Bio

Bio


Professor Winograd's focus is on human-computer interaction design and the design of technologies for development. He directs the teaching programs and HCI research in the Stanford Human-Computer Interaction Group, which recently celebrated it's 20th anniversary. He is also a founding faculty member of the Hasso Plattner Institute of Design at Stanford (the "d.school") and on the faculty of the Center on Democracy, Development, and the Rule of Law (CDDRL)

Winograd was a founding member and past president of Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility. He is on a number of journal editorial boards, including Human Computer Interaction, ACM Transactions on Computer Human Interaction, and Informatica. He has advised a number of companies started by his students, including Google. In 2011 he received the ACM SIGCHI Lifetime Research Award.

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Founder, Hasso Plattner Institute of Design (2006 - Present)
  • Co-director, Liberation Technology Program (2009 - Present)

Honors & Awards


  • Founders Award, Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility (1996)
  • Rigo Award, SIGDOC (1999)
  • Member, ACM CHI Academy (2004)
  • Felllow, ACM (2009)
  • Lifetime Research Award, ACM SIGCHI (2011)

Professional Education


  • PhD, MIT (1970)

Teaching

2019-20 Courses


Publications

All Publications


  • Effect of Wearable Digital Intervention for Improving Socialization in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder A Randomized Clinical Trial JAMA PEDIATRICS Voss, C., Schwartz, J., Daniels, J., Kline, A., Haber, N., Washington, P., Tariq, Q., Robinson, T. N., Desai, M., Phillips, J. M., Feinstein, C., Winograd, T., Wall, D. P. 2019; 173 (5): 446–54
  • Effect of Wearable Digital Intervention for Improving Socialization in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA pediatrics Voss, C., Schwartz, J., Daniels, J., Kline, A., Haber, N., Washington, P., Tariq, Q., Robinson, T. N., Desai, M., Phillips, J. M., Feinstein, C., Winograd, T., Wall, D. P. 2019

    Abstract

    Importance: Autism behavioral therapy is effective but expensive and difficult to access. While mobile technology-based therapy can alleviate wait-lists and scale for increasing demand, few clinical trials exist to support its use for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) care.Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of Superpower Glass, an artificial intelligence-driven wearable behavioral intervention for improving social outcomes of children with ASD.Design, Setting, and Participants: A randomized clinical trial in which participants received the Superpower Glass intervention plus standard of care applied behavioral analysis therapy and control participants received only applied behavioral analysis therapy. Assessments were completed at the Stanford University Medical School, and enrolled participants used the Superpower Glass intervention in their homes. Children aged 6 to 12 years with a formal ASD diagnosis who were currently receiving applied behavioral analysis therapy were included. Families were recruited between June 2016 and December 2017. The first participant was enrolled on November 1, 2016, and the last appointment was completed on April 11, 2018. Data analysis was conducted between April and October 2018.Interventions: The Superpower Glass intervention, deployed via Google Glass (worn by the child) and a smartphone app, promotes facial engagement and emotion recognition by detecting facial expressions and providing reinforcing social cues. Families were asked to conduct 20-minute sessions at home 4 times per week for 6 weeks.Main Outcomes and Measures: Four socialization measures were assessed using an intention-to-treat analysis with a Bonferroni test correction.Results: Overall, 71 children (63 boys [89%]; mean [SD] age, 8.38 [2.46] years) diagnosed with ASD were enrolled (40 [56.3%] were randomized to treatment, and 31 (43.7%) were randomized to control). Children receiving the intervention showed significant improvements on the Vineland Adaptive Behaviors Scale socialization subscale compared with treatment as usual controls (mean [SD] treatment impact, 4.58 [1.62]; P=.005). Positive mean treatment effects were also found for the other 3 primary measures but not to a significance threshold of P=.0125.Conclusions and Relevance: The observed 4.58-point average gain on the Vineland Adaptive Behaviors Scale socialization subscale is comparable with gains observed with standard of care therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first randomized clinical trial to demonstrate efficacy of a wearable digital intervention to improve social behavior of children with ASD. The intervention reinforces facial engagement and emotion recognition, suggesting either or both could be a mechanism of action driving the observed improvement. This study underscores the potential of digital home therapy to augment the standard of care.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03569176.

