Dr. Suzanne Lippert is residency trained in Emergency Medicine and holds a Masters in Health and Medical Sciences from the UC Berkeley School of Public Health. As an educator and researcher, she focuses on disparities in healthcare access locally and globally with the goal of further understanding and rectifying the barriers to achieving health for the most vulnerable populations. Emergency Medicine, positioned at the confluence of our public health and medical systems, offers the ideal specialty to continue to address the multitude of influences that determine health, from access to medical care to the many social determinants of health.

Because of her interest in integrating knowledge of this confluence into medical education, Dr. Lippert serves as the assistant director of the Stanford Social Emergency Medicine Fellowship. She has created an inquiry-driven-learning emergency and social determinants course that guides students to develop skills in investigating medical literature, in translating the available evidence into clinical decisions, and in effective communication. Her team-taught course on Human Trafficking leverages the legal, historical and medical perspectives to address patient vulnerabilities to and impacts from human trafficking. She founded and co-created the curriculum for Highland Emergency International (HEI), a residency-based global health program, dedicated to ensuring practitioners have the necessary training in appropriate clinical skills and content, as well as public health and ethics to work effectively in a variety of low-resource, global settings.

As a researcher, Dr. Lippert completed a longitudinal cohort study under the larger Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) project investigating the autonomic nervous system effects of organophosphate exposure on the infants of farm-working families in the Salinas Valley. She has developed and evaluated emergency health worker training programs for identification of trafficking victims in the San Francisco Bay Area. Her current research focuses on access to emergency psychiatric stabilization and care as well as patient access to domestic violence services.

In her role as the Department of Emergency Medicine diversity liaison to the Stanford School of Medicine, Dr. Lippert brings a dedication to ensuring a rich diversity of perspectives and voices within the department of emergency medicine, recognizing the central importance of that diversity in serving all of our patients with exemplary, unbiased, and comprehensive health care.

Clinical Focus

  • Emergency Medicine
  • Global Health and Health Disparities
  • Medical Education: Inquiry driven learning

Academic Appointments

Administrative Appointments

  • Liaison to the Stanford School of Medicine Office of Diversity and Leadership, Stanford SOM, Department of Emergency Medicine (2015 - Present)
  • Assistant Fellowship Director, Stanford Social Emergency Medicine and Population Health Fellowship (2015 - Present)

Honors & Awards

  • Kay Simmons Award for humanitarian ideals, clinical proficiency, and academic strength., Alameda County Medical Center (2008, 2009)
  • Stanford Faculty College, Stanford Center for Teaching and Learning (2012)
  • Resident Editorial Fellow, Annals of Emergency Medicine (2009-2010)
  • Senior Reviewer, Annals of Emergency Medicine (2009-present)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations

  • Senior Fellow, Stanford Center for Innovation in Global Health (CIGH) (2015 - Present)
  • Fellow of the American College of Emergency Physicians, American College of Emergency Physicians (2014 - Present)

Professional Education

  • Board Certification: Emergency Medicine, American Board of Emergency Medicine (2010)
  • Residency:Alameda County Medical Center (2009) CA
  • Medical Education:University of California San Francisco (2005) CA
  • MS/ Medical Education, University of California at Berkeley - Joint Medical Program, Health and Medical Sciences, Epidemiology (2003)

Community and International Work

  • Inquiry Driven Learning in Emergency Medicine training, Shanghai and Bejing


    Integrating inquiry driven learning into medical student and resident training in EM

    Partnering Organization(s)

    United Family Health Emergency Medicine Training Program



    Ongoing Project


    Opportunities for Student Involvement


  • District Hospital Course, India


    Emergency Medicine essentials for physicians working in India's casualty wards

    Partnering Organization(s)

    Stanford Emergency Medicine International, EMRI



    Ongoing Project


    Opportunities for Student Involvement


Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Psychiatric illness continues to be one of the most common presentations to Emergency Departments and one of the top six most expensive conditions nationally. Since 1995 California has had a loss of 42% of the state’s inpatient psychiatric beds per capita. This has translated into a crisis of unmet acute psychiatric care needs in California that is mirrored by similar psychiatric inpatient bed losses and growing clinical need throughout the country. The lack of facilities is particularly acute for adolescents and children (only 11 of 58 counties in CA have pediatric facilities), and geriatric patients with complex medical conditions (only 2 counties in CA, 2 facilities, a total of 71 beds). This is a profound lack of access to specialist care for our most vulnerable populations. Emergency Departments, serving as the only access point for many of these patients, are, by necessity and legal obligation, boarding acutely ill psychiatric patients awaiting in-patient beds. Between 2001 and 2006, the length of stay for mental health and non-mental health visits increased by an annual rate of 2.3%. The duration of mental health visits significantly exceeded non-mental health visits by 42%. ED boarding (the practice of admitted patients remaining in the ED, and therefore having a significantly increased ED length of stay, due to lack of an available, staffed, in-patient bed) plays the largest role in ED crowding. ED length of stay is a well-accepted surrogate of ED crowding and has been associated with adverse effects such as decreased timeliness and quality of care, falling patient satisfaction and increased rates of medication errors.
As the burden of unmet psychiatric need increases, all patients presenting to the ED will be affected. Most acutely, however, psychiatric patients will suffer. Patients on an involuntary psychiatric hold await placement in the diminishing number of inpatient psychiatric beds for extremely disparate amounts of time ranging from a few