Bio

Honors & Awards


  • Place Brain Imaging Council, Young Investigators Award, SNMMI (2018)
  • ISRS Travel Award, ISRS (2015)
  • IC Trust Travel Grant, Imperial College (2015)
  • Radiochemistry Group Young Researcher's Fund, Royal Society of Chemistry (2015)

Professional Education


  • Doctor of Philosophy, Imperial College of Science, Technology & Medicine (2016)
  • Master of Science, Imperial College of Science, Technology & Medicine (2011)

Stanford Advisors


Publications

All Publications


  • Evaluation of integrin alphavbeta6 cystine knot PET tracers to detect cancer and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Nature communications Kimura, R. H., Wang, L., Shen, B., Huo, L., Tummers, W., Filipp, F. V., Guo, H. H., Haywood, T., Abou-Elkacem, L., Baratto, L., Habte, F., Devulapally, R., Witney, T. H., Cheng, Y., Tikole, S., Chakraborti, S., Nix, J., Bonagura, C. A., Hatami, N., Mooney, J. J., Desai, T., Turner, S., Gaster, R. S., Otte, A., Visser, B. C., Poultsides, G. A., Norton, J., Park, W., Stolowitz, M., Lau, K., Yang, E., Natarajan, A., Ilovich, O., Srinivas, S., Srinivasan, A., Paulmurugan, R., Willmann, J., Chin, F. T., Cheng, Z., Iagaru, A., Li, F., Gambhir, S. S. 2019; 10 (1): 4673

    Abstract

    Advances in precision molecular imaging promise to transform our ability to detect, diagnose and treat disease. Here, we describe the engineering and validation of a new cystine knot peptide (knottin) that selectively recognizes human integrin alphavbeta6 with single-digit nanomolar affinity. We solve its 3D structure by NMR and x-ray crystallography and validate leads with 3 different radiolabels in pre-clinical models of cancer. We evaluate the lead tracer's safety, biodistribution and pharmacokinetics in healthy human volunteers, and show its ability to detect multiple cancers (pancreatic, cervical and lung) in patients at two study locations. Additionally, we demonstrate that the knottin PET tracers can also detect fibrotic lung disease in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients. Our results indicate that these cystine knot PET tracers may have potential utility in multiple disease states that are associated with upregulation of integrin alphavbeta6.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41467-019-11863-w

    View details for PubMedID 31611594

  • Ammonium [C-11]thiocyanate: revised preparation and reactivity studies of a versatile nucleophile for carbon-11 radiolabelling MEDCHEMCOMM Haywood, T., Cesarec, S., Kealey, S., Plisson, C., Miller, P. W. 2018; 9 (8): 1311–14

    Abstract

    Herein we report the preparation of ammonium [11C]thiocyanate via the reaction of [11C]CS2 with ammonia. The [11C]SCN- ion is demonstrated as a potent nucleophile that can be used to readily generate a range of 11C-labelled thiocyanate molecules in high conversions. Furthermore, novel 11C-labelled thiazolone molecules can be easily prepared from the intermediate α-thiocyanatophenones via an acid mediated cyclisation reaction.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c7md00425g

    View details for Web of Science ID 000442751800007

    View details for PubMedID 30151085

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6096773

  • A novel synthesis of 6''-[18 F]-fluoromaltotriose as a PET tracer for imaging bacterial infection. Journal of labelled compounds & radiopharmaceuticals Namavari, M., Gowrishankar, G., Srinivasan, A., Gambhir, S. S. 2018

    Abstract

    The aim of this study was to develop a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer to visualize and monitor therapeutic response to bacterial infections. In our continued efforts to find maltose based PET tracers that can image bacterial infections, we have designed and prepared 6''-[18 F]fluoromaltotriose as a second generation PET imaging tracer targeting the maltodextrin transporter of bacteria. We have developed methods to synthesize 6''-deoxy-6''-[18 F]fluoro-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-4)-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-4)-O-D-glucopyranose (6''-[18 F]-fluoromaltotriose) as a bacterial infection PET imaging agent. 6''-[18 F]fluoromaltotriose was prepared from precursor, 2'',3'',4''-tri-O-acetyl-6''-O-nosyl-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-4)-O-2',3',6'-tri-O-acetyl-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-4)-1,2,3,6-tetra-O-acetyl-D-glucopyranose (per-O-acetyl-6''-O-nosyl-maltotriose 4). This method utilizes the reaction between precursor 4 and anhydrous [18 F]KF/Kryptofix 2.2.2 in Dimethylformamide (DMF) at 85o C for 10 minutes to yield per-O-acetyl-6''-deoxy-6-'' [18 F]-fluoromaltotriose (7). Successive acidic and basic hydrolysis of the acetyl protecting groups in 7 produced 6''-[18 F]fluoromaltotriose (8). Also, cold 6''- [19 F]fluoromaltotriose was prepared from per-O-acetyl-6''-hydroxymaltotriose via a DAST reaction followed by a basic hydrolysis. A successful synthesis of 6''-[18 F]-fluoromaltotriose has been accomplished in 8±1.2 % radiochemical yield (decay corrected). Total synthesis time was 120 min. Serum stability of 6''-[18 F]fluoromaltotriose at 37o C indicated that 6''-[18 F]-fluoromaltotriose remained intact up to 2 h. In conclusion, we have successfully synthesized 6''-[18 F]-fluoromaltotriose via direct fluorination of an appropriate precursor of a protected maltotriose.

