Bachelor of Science, Carroll College (2003)
Doctor of Philosophy, Rockefeller University (2009)
Thomas Sudhof, Postdoctoral Research Mentor
Contacts between the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane involve extended synaptotagmins (E-Syts) in mammals or tricalbins in yeast, proteins with multiple C2 domains. One of the tandem C2 domains of E-Syt2 is predicted to bind Ca(2+), but no Ca(2+)-dependent function has been attributed to this protein. We have determined the crystal structures of the tandem C2 domains of E-Syt2 in the absence and presence of Ca(2+) and analyzed their Ca(2+)-binding properties by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Our data reveal an unexpected V-shaped structure with a rigid orientation between the two C2 domains that is not substantially altered by Ca(2+). The E-Syt2 C2A domain binds up to four Ca(2+) ions, whereas the C2B domain does not bind Ca(2+). These results suggest that E-Syt2 performs an as yet unidentified Ca(2+)-dependent function through its C2A domain and uncover fundamental differences between the properties of the tandem C2 domains of E-Syts and synaptotagmins.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.str.2013.11.011
View details for PubMedID 24373768
In forebrain neurons, knockout of synaptotagmin-1 blocks fast Ca(2+)-triggered synchronous neurotransmitter release but enables manifestation of slow Ca(2+)-triggered asynchronous release. Here, we show using single-cell PCR that individual hippocampal neurons abundantly coexpress two Ca(2+)-binding synaptotagmin isoforms, synaptotagmin-1 and synaptotagmin-7. In synaptotagmin-1-deficient synapses of excitatory and inhibitory neurons, loss of function of synaptotagmin-7 suppressed asynchronous release. This phenotype was rescued by wild-type but not mutant synaptotagmin-7 lacking functional Ca(2+)-binding sites. Even in synaptotagmin-1-containing neurons, synaptotagmin-7 ablation partly impaired asynchronous release induced by extended high-frequency stimulus trains. Synaptotagmins bind Ca(2+) via two C2 domains, the C2A and C2B domains. Surprisingly, synaptotagmin-7 function selectively required its C2A domain Ca(2+)-binding sites, whereas synaptotagmin-1 function required its C2B domain Ca(2+)-binding sites. Our data show that nearly all Ca(2+)-triggered release at a synapse is due to synaptotagmins, with synaptotagmin-7 mediating a slower form of Ca(2+)-triggered release that is normally occluded by faster synaptotagmin-1-induced release but becomes manifest upon synaptotagmin-1 deletion.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.neuron.2013.10.026
View details for PubMedID 24267651
Synaptic vesicle fusion during neurotransmitter release is mediated by assembly of SNARE- and SM-protein complexes composed of syntaxin-1, SNAP-25, synaptobrevin-2/VAMP2, and Munc18-1. Current models suggest that SNARE-complex assembly catalyzes membrane fusion by pulling the transmembrane regions (TMRs) of SNARE proteins together, thus allowing their TMRs to form a fusion pore. These models are consistent with the requirement for TMRs in viral fusion proteins. However, the role of the SNARE TMRs in synaptic vesicle fusion has not yet been tested physiologically. Here, we examined whether synaptic SNAREs require TMRs for catalysis of synaptic vesicle fusion, which was monitored electrophysiologically at millisecond time resolution. Surprisingly, we find that both lipid-anchored syntaxin-1 and lipid-anchored synaptobrevin-2 lacking TMRs efficiently promoted spontaneous and Ca(2+)-triggered membrane fusion. Our data suggest that SNARE proteins function during fusion primarily as force generators, consistent with the notion that forcing lipid membranes close together suffices to induce membrane fusion.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.neuron.2013.09.010
View details for PubMedID 24120845
Among SNARE proteins mediating synaptic vesicle fusion, syntaxin-1 uniquely includes an N-terminal peptide ('N-peptide') that binds to Munc18-1, and a large, conserved H(abc)-domain that also binds to Munc18-1. Previous in vitro studies suggested that the syntaxin-1 N-peptide is functionally important, whereas the syntaxin-1 H(abc)-domain is not, but limited information is available about the in vivo functions of these syntaxin-1 domains. Using rescue experiments in cultured syntaxin-deficient neurons, we now show that the N-peptide and the H(abc)-domain of syntaxin-1 perform distinct and independent roles in synaptic vesicle fusion. Specifically, we found that the N-peptide is essential for vesicle fusion as such, whereas the H(abc)-domain regulates this fusion, in part by forming the closed syntaxin-1 conformation. Moreover, we observed that deletion of the H(abc)-domain but not deletion of the N-peptide caused a loss of Munc18-1 which results in a decrease in the readily releasable pool of vesicles at a synapse, suggesting that Munc18 binding to the H(abc)-domain stabilizes Munc18-1. Thus, the N-terminal syntaxin-1 domains mediate different functions in synaptic vesicle fusion, probably via formation of distinct Munc18/SNARE-protein complexes.
