Ph.D., Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University, Neurobiology (2010)
Carla Shatz, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
Experience-driven circuit changes underlie learning and memory. Monocular deprivation (MD) engages synaptic mechanisms of ocular dominance (OD) plasticity and generates robust increases in dendritic spine density on L5 pyramidal neurons. Here we show that the paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB) negatively regulates spine density, as well as the threshold for adult OD plasticity. In PirB(-/-) mice, spine density and stability are significantly greater than WT, associated with higher-frequency miniature synaptic currents, larger long-term potentiation, and deficient long-term depression. Although MD generates the expected increase in spine density in WT, in PirB(-/-) this increase is occluded. In adult PirB(-/-), OD plasticity is larger and more rapid than in WT, consistent with the maintenance of elevated spine density. Thus, PirB normally regulates spine and excitatory synapse density and consequently the threshold for new learning throughout life.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1321092110
View details for Web of Science ID 000328548600089
View details for PubMedID 24302763
View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1242077
Recovery from stroke engages mechanisms of neural plasticity. Here we examine a role for MHC class I (MHCI) H2-Kb and H2-Db, as well as PirB receptor. These molecules restrict synaptic plasticity and motor learning in the healthy brain. Stroke elevates neuronal expression not only of H2-Kb and H2-Db, but also of PirB and downstream signaling. KbDb knockout (KO) or PirB KO mice have smaller infarcts and enhanced motor recovery. KO hippocampal organotypic slices, which lack an intact peripheral immune response, have less cell death after in vitro ischemia. In PirB KO mice, corticospinal projections from the motor cortex are enhanced, and the reactive astrocytic response is dampened after MCAO. Thus, molecules that function in the immune system act not only to limit synaptic plasticity in healthy neurons, but also to exacerbate brain injury after ischemia. These results suggest therapies for stroke by targeting MHCI and PirB.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.neuron.2012.01.020
View details for Web of Science ID 000301998700008
View details for PubMedID 22445338
Growth of axons and dendrites is a dynamic process that involves guidance molecules, adhesion proteins, and neurotrophic factors. Although neurite extension is stimulated by the neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF), we found that the precursor of NGF, proNGF, induced acute collapse of growth cones of cultured hippocampal neurons. This retraction was initiated by an interaction between the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) and the sortilin family member SorCS2 (sortilin-related VPS10 domain-containing receptor 2). Binding of proNGF to the p75NTR-SorCS2 complex induced growth cone retraction by initiating the dissociation of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Trio from the p75NTR-SorCS2 complex, resulting in decreased Rac activity and, consequently, growth cone collapse. The actin-bundling protein fascin was also inactivated, contributing to the destabilization and collapse of actin filaments. These results identify a bifunctional signaling mechanism by which proNGF regulates actin dynamics to acutely modulate neuronal morphology.
View details for DOI 10.1126/scisignal.2002060
View details for Web of Science ID 000298078800002
View details for PubMedID 22155786
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates neuronal differentiation, synaptic plasticity, and morphology, and modest changes in BDNF levels results in complex behavioral phenotypes. BDNF levels and intracellular localization in neurons are regulated by multiple mechanisms, including use of distinct promoters, mRNA and protein transport, and regulated cleavage of proBDNF to mature BDNF. Sortilin is an intracellular chaperone that binds to the prodomain of BDNF to traffic it to the regulated secretory pathway. However, sortilin binds to numerous ligands and plays a major role in mannose 6-phosphate receptor-independent transport of lysosomal hydrolases utilizing motifs in the intracellular domain that mediate trafficking from the Golgi and late endosomes. Sortilin is modified by ectodomain shedding, although the biological implications of this are not known. Here we demonstrate that ADAM10 is the preferred protease to cleave sortilin in the extracellular stalk region, to release the ligand binding sortilin ectodomain from the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. We identify sortilin shedding at the cell surface and in an intracellular compartment. Both sortilin and BDNF are trafficked to and degraded by the lysosome in neurons, and this is dependent upon the sortilin cytoplasmic tail. Indeed, expression of the sortilin ectodomain, which corresponds to the domain released after shedding, impairs lysosomal targeting and degradation of BDNF. These findings characterize the regulation of sortilin shedding and identify a novel mechanism by which sortilin ectodomain shedding acts as a regulatory switch for delivery of BDNF to the secretory pathway or to the lysosome, thus modulating the bioavailability of endogenous BDNF.