    View details for PubMedID 30907929

  • Exploratory study examining the at-home feasibility of a wearable tool for social-affective learning in children with autism NPJ DIGITAL MEDICINE Daniels, J., Schwartz, J. N., Voss, C., Haber, N., Fazel, A., Kline, A., Washington, P., Feinstein, C., Winograd, T., Wall, D. P. 2018; 1
  • Exploratory study examining the at-home feasibility of a wearable tool for social-affective learning in children with autism. NPJ digital medicine Daniels, J., Schwartz, J. N., Voss, C., Haber, N., Fazel, A., Kline, A., Washington, P., Feinstein, C., Winograd, T., Wall, D. P. 2018; 1: 32

    Abstract

    Although standard behavioral interventions for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are effective therapies for social deficits, they face criticism for being time-intensive and overdependent on specialists. Earlier starting age of therapy is a strong predictor of later success, but waitlists for therapies can be 18 months long. To address these complications, we developed Superpower Glass, a machine-learning-assisted software system that runs on Google Glass and an Android smartphone, designed for use during social interactions. This pilot exploratory study examines our prototype tool's potential for social-affective learning for children with autism. We sent our tool home with 14 families and assessed changes from intake to conclusion through the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS-2), a facial affect recognition task (EGG), and qualitative parent reports. A repeated-measures one-way ANOVA demonstrated a decrease in SRS-2 total scores by an average 7.14 points (F(1,13) = 33.20, p = <.001, higher scores indicate higher ASD severity). EGG scores also increased by an average 9.55 correct responses (F(1,10) = 11.89, p = <.01). Parents reported increased eye contact and greater social acuity. This feasibility study supports using mobile technologies for potential therapeutic purposes.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41746-018-0035-3

    View details for PubMedID 31304314

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6550272

  • Feasibility Testing of a Wearable Behavioral Aid for Social Learning in Children with Autism APPLIED CLINICAL INFORMATICS Daniels, J., Haber, N., Voss, C., Schwartz, J., Tamura, S., Fazel, A., Kline, A., Washington, P., Phillips, J., Winograd, T., Feinstein, C., Wall, D. P. 2018; 9 (1): 129–40

    Abstract

    Recent advances in computer vision and wearable technology have created an opportunity to introduce mobile therapy systems for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) that can respond to the increasing demand for therapeutic interventions; however, feasibility questions must be answered first.We studied the feasibility of a prototype therapeutic tool for children with ASD using Google Glass, examining whether children with ASD would wear such a device, if providing the emotion classification will improve emotion recognition, and how emotion recognition differs between ASD participants and neurotypical controls (NC).We ran a controlled laboratory experiment with 43 children: 23 with ASD and 20 NC. Children identified static facial images on a computer screen with one of 7 emotions in 3 successive batches: the first with no information about emotion provided to the child, the second with the correct classification from the Glass labeling the emotion, and the third again without emotion information. We then trained a logistic regression classifier on the emotion confusion matrices generated by the two information-free batches to predict ASD versus NC.All 43 children were comfortable wearing the Glass. ASD and NC participants who completed the computer task with Glass providing audible emotion labeling (n = 33) showed increased accuracies in emotion labeling, and the logistic regression classifier achieved an accuracy of 72.7%. Further analysis suggests that the ability to recognize surprise, fear, and neutrality may distinguish ASD cases from NC.This feasibility study supports the utility of a wearable device for social affective learning in ASD children and demonstrates subtle differences in how ASD and NC children perform on an emotion recognition task.