    View details for PubMedID 29314161

  • The Utility of [18F]DASA-23 for Molecular Imaging of Prostate Cancer with Positron Emission Tomography Molecular Imaging and Biology Beinat, C., Haywood, T., Chen, Y., Patel, C. B., Alam, I. S., Murty, S., Gambhir, S. S. 2018; 20 (6)
  • The Utility of [18F]DASA-23 for Molecular Imaging of Prostate Cancer with Positron Emission Tomography. Molecular imaging and biology : MIB : the official publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging Beinat, C., Haywood, T., Chen, Y. S., Patel, C. B., Alam, I. S., Murty, S., Gambhir, S. S. 2018

    Abstract

    There is a strong, unmet need for superior positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents that are able to measure biochemical processes specific to prostate cancer. Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) catalyzes the concluding step in glycolysis and is a key regulator of tumor growth and metabolism. Elevation of PKM2 expression was detected in Gleason 8-10 tumors compared to Gleason 6-7 carcinomas, indicating that PKM2 may potentially be a marker of aggressive prostate cancer. We have recently reported the development of a PKM2-specific radiopharmaceutical [18F]DASA-23 and herein describe its evaluation in cell culture and preclinical models of prostate cancer.The cellular uptake of [18F]DASA-23 was evaluated in a panel of prostate cancer cell lines and compared to that of [18F]FDG. The specificity of [18F]DASA-23 to measure PKM2 levels in cell culture was additionally confirmed through the use of PKM2-specific siRNA. PET imaging studies were then completed utilizing subcutaneous prostate cancer xenografts using either PC3 or DU145 cells in mice.[18F]DASA-23 uptake values over 60-min incubation period in PC3, LnCAP, and DU145 respectively were 23.4 ± 4.5, 18.0 ± 2.1, and 53.1 ± 4.6 % tracer/mg protein. Transient reduction in PKM2 protein expression with siRNA resulted in a 50.1 % reduction in radiotracer uptake in DU145 cells. Small animal PET imaging revealed 0.86 ± 0.13 and 1.6 ± 0.2 % ID/g at 30 min post injection of radioactivity in DU145 and PC3 subcutaneous tumor bearing mice respectively.Herein, we evaluated a F-18-labeled PKM2-specific radiotracer, [18F]DASA-23, for the molecular imaging of prostate cancer with PET. [18F]DASA-23 revealed rapid and extensive uptake levels in cellular uptake studies of prostate cancer cells; however, there was only modest tumor uptake when evaluated in mouse subcutaneous tumor models.

    View details for PubMedID 29736561

  • Long-Delay Arterial Spin Labeling Provides More Accurate Cerebral Blood Flow Measurements in Moyamoya Patients: A Simultaneous Positron Emission Tomography/MRI Study. Stroke Fan, A. P., Guo, J., Khalighi, M. M., Gulaka, P. K., Shen, B., Park, J. H., Gandhi, H., Holley, D., Rutledge, O., Singh, P., Haywood, T., Steinberg, G. K., Chin, F. T., Zaharchuk, G. 2017; 48 (9): 2441–49

    Abstract

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI is a promising, noninvasive technique to image cerebral blood flow (CBF) but is difficult to use in cerebrovascular patients with abnormal, long arterial transit times through collateral pathways. To be clinically adopted, ASL must first be optimized and validated against a reference standard in these challenging patient cases.We compared standard-delay ASL (post-label delay=2.025 seconds), multidelay ASL (post-label delay=0.7-3.0 seconds), and long-label long-delay ASL acquisitions (post-label delay=4.0 seconds) against simultaneous [15O]-positron emission tomography (PET) CBF maps in 15 Moyamoya patients on a hybrid PET/MRI scanner. Dynamic susceptibility contrast was performed in each patient to identify areas of mild, moderate, and severe time-to-maximum (Tmax) delays. Relative CBF measurements by each ASL scan in 20 cortical regions were compared with the PET reference standard, and correlations were calculated for areas with moderate and severe Tmax delays.Standard-delay ASL underestimated relative CBF by 20% in areas of severe Tmax delays, particularly in anterior and middle territories commonly affected by Moyamoya disease (P<0.001). Arterial transit times correction by multidelay acquisitions led to improved consistency with PET, but still underestimated CBF in the presence of long transit delays (P=0.02). Long-label long-delay ASL scans showed the strongest correlation relative to PET, and there was no difference in mean relative CBF between the modalities, even in areas of severe delays.Post-label delay times of ≥4 seconds are needed and may be combined with multidelay strategies for robust ASL assessment of CBF in Moyamoya disease.

    View details for PubMedID 28765286

  • Carbon-11 Radiolabelling of Organosulfur Compounds: C-11 Synthesis of the Progesterone Receptor Agonist Tanaproget CHEMISTRY-A EUROPEAN JOURNAL Haywood, T., Kealey, S., Sanchez-Cabezas, S., Hall, J. J., Allott, L., Smith, G., Plisson, C., Miller, P. W. 2015; 21 (25): 9034-9038
  • Microfluidic Hydrogenation Reactions by using a Channel-Supported Rhodium Catalyst CHEMCATCHEM Haywood, T., Miller, P. W. 2014; 6 (5): 1199-1203