View details for DOI 10.1074/jbc.M111.219675
View details for Web of Science ID 000294046600013
View details for PubMedID 21730062
Neurotrophins are initially synthesized as larger precursors (proneurotrophins), which undergo proteolytic cleavage to yield mature forms. Although the functions of the mature neurotrophins have been well established during neural development and in the adult nervous system, roles for the proneurotrophins in developmental and injury-induced cell death, as well as in synaptic plasticity, have only recently been appreciated. Interestingly, both mature neurotrophins and proneurotrophins utilize dual-receptor complexes to mediate their actions. The mature neurotrophin coreceptors consist of the Trk receptor tyrosine kinases and p75(NTR), wherein Trk transduces survival and differentiative signaling, and p75(NTR) modulates the affinity and selectivity of Trk activation. On the other hand, proneurotrophins engage p75(NTR) and the structurally distinct coreceptor sortilin, to initiate p75(NTR)-dependent signal transduction cascade. Although the specificity of mature neurotrophins vs. proneurotrophins actions is due in part to the formation of distinct coreceptor complexes, a number of recent studies highlight how different p75(NTR)-mediated cellular actions are modulated. Here, we review emerging evidence for a novel transmembrane mechanism for ligand-specific p75(NTR) activation and several mechanisms by which p75(NTR)-dependent apoptotic and nonapoptotic responses can be selective activated.
View details for DOI 10.1002/dneu.20768
View details for Web of Science ID 000276622700009
View details for PubMedID 20186707
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is initially synthesized as a precursor, proNGF, that is cleaved to release its C-terminal mature form. Recent studies suggested that proNGF is not an inactive precursor but acts as a signaling ligand distinct from its mature counterpart. proNGF and mature NGF initiate opposing biological responses by utilizing both distinct and shared receptor components. In this study, we carried out structural and biochemical characterization of proNGF interactions with p75NTR and sortilin. We crystallized proNGF complexed to p75NTR and present the structure at 3.75-A resolution. The structure reveals a 2:2 symmetric binding mode, as compared with the asymmetric structure of a previously reported crystal structure of mature NGF complexed to p75NTR and the 2:2 symmetric complex of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and p75NTR. Here, we discuss the possible origins and implications of the different stoichiometries. In the proNGF-p75NTR complex, the pro regions of proNGF are mostly disordered and two hairpin loops (loop 2) at the top of the NGF dimer have undergone conformational changes in comparison with mature NT structures, suggesting possible interactions with the propeptide. We further explored the binding characteristics of proNGF to sortilin using surface plasmon resonance and cell-based assays and determined that calcium ions promote the formation of a stable ternary complex of proNGF-sortilin-p75NTR. These results, together with those of previous structural and mechanistic studies of NT-receptor interactions, suggest the potential for distinct signaling activities through p75NTR mediated by different NT-induced conformational changes.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jmb.2009.12.030
View details for Web of Science ID 000275385600012
View details for PubMedID 20036257
Proneurotrophins mediate neuronal apoptosis using a dual receptor complex of sortilin and p75(NTR). Although p75(NTR) is highly expressed on the plasma membrane and accessible to proneurotrophin ligands, sortilin is primarily localized to intracellular membranes, limiting the formation of a cell surface co-receptor complex. Here, we show that the mammalian p75(NTR) homologue NRH2 critically regulates the expression of sortilin on the neuronal cell surface and promotes p75(NTR) and sortilin receptor complex formation, rendering cells responsive to proneurotrophins. This is accomplished by interactions between the cytoplasmic domains of NRH2 and sortilin that impair lysosomal degradation of sortilin. In proneurotrophin-responsive neurons, acute silencing of endogenous NRH2 significantly reduces cell surface-expressed sortilin and abolishes proneurotrophin-induced neuronal death. Thus, these data suggest that NRH2 acts as a trafficking switch to impair lysosomal-dependant sortilin degradation and to redistribute sortilin to the cell surface, rendering p75(NTR)-expressing cells susceptible to proneurotrophin-induced death.