    View details for DOI 10.1055/s-0038-1626727

    View details for Web of Science ID 000428690000006

    View details for PubMedID 29466819

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5821509

  • Backtracking Events as Indicators of Usability Problems in Creation-Oriented Applications ACM TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTER-HUMAN INTERACTION Akers, D., Jeffries, R., Simpson, M., Winograd, T. 2012; 19 (2)
  • The distance geometry of music 17th Canadian Conference on Computational Geometry Demaine, E. D., Gomez-Martin, F., Meijer, H., Rappaport, D., Taslakian, P., Toussaint, G. T., Winograd, T., Wood, D. R. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 2009: 429–54
  • Undo and Erase Events as Indicators of Usability Problems 27th Annual CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Akers, D., Simpson, M., Jeffries, R., Winograd, T. ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY. 2009: 659–668
  • Taskpose: Exploring Fluid Boundaries in an Associative Window Visualization 21st Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology Bernstein, M., Shrager, J., Winograd, T. ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY. 2008: 231–234
  • Visual analysis of network flow data with timelines and event plots 4th International Workshop on Computer Security Phan, D., Gerth, J., Lee, M., Paepcke, A., Winograd, T. SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN. 2008: 85–99
  • Improving the Accuracy of Gaze Input for Interaction Eye Tracking Research and Applications Symposium Kumar, M., Klingner, J., Puranik, R., Winograd, T., Paepcke, A. ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY. 2008: 65–68
  • The bodily incorporation of mechanical devices: Ethical and religious issues - (part 2) CAMBRIDGE QUARTERLY OF HEALTHCARE ETHICS Campbell, C. S., Clark, L. A., Loy, D., Keenan, J. E., Matthews, K., Winograd, T., Zoloth, L. 2007; 16 (3): 268-280

    View details for DOI 10.1017/S0963180107070302

    View details for PubMedID 17695618

  • The bodily incorporation of mechanical devices: Ethical and religious issues (part 1) CAMBRIDGE QUARTERLY OF HEALTHCARE ETHICS Campbell, C. S., Clark, L. A., Loy, D., Keenan, J. F., Matthews, K., Winograd, T., Zoloth, L. 2007; 16 (2): 229-239

    View details for DOI 10.1017/S0963180107070259

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245113000011

    View details for PubMedID 17539475

  • EyePoint: Practical Pointing and Selection Using Gaze and Keyboard Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Kumar, M., Paepcke, A., Winograd, T. ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY. 2007: 421–430
  • Eyepatch: Prototyping Camera-based Interaction through Examples 20th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology Maynes-Aminzade, D., Winograd, T., Igarashi, T. ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY. 2007: 33–42
  • Gaze-enhanced Scrolling Techniques 20th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology Kumar, M., Winograd, T. ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY. 2007: 213–216
  • Shifting viewpoints: Artificial intelligence and human-computer interaction ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE Winograd, T. 2006; 170 (18): 1256-1258
  • Mediating group dynamics through tabletop interface design IEEE COMPUTER GRAPHICS AND APPLICATIONS Morris, M. R., Cassanego, A., Paepcke, A., Winograd, T., Piper, A. M., Huang, A. 2006; 26 (5): 65-73

    View details for Web of Science ID 000240285500010

    View details for PubMedID 16983890

  • Designing a new foundation for design COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM Winograd, T. 2006; 49 (5): 71-73
  • TeamSearch: Comparing techniques for co-present collaborative search of digital media 1st IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems Morris, M. R., Paepcke, A., Winograd, T. IEEE COMPUTER SOC. 2006: 97–104
  • Alternative input devices for efficient navigation of large CT angiography data sets RADIOLOGY Sherboncly, A., Holmlund, D., Rubin, G. D., Schraedley, P. K., Winograd, T., Napel, S. 2005; 234 (2): 391-398

    Abstract

    To compare devices for the task of navigating through large computed tomographic (CT) data sets at a picture archiving and communication system workstation.The institutional review board approved this study, and all subjects provided informed consent. Five radiologists were asked to find 25 different vascular targets in three CT angiography data sets (average number of sections, 1025) by using several devices (trackball, tablet, jog-shuttle wheel, and mouse). For each trial, the total time to acquire the targets (T1) was recorded. A secondary study in which 13 nonradiologists performed seven trials with an artificial target inserted at a random location in the same image data was also performed. For each trial, the following items were recorded: time until first target sighting (t2), time to manipulate the device after seeing the target, sections traversed during t2 (d1), time from first sight to target acquisition (t4), sections traversed during t4 (d2), and total trial time. Statistical analysis involved repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and pairwise comparisons.Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that the device used had a significant (P < .05) effect on T1. Pairwise comparisons revealed that the trackball was significantly slower than the tablet (P < .05) and marginally slower than the jog-shuttle wheel (P < .10). Further repeated-measures ANOVA for each secondary outcome measure revealed significant differences between devices for all outcome measures (P < .005). Pairwise comparisons revealed the trackball to be significantly slower than the other devices in all measures (P < .05). The trackball was significantly (P < .05) more accurate than the other devices for d1 and d2.The trackball may not be the optimal device for navigation of large CT angiography data sets; the use of other existing devices may improve the efficiency of interpretation of these sets.

