Doctor of Philosophy, Oregon Health Sciences University (2009)
Bachelor of Science, Oregon State University (2002)
Manish Butte, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
CD40L is essential for the development of adaptive immune responses. It is generally thought that CD40L expression in CD4(+) T cells is regulated transcriptionally and made from new mRNA following antigen recognition. However, imaging studies show that the majority of cognate interactions between effector CD4(+) T cells and APCs in vivo are too short to allow de novo CD40L synthesis. We previously showed that Th1 effector and memory cells store preformed CD40L (pCD40L) in lysosomal compartments and mobilize it onto the plasma membrane immediately after antigenic stimulation, suggesting that primed CD4(+) T cells may use pCD40L to activate APCs during brief encounters. Indeed, our recent study showed that pCD40L is sufficient to mediate selective activation of cognate B cells and trigger DC activation in vitro. In this study, we show that pCD40L is present in Th1 and follicular helper T cells developed during infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, Th2 cells in the airway of asthmatic mice, and Th17 cells from the CNS of animals with experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE). pCD40L is nearly absent in both natural and induced Treg cells, even in the presence of intense inflammation such as occurs in EAE. We also found pCD40L expression in CD4 single positive thymocytes and invariant NKT cells. Together, these results suggest that pCD40L may function in T cell development as well as an unexpectedly broad spectrum of innate and adaptive immune responses, while its expression in Treg cells is repressed to avoid compromising their suppressive activity.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0031296
View details for Web of Science ID 000302873700044
View details for PubMedID 22363608
CD40L is critically important for the initiation and maintenance of adaptive immune responses. It is generally thought that CD40L expression in CD4(+) T cells is regulated transcriptionally and made from new mRNA following Ag recognition. However, recent studies with two-photon microscopy revealed that most cognate interactions between effector CD4(+) T cells and APCs are too short for de novo synthesis of CD40L. Given that effector and memory CD4(+) T cells store preformed CD40L (pCD40L) in lysosomal compartments and that pCD40L comes to the cell surface within minutes of antigenic stimulation, we and others have proposed that pCD40L might mediate T cell-dependent activation of cognate APCs during brief encounters in vivo. However, it has not been shown that this relatively small amount of pCD40L is sufficient to activate APCs, owing to the difficulty of separating the effects of pCD40L from those of de novo CD40L and other cytokines in vitro. In this study, we show that pCD40L surface mobilization is resistant to cyclosporine or FK506 treatment, while de novo CD40L and cytokine expression are completely inhibited. These drugs thus provide a tool to dissect the role of pCD40L in APC activation. We find that pCD40L mediates selective activation of cognate but not bystander APCs in vitro and that mobilization of pCD40L does not depend on Rab27a, which is required for mobilization of lytic granules. Therefore, effector CD4(+) T cells deliver pCD40L specifically to APCs on the same time scale as the lethal hit of CTLs but with distinct molecular machinery.
View details for DOI 10.4049/jimmunol.1004083
View details for Web of Science ID 000292451000008
View details for PubMedID 21677130
Immunological synapses (ISs) are formed at the T cell-antigen-presenting cell (APC) interface during antigen recognition, and play a central role in T-cell activation and in the delivery of effector functions. ISs were originally described as a peripheral ring of adhesion molecules surrounding a central accumulation of T-cell receptor (TCR)-peptide major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) interactions. Although the structure of these 'classical' ISs has been the subject of intense study, non-classical ISs have also been observed under a variety of conditions. Multifocal ISs, characterized by adhesion molecules dispersed among numerous small accumulations of TCR-pMHC, and motile 'immunological kinapses' have both been described. In this review, we discuss the conditions under which non-classical ISs are formed. Specifically, we explore the profound effect that the phenotypes of both T cells and APCs have on IS structure. We also comment on the role that IS structure may play in T-cell function.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2567.2010.03366.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000283949900003
View details for PubMedID 21039474
The arrangement of molecules at the interface between T cells and APCs is known as the immunological synapse (IS). We conducted experiments with supported planar bilayers and transfected fibroblast APC to examine the IS formed by polarized Th1 and Th2 cells. Th1 cells formed typical "bull's-eye" IS with a ring of adhesion molecules surrounding MHC/TCR interactions at all Ag concentrations tested, while Th2 cells formed multifocal IS at high concentrations of Ag. At low Ag concentrations, the majority of Th2 cells formed IS with a compact, central accumulation of MHC/TCR, but ICAM-1 was not excluded from the center of the IS. Additionally, CD45 was excluded from the center of the interface between Th1 cells and APC, while CD45 was found at the center of the multifocal IS formed by Th2 cells. Finally, phosphorylated signaling molecules colocalized with MHC/TCR to a greater extent in Th2 IS. Together, our results indicate that the IS formed by Th1 and Th2 cells are distinct in structure, with Th2 cells failing to form bull's-eye IS.
View details for Web of Science ID 000257404900045
View details for PubMedID 18566405
CD40 ligand (CD40L) is an essential effector cytokine for macrophage activation, dendritic cell licensing, and T-cell-dependent antibody responses. Although CD40L is known to be made de novo following antigen recognition, several reports have described surface mobilization of preformed, intracellular CD40L in certain CD4(+) effector T cells. Here we show that rapid surface expression of preformed CD40L following antigen recognition is a general property of both effector and memory CD4(+) T cells, including in vitro and in vivo activated T-cell-receptor transgenic T cells, memory phenotype CD4(+) T cells from pathogen-free naive mice, and polyclonal virus-specific effector and memory T cells. Intracellular CD40L is stored in secretory lysosomes, and colocalizes more strongly with Fas ligand than with CTLA-4, two other molecules that are delivered to the cell surface following antigen recognition. Stimulated surface expression of preformed CD40L is found in memory CD4(+) T cells from CD40-deficient mice, indicating that it does not depend on CD40-induced internalization for delivery to the secretory compartment. We suggest that delivery of preformed CD40L to antigen-presenting cells (APCs) could enable antigen-specific activation of APCs in transient interactions that are too brief to permit de novo synthesis of CD40L.
View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2007-03-081299
View details for Web of Science ID 000249800900050
View details for PubMedID 17595332