View details for DOI 10.1038/emboj.2009.118
View details for Web of Science ID 000266608700009
View details for PubMedID 19407813
Prevailing views of neurotrophin action hold that the transcription factor CREB is constitutively bound to target genes with transcriptional activation occurring via CREB phosphorylation. However, we report that within several CRE-containing genes, CREB is not constitutively bound. Upon exposure of neurons to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), CREB becomes rapidly bound to DNA coincident with phosphorylation at its transcriptional regulatory site, Ser133. This inducible CREB-DNA binding is independent of CREB Ser133 phosphorylation and is not affected by inhibition of the ERK or PI3K signaling pathways. Instead, BDNF regulates CREB binding by initiating a nitric oxide-dependent signaling pathway that leads to S-nitrosylation of nuclear proteins that associate with CREB target genes. Pharmacological manipulation of neurons in vitro and analysis of mice lacking neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) suggest that NO mediates BDNF and activity-dependent expression of CREB target genes. Thus, in conjunction with CREB phosphorylation, the NO pathway controls CREB-DNA binding and CRE-mediated gene expression.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.molcel.2005.12.006
View details for Web of Science ID 000234943000016
View details for PubMedID 16427017
Ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) mediate rapid chemical neurotransmission in the mammalian brain. This gene superfamily includes the nicotinic acetylcholine (nAChR), GABA(A), 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3, and glycine receptors. Upon agonist binding these receptors undergo a rapid allosteric transition from the closed to open state. The molecular mechanism of coupling between agonist binding and channel gating remains poorly understood, in part due to the lack of a high-resolution structure of the entire receptor. Miyazawa, Fujiyoshi, and Unwin published a 4A resolution structure of the nAChR, and proposed that a single residue--valine 44 in Loop 2 of the extracellular domain--functions as a critical determinant of a "pin-into-socket" mechanism for receptor activation in nAChR. Here we examined whether this proposed "pin-into-socket" mechanism also contributes to channel activation in the GABA(A) and glycine receptors. We mutated residues corresponding to nAChR valine 44 in the GABA(A) (alpha(1) histidine 56 and beta(2) valine 53) and glycine (alpha(1) threonine 54) receptors. The results obtained in this study do not support a simple "pin-into-socket" mechanism of activation for the activation of GABA(A) and glycine receptors. This conclusion is consistent with other recent reports in which mutations of residues distributed throughout several loops of nAChR, GABA(A) and glycine receptors had large effects on gating behavior.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.neulet.2004.09.002
View details for Web of Science ID 000225203800030
View details for PubMedID 15519763
An aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase-associated factor, p43, was recently shown to be secreted to induce a proinflammatory response. Because a proinflammatory response involves the cell-cell adhesion between endothelial and immune cells, we first examined the mechanism of p43-induced cell-cell adhesion of myelomonocytic leukemia cells. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) was up-regulated by p43 and mediated p43-induced cell-cell adhesion via the interaction with LFA-1 or Mac-1. We also investigated p43-stimulated signaling pathways involved in the homotypic THP-1 cell adhesion. Because the specific inhibitors for PI3-K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase), ERK (extracellular signal-regulating kinase), and p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) blocked p43-stimulated ICAM-1 expression and homotypic THP-1 cell adhesion, these kinases were responsible for p43-induced cell-cell adhesion. p43-Dependent activation of ERK was inhibited by PI3-K inhibitors, and the activation of p38 MAPK was not. Thus, the results of this work suggest that p43 should induce cell-cell adhesion via the PI3-K/ERK- and p38 MAPK-dependent up-regulation of ICAM-1.
