Images in clinical medicine. Severe vitamin D deficiency--rickets.
New England journal of medicine
2013; 369 (9)
Airway management of recovered pediatric patients with severe head and neck burns: a review
2012; 22 (5): 462-468
Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Pain: An Evidence-based Review
CURRENT PAIN AND HEADACHE REPORTS
2011; 15 (1): 39-46
There are approximately 10,000 pediatric burn survivors in the United States each year, many of whom will present for reconstructive surgery after severe burns in the head and neck (1). These recovered burn victims, who are beyond the acute phase of injury, often have significant scarring and contractures in the face, mouth, nares, neck, and chest, which can make airway management challenging and potentially lead to a 'cannot intubate, cannot ventilate' scenario (2). Although numerous cases have been presented in the literature on this topic (3-17), there are no comprehensive review articles on the unique challenges of airway management in the recovered pediatric burn patient with distorted airway anatomy. This article aims to provide a comprehensive review of airway management in such patients, focusing on challenges encountered during mask ventilation and tracheal intubation, as well as the role of surgical release of neck contractures to facilitate tracheal intubation. Lessons learned from all reported cases identified in a thorough literature search are incorporated into this review.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1460-9592.2012.03795.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000302540900009
View details for PubMedID 22260458
Magnetic resonance Imaging detected renal volume reduction in refluxing and nonrefluxing kidneys
JOURNAL OF UROLOGY
2007; 178 (6): 2550-2554
Pain is one of the most prevalent conditions for which patients seek medical attention. Additionally, the number of patients who utilize complementary and alternative medicine as a treatment of pain either in lieu of, or concurrent with, standard conventional treatments continues to grow. While research into the mechanisms, side effect profiles, and efficacies of these alternative therapies has increased in recent years, much more remains unknown and untested. Herein, we review the literature on complementary and alternative medicine for pain, with particular emphasis on evidence-based assessments pertinent to the most common alternative therapies, including acupuncture, herbal therapy, massage therapy, hypnosis, tai chi, and biofeedback.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s11916-010-0158-y
View details for Web of Science ID 000286230400007
View details for PubMedID 21063917
Treatment of naturally acquired common colds with zinc: A structured review
CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES
2007; 45 (5): 569-574
Renal parenchymal damage is a well recognized sequela of urinary tract infection in the setting of vesicoureteral reflux. We investigated renal magnetic resonance imaging as a quantitative modality to detect renal parenchymal damage in children with primary vesicoureteral reflux and urinary tract infection.We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of children with primary vesicoureteral reflux and urinary tract infection who underwent renal magnetic resonance imaging evaluation. Those with other genitourinary pathology were excluded. Controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging for nongenitourinary pathologies. Kidneys were segregated among control, nonrefluxing, and low grade (I to III) and high grade (IV to V) reflux. Size plots (magnetic resonance imaging volume vs age) were drawn for comparison. Gross imaging abnormalities observed were renal scarring and small size.Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 114 patients with vesicoureteral reflux (228 kidneys, patient age 0.5 to 17.8 years) and 21 controls (42, 0.5 to 12). Higher grades of reflux were associated with smaller volume, and smaller volume was noted in the refluxing and nonrefluxing kidneys of children with vesicoureteral reflux. Kidneys from patients with unilateral or bilateral reflux had significantly decreased renal volume compared to controls (p <0.0001). Kidneys in which vesicoureteral reflux spontaneously resolved had renal volumes similar to control kidneys (p = 0.23).Use of magnetic resonance imaging derived renal volume allows renal comparison and is helpful in evaluating patients with vesicoureteral reflux. In patients with a history of a febrile urinary tract infection and reflux the finding of measurably smaller kidneys appears to be more common than scarring. Whether these findings represent renal atrophy or hypoplasia needs further investigation.
View details for Web of Science ID 000250847900082
View details for PubMedID 17937957
Treatment of the common cold with echinacea: A structured review
CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES
2005; 40 (6): 807-810
Over the past 20 years, the use of zinc as an over-the-counter alternative therapy for the common cold has vastly grown in popularity. Recent reports of potentially permanent anosmia caused by intranasal zinc therapy warrant careful analysis of the therapeutic effects of zinc.A search of the Medline database (including articles published during 1966-2006) for studies of zinc and the common cold produced 105 published reports. Fourteen were randomized, placebo-controlled studies that examined the effect of zinc lozenges, nasal sprays, or nasal gels on naturally acquired common colds. Eleven features of experimental design affecting signal quality, chance, bias, and blinding were used to evaluate the 14 placebo-controlled studies. These criteria were validated case definition, quantifiable hypothesis, sample size calculation, randomized assignment, double blinding, proof of blinding, measurement of compliance, measurement of dropout rate, analysis by intent to treat, description of methods of analysis, and measurements of probability. Equal weight was given to each criterion, because failure to meet any one could potentially invalidate the findings of a clinical trial.Four studies met all 11 criteria. Three of these studies reported no therapeutic effect from zinc lozenge or nasal spray. One study reported positive results from zinc nasal gel. Of the remaining 10 studies, 6 reported a positive effect and 4 reported no effect. Intent-to-treat analysis was the most common criterion not met.This structured review suggests that the therapeutic effectiveness of zinc lozenges has yet to be established. One well-designed study did report a positive effect of zinc nasal gel.
View details for DOI 10.1086/520031
View details for Web of Science ID 000248557000016
View details for PubMedID 17682990
Echinacea is a herbal preparation that is frequently used to treat the common cold. Spending on echinacea in the United States has risen to >300 million dollars annually.A total of 322 articles related to echinacea and colds, including 9 placebo-controlled clinical trials, were identified using the Medline and PubMed databases. Eleven features of experimental design that affect the accuracy of the measurement of features of interest, the probability of a chance relationship, bias, and blinding were used to evaluate the 9 placebo-controlled studies. The criteria were validated case definition, quantifiable hypothesis, sample-size calculation, randomized assignment, double blinding, proof of blinding, measurement of compliance, measurement of drop-out rate, analysis by intention to treat, description of the methods of analysis, and measurement of probability. Equal weight was given to each criterion, since failure to meet any one of them could potentially invalidate the findings of a clinical trial.Of the 9 studies, 2 met all 11 criteria. The results of both studies were judged to be negative by the people who performed the studies. Of the remaining 7 studies, 6 were judged to have positive results, and 1 was judged to have negative results. The criterion most commonly not met was proof of blinding.This structured review suggests that the possible therapeutic effectiveness of echinacea in the treatment of colds has not been established.
View details for Web of Science ID 000227492800005
View details for PubMedID 15736012