectively inhibits AR without repressing the activities of other nuclear receptors, including ERα, GR, and PR. The mechanistic studies indicate that CTS functions as an AR inhibitor to suppress androgen/AR-mediated cell growth and PSA expression by blocking AR dimerization and the AR-coregulator complex formation. Furthermore, we showed that CTS effectively inhibits CWR22Rv1 cell growth and expressions of AR target genes in the xenograft animal model. The previously un-described mechanisms of CTS may explain how CTS inhibits the growth of PCa cells and help us to establish new therapeutic concepts for the treatment of PCa.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.canlet.2011.10.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299712400003

    View details for PubMedID 22154085

  • A Positive Feedback Signaling Loop between ATM and the Vitamin D Receptor Is Critical for Cancer Chemoprevention by Vitamin D CANCER RESEARCH Ting, H., Yasmin-Karim, S., Yan, S., Hsu, J., Lin, T., Zeng, W., Messing, J., Sheu, T., Bao, B., Li, W. X., Messing, E., Lee, Y. 2012; 72 (4): 958-968

    Abstract

    Both epidemiologic and laboratory studies have shown the chemopreventive effects of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25-VD) in tumorigenesis. However, understanding of the molecular mechanism by which 1,25-VD prevents tumorigenesis remains incomplete. In this study, we used an established mouse model of chemical carcinogenesis to investigate how 1,25-VD prevents malignant transformation. In this model, 1,25-VD promoted expression of the DNA repair genes RAD50 and ATM, both of which are critical for mediating the signaling responses to DNA damage. Correspondingly, 1,25-VD protected cells from genotoxic stress and growth inhibition by promoting double-strand break DNA repair. Depletion of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) reduced these genoprotective effects and drove malignant transformation that could not be prevented by 1,25-VD, defining an essential role for VDR in mediating the anticancer effects of 1,25-VD. Notably, genotoxic stress activated ATM and VDR through phosphorylation of VDR. Mutations in VDR at putative ATM phosphorylation sites impaired the ability of ATM to enhance VDR transactivation activity, diminishing 1,25-VD-mediated induction of ATM and RAD50 expression. Together, our findings identify a novel vitamin D-mediated chemopreventive mechanism involving a positive feedback loop between the DNA repair proteins ATM and VDR.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-11-0042

    View details for Web of Science ID 000300629100015

    View details for PubMedID 22207345

  • Tissue-specific knockout of androgen receptor in mice. Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) Lin, T., Yeh, S., Chang, C. 2011; 776: 275-293

    Abstract

    Androgen acting through the androgen receptor (AR) is known to be essential for male sexual differentiation and development. Using Cre-lox technology, we have generated the floxed AR mice, which have been bred with general or tissue-specific Cre expressing transgenic mice to knock out the AR gene in specific target cells. Our findings indicated that AR is required for sexual development and that loss of AR can have significant effects on many aspects of physiological functions and disease progression, such as immune function, metabolism, and tumorigenesis. Furthermore, our strategy can generate AR knockout (ARKO) in female mice, which allows researchers to study the AR function in the female. In brief, our floxed AR mouse model provides a powerful tool to study in vivo AR functions in selective tissues and cell types and has made possible several research breakthroughs in the field of endocrinology.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/978-1-61779-243-4_16

    View details for PubMedID 21796532