View details for Web of Science ID 000173810900006
View details for PubMedID 11818442
Although Daxx (death-associated protein) was first reported to mediate the apoptotic signal from Fas to JNK in the cytoplasm, other data suggested that Daxx is mainly located in the nucleus as a transcriptional regulator. Here, we demonstrated that cellular localization of Daxx could be determined by the relative concentration of a proapoptotic kinase, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) by using immunofluorescence and transcriptional reporter assay. ASK1 sequestered Daxx in the cytoplasm and inhibited the repressive activity of Daxx in transcription. In addition, Daxx was bound to the activated Fas only in the presence of ASK1, accelerating the Fas-mediated apoptosis. These results suggest that Daxx requires ASK1 for its cytoplasmic localization and Fas-mediated signaling. Taken together, we could conclude that ASK1 controls the dual function of Daxx as a transcriptional repressor in the nucleus and as a proapoptotic signal mediator in the cytoplasm.
View details for Web of Science ID 000171673200101
View details for PubMedID 11495919
An auxiliary factor of mammalian multi-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, p43, is thought to be a precursor of endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide II (EMAP II) that triggers proinflammation in leukocytes and macrophages. In the present work, however, we have shown that p43 itself is specifically secreted from intact mammalian cells, while EMAP II is released only when the cells are disrupted. Secretion of p43 was also observed when its expression was increased. These results suggest that p43 itself should be a real cytokine secreted by an active mechanism. To determine the cytokine activity and active domain of p43, we investigated tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) production from human monocytic THP-1 cells treated with various p43 deletion mutants. The full length of p43 showed higher cytokine activity than EMAP II, further supporting p43 as the active cytokine. p43 was also shown to activate MAPKs and NFkappaB, and to induce cytokines and chemokines such as TNF, IL-8, MCP-1, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, MIP-2alpha, IL-1beta, and RANTES. Interestingly, the high level of p43 was observed in the foam cells of atherosclerotic lesions. Therefore, p43 could be a novel mediator of atherosclerosis development as well as other inflammation-related diseases.
View details for Web of Science ID 000169412700139
View details for PubMedID 11292833
Apoptosis, a programmed process of cell suicide, has been proposed as the most plausible mechanism for the chemopreventive activities of selenocompounds. In our study, we found that Se-methylselenocysteine (MSC) induced apoptosis through caspase activation in human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells. Measurements of cytotoxicity, DNA fragmentation and apoptotic morphology revealed that MSC was more efficient at inducing apoptosis than selenite, but was less toxic. Moreover, MSC increased both the apoptotic cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3 activity, whereas selenite did not. We next examined whether caspases and serine proteases are required for the apoptotic induction by MSC. A general caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk, dramatically decreased cytotoxicity in MSC-treated HL-60 cells and several other apoptotic features, such as, caspase-3 activation, the apoptotic DNA ladder, TUNEL-positive staining and the DNA double-strand break. Interestingly, a general serine protease inhibitor, AAPV-cmk, also effectively inhibited MSC-mediated cytotoxicity and apoptosis. These results demonstrate that MSC is a selenocompound that efficiently induces apoptosis in leukemia cells and that proteolytic machinery, in particular caspase-3, is necessary for MSC-induced apoptosis. On the other hand, selenite-induced cell death could be derived from necrosis rather than apoptosis, since selenite did not significantly induce several apoptotic phenomena, including the activation of caspase-3.