    View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.2342032017

    View details for Web of Science ID 000226483200013

    View details for PubMedID 15670996

  • Flow map layout IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization (InfoVis 05) Phan, D., Xiao, L., Yeh, R., Hanrahan, P., Winograd, T. IEEE COMPUTER SOC. 2005: 219–224
  • Interactive workspaces COMPUTER Johanson, B., Winograd, T., Fox, A. 2003; 36 (4): 99-101
  • Efficient web browsing on handheld devices using page and form summarization ACM TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION SYSTEMS Buyukkokten, O., Kaljuvee, O., Garcia-Molina, H., Paepcke, A., Winograd, T. 2002; 20 (1): 82-115
  • Extreme temporal photo browsing 2nd International Workshop on Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries held at the Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (JCDL) Graham, A., Garcia-Molina, H., Paepcke, A., Winograd, T. SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN. 2002: 81–97
  • Architectures for context HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION Winograd, T. 2001; 16 (2-4): 401-419
  • Integrating information appliances into an interactive workspace IEEE COMPUTER GRAPHICS AND APPLICATIONS Fox, A., Johanson, B., Hanrahan, P., Winograd, T. 2000; 20 (3): 54-65
  • Designing the user interface for multimodal speech and pen-based gesture applications: State-of-the-art systems and future research directions HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION Oviatt, S., Cohen, P., Wu, L. Z., Vergo, J., Duncan, L., Suhm, B., Bers, J., Holzman, T., Winograd, T., Landay, J., Larson, J., Ferro, D. 2000; 15 (4): 263-322
  • Interoperability for digital libraries worldwide COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM Paepcke, A., Chang, C. C., Garcia-Molina, H., Winograd, T. 1998; 41 (4): 33-43
  • The digital library integrated task environment (DLITE) 2nd ACM International Conference on Digital Libraries (DL 97) Cousins, S. B., Paepcke, A., Winograd, T., BIER, E. A., Pier, K. ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY. 1997: 142–151
  • Interspace and an every-citizen interface to the national information infrastructure More Than Screen Deep Workshop - Toward Every-Citizen Interfaces to the Nations Information Infrastructure Winograd, T. NATL ACADEMY PRESS. 1997: 260–264
  • Using distributed objects for digital library interoperability COMPUTER Paepcke, A., Cousins, S. B., GARCIAMOLINA, H., Hassan, S. W., Ketchpel, S. P., ROSCHEISEN, M., Winograd, T. 1996; 29 (5): 61-?
  • Grassroots: A system providing a uniform framework for communicating, structuring, sharing information, and organizing people 5th International World Wide Web Conference (WWW5) Kamiya, K., ROSCHEISEN, M., Winograd, T. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 1996: 1157–74
  • A communication agreement framework for access/action control 1996 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy ROSCHEISEN, M., Winograd, T. I E E E, COMPUTER SOC PRESS. 1996: 154–163
  • FROM PROGRAMMING ENVIRONMENTS TO ENVIRONMENTS FOR DESIGNING COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM Winograd, T. 1995; 38 (6): 65-74