View details for DOI 10.1038/emboj.2012.307
View details for Web of Science ID 000314141900015
View details for PubMedID 23188083
Inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP(6)) levels rise and fall with neuronal excitation and silence, respectively, in the hippocampus, suggesting potential signaling functions of this inositol polyphosphate in hippocampal neurons. We now demonstrate that intracellular application of InsP(6) caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of autaptic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in cultured hippocampal neurons. The treatment did not alter the size and replenishment rate of the readily releasable pool in autaptic neurons. Intracellular exposure to InsP(6) did not affect spontaneous EPSCs or excitatory amino acid-activated currents in neurons lacking autapses. The InsP(6)-induced inhibition of autaptic EPSCs was effectively abolished by coapplication of an antibody to synaptotagmin-1 C2B domain. Importantly, preabsorption of the antibody with a GST-WT synaptotagmin-1 C2B domain fragment but not with a GST-mutant synaptotagmin-1 C2B domain fragment that poorly reacted with the antibody impaired the activity of the antibody on the InsP(6)-induced inhibition of autaptic EPSCs. Furthermore, K(+) depolarization significantly elevated endogenous levels of InsP(6) and occluded the inhibition of autaptic EPSCs by exogenous InsP(6). These data reveal that InsP(6) suppresses excitatory neurotransmission via inhibition of the presynaptic synaptotagmin-1 C2B domain-mediated fusion via an interaction with the synaptotagmin Ca(2+)-binding sites rather than via interference with presynaptic Ca(2+) levels, synaptic vesicle trafficking, or inactivation of postsynaptic ionotropic glutamate receptors. Therefore, elevated InsP(6) in activated neurons serves as a unique negative feedback signal to control hippocampal excitatory neurotransmission.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1115070109
View details for Web of Science ID 000306992700063
View details for PubMedID 22778403
Two families of Ca(2+)-binding proteins have been proposed as Ca(2+) sensors for spontaneous release: synaptotagmins and Doc2s, with the intriguing possibility that Doc2s may represent high-affinity Ca(2+) sensors that are activated by deletion of synaptotagmins, thereby accounting for the increased spontaneous release in synaptotagmin-deficient synapses. Here, we use an shRNA-dependent quadruple knockdown of all four Ca(2+)-binding proteins of the Doc2 family to confirm that Doc2-deficient synapses exhibit a marked decrease in the frequency of spontaneous release events. Knockdown of Doc2s in synaptotagmin-1-deficient synapses, however, failed to reduce either the increased spontaneous release or the decreased evoked release of these synapses, suggesting that Doc2s do not constitute Ca(2+) sensors for asynchronous release. Moreover, rescue experiments revealed that the decrease in spontaneous release induced by the Doc2 knockdown in wild-type synapses is fully reversed by mutant Doc2B lacking Ca(2+)-binding sites. Thus, our data suggest that Doc2s are modulators of spontaneous synaptic transmission that act by a Ca(2+)-independent mechanism.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.neuron.2011.03.011
View details for Web of Science ID 000291073700007
View details for PubMedID 21521611
Sensory organs are composed of neurons, which convert environmental stimuli to electrical signals, and glia-like cells, whose functions are not well understood. To decipher glial roles in sensory organs, we ablated the sheath glial cell of the major sensory organ of Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that glia-ablated animals exhibit profound sensory deficits and that glia provide activities that affect neuronal morphology, behavior generation, and neuronal uptake of lipophilic dyes. To understand the molecular bases of these activities, we identified 298 genes whose messenger RNAs are glia-enriched. One gene, fig-1, encodes a labile protein with conserved thrombospondin TSP1 domains. FIG-1 protein functions extracellularly, is essential for neuronal dye uptake, and also affects behavior. Our results suggest that glia are required for multiple aspects of sensory organ function.
View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1163074
View details for Web of Science ID 000260605200050
View details for PubMedID 18974354
Sensory neuron cilia are evolutionarily conserved dendritic appendages that convert environmental stimuli into neuronal activity. Although several cilia components are known, the functions of many remain uncharacterized. Furthermore, the basis of morphological and functional differences between cilia remains largely unexplored. To understand the molecular basis of cilia morphogenesis and function, we studied the Caenorhabditis elegans mutants che-12 and dyf-11. These mutants fail to concentrate lipophilic dyes from their surroundings in sensory neurons and are chemotaxis defective. In che-12 mutants, sensory neuron cilia lack distal segments, while in dyf-11 animals, medial and distal segments are absent. CHE-12 and DYF-11 are conserved ciliary proteins that function cell-autonomously and are continuously required for maintenance of cilium morphology and function. CHE-12, composed primarily of HEAT repeats, may not be part of the intraflagellar transport (IFT) complex and is not required for the localization of some IFT components. DYF-11 undergoes IFT-like movement and may function at an early stage of IFT-B particle assembly. Intriguingly, while DYF-11 is expressed in all C. elegans ciliated neurons, CHE-12 expression is restricted to some amphid sensory neurons, suggesting a specific role in these neurons. Our results provide insight into general and neuron-specific aspects of cilium development and function.
View details for DOI 10.1534/genetics.107.082453
View details for Web of Science ID 000253577100031
View details for PubMedID 18245347
Cell-specific promoters allow only spatial control of transgene expression in Caenorhabditis elegans. We describe a method, using cell-specific rescue of heat-shock factor-1 (hsf-1) mutants, that allows spatial and temporal regulation of transgene expression. We demonstrate the utility of this method for timed reporter gene expression and for temporal studies of gene function.
View details for DOI 10.1534/genetics.107.074369
View details for Web of Science ID 000249530000060
View details for PubMedID 17603102