View details for Web of Science ID 000168066300004
View details for PubMedID 11285189
Glutamine has been known to be an apoptosis suppressor, since it blocks apoptosis induced by heat shock, irradiation, and c-Myc overexpression. Here, we demonstrated that HeLa cells were susceptible to Fas-mediated apoptosis under the condition of glutamine deprivation. Fas ligation activated apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK; also known as stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK)) in Gln-deprived cells but not in normal cells, suggesting that Gln might be involved in the activity control of ASK1 and JNK/SAPK. As one of the possible mechanisms for the suppressive effect of Gln on ASK1, we investigated the molecular interaction between human glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase (QRS) and ASK1 and found the Gln-dependent association of the two molecules. While their association was enhanced by the elevation of Gln concentration, they were dissociated by Fas ligation within 5 min. The association involved the catalytic domains of the two enzymes. The ASK1 activity was inhibited by the interaction with QRS as determined by in vitro kinase and transcription assays. Finally, we have shown that QRS inhibited the cell death induced by ASK1, and this antiapoptotic function of QRS was weakened by the deprivation of Gln. Thus, the antiapoptotic interaction of QRS with ASK1 is controlled positively by the cellular concentration of Gln and negatively by Fas ligation. The results of this work provide one possible explanation for the working mechanism of the antiapoptotic activity of Gln and suggest a novel function of mammalian ARSs.
View details for Web of Science ID 000167115100083
View details for PubMedID 11096076
Heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) is a molecular chaperone responsible for protein folding and maturation in vivo. Interaction of hsp90 with human glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase (EPRS) was found by genetic screening, co-immunoprecipitation, and in vitro binding experiments. This interaction was sensitive to the hsp90 inhibitor, geldanamycin, and also ATP, suggesting that the chaperone activity of hsp90 is required for interaction with EPRS. Interaction of EPRS with hsp90 was targeted to the region of three tandem repeats linking the two catalytic domains of EPRS that is also responsible for the interaction with isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (IRS). Interaction of EPRS and IRS also depended on the activity of hsp90, implying that their association was mediated by hsp90. EPRS and IRS form a macromolecular protein complex with at least six other tRNA synthetases and three cofactors. hsp90 preferentially binds to most of the complex-forming enzymes rather than those that are not found in the complex. In addition, inactivation of hsp90 interfered with the in vivo incorporation of the nascent aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases into the multi-ARS complex. Thus, hsp90 appears to mediate protein-protein interactions of mammalian tRNA synthetases.
View details for Web of Science ID 000089858900021
View details for PubMedID 10913161
Human glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase (QRS) is one of several mammalian aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) that form a macromolecular protein complex. To understand the mechanism of QRS targeting to the multi-ARS complex, we analyzed both exogenous and endogenous QRSs by immunoprecipitation after overexpression of various Myc-tagged QRS mutants in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Whereas a deletion mutant containing only the catalytic domain (QRS-C) was targeted to the multi-ARS complex, a mutant QRS containing only the N-terminal appended domain (QRS-N) was not. Deletion mapping showed that the ATP-binding Rossman fold was necessary for targeting of QRS to the multi-ARS complex. Furthermore, exogenous Myc-tagged QRS-C was co-immunoprecipitated with endogenous QRS. Since glutaminylation of tRNA was dramatically increased in cells transfected with the full-length QRS, but not with either QRS-C or QRS-N, both the QRS catalytic domain and the N-terminal appended domain were required for full aminoacylation activity. When QRS-C was overexpressed, arginyl-tRNA synthetase and p43 were released from the multi-ARS complex along with endogenous QRS, suggesting that the N-terminal appendix of QRS is required to keep arginyl-tRNA synthetase and p43 within the complex. Thus, the eukaryote-specific N-terminal appendix of QRS appears to stabilize the association of other components in the multi-ARS complex, whereas the C-terminal catalytic domain is necessary for QRS association with the multi-ARS complex.
View details for Web of Science ID 000088230600106
View details for PubMedID 10801842