  • BEYOND BROWSING - SHARED COMMENTS, SOAPS, TRAILS, AND ONLINE COMMUNITIES 3rd International World-Wide Web Conference ROSCHEISEN, M., Mogensen, C., Winograd, T. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 1995: 739–49
  • THE NORBERT-WIENER-AWARD FOR SOCIAL AND PROFESSIONAL-RESPONSIBILITY CYBERNETICA Winograd, T. 1994; 37 (3-4): 387-392
  • DESIGNING THE DESIGNER HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION Winograd, T. 1994; 9 (1): 128-132
  • GROUPWARE - SYSTEMS-DESIGN FROM PERSPECTIVE OF GETTING THINGS DONE IEEE SOFTWARE Winograd, T. 1991; 8 (6): 81-82
  • ARE THINKING MACHINES POSSIBLE - ARE WE THEY REVISTA DE OCCIDENTE Winograd, T. 1991: 113-150
  • CAN RESEARCH REINVENT THE CORPORATION HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW ZUBOFF, S., SUTHERLAND, W. R., WLADAWSKYBERGER, I., SENGE, P. M., ARGYRIS, C., Schon, D. A., Ciborra, C. U., Winograd, T., GUILE, B. R., Kraut, R. E., Yoshida, K., Fisher, P. A., Nakanishi, M., WASSERMAN, A. S. 1991; 69 (2): 164-?
  • ON THE CRUELTY OF REALLY TEACHING COMPUTING SCIENCE COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM Winograd, T. 1989; 32 (12): 1412-1413
  • EXPERT SYSTEMS - HOW FAR CAN THEY GO .1. AI MAGAZINE Davis, R., Winograd, T., DREYFUSS, S. E. 1989; 10 (1): 61-67
  • WHERE THE ACTION IS BYTE Winograd, T. 1988; 13 (13): A256-?
  • COMPUTER-SYSTEMS AND THE DESIGN OF ORGANIZATIONAL INTERACTION ACM TRANSACTIONS ON OFFICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Flores, F., Graves, M., HARTFIELD, B., Winograd, T. 1988; 6 (2): 153-172
  • SPECIAL ISSUE ON THE LANGUAGE ACTION PERSPECTIVE - INTRODUCTION ACM TRANSACTIONS ON OFFICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Winograd, T. 1988; 6 (2): 83-86
  • ARTIFICIAL-INTELLIGENCE - WHERE ARE WE .2. ABACUS-NEW YORK Bobrow, D. G., Hayes, P. J., LONGUETHIGGINS, C., McCarthy, J., Berliner, H., Michie, D., Nilsson, N., Brown, J. S., Feldman, J., Dreyfus, H., Dennett, D., Boden, M., Winograd, T., Newell, A., Sloman, A., Schank, R., McCorduck, P., AMAREL, S. 1987; 4 (4): 33-48
  • ARTIFICIAL-INTELLIGENCE - WHERE ARE WE - EXPERTS WHO EXCHANGE VIEWS ON THE FUTURE OF AI FIND THAT CONSENSUS IS DIFFICULT .1. ABACUS-NEW YORK Bobrow, D. G., Hayes, P. J., AMAREL, S., Berliner, H., Boden, M. A., Brown, J. S., Dennett, D., Dreyfus, H., Feldman, J., LONGUETHIGGINS, H. C., McCarthy, J., McCorduck, P., Meltzer, B., Michie, D., Newell, A., Nilsson, N., Schank, R., Sloman, A., Winograd, T. 1987; 4 (3): 8-?
  • MOVING THE SEMANTIC FULCRUM LINGUISTICS AND PHILOSOPHY Winograd, T. 1985; 8 (1): 91-104
  • COMPUTER SOFTWARE FOR WORKING WITH LANGUAGE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN Winograd, T. 1984; 251 (3): 130-?
  • WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO UNDERSTAND LANGUAGE COGNITIVE SCIENCE Winograd, T. 1980; 4 (3): 209-241
  • EXTENDED INFERENCE MODES IN REASONING BY COMPUTER-SYSTEMS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE Winograd, T. 1980; 13 (1-2): 5-26
  • BEYOND PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM Winograd, T. 1979; 22 (7): 391-401
  • TOWARDS A PROCEDURAL UNDERSTANDING OF SEMANTICS REVUE INTERNATIONALE DE PHILOSOPHIE Winograd, T. 1976; 30 (117-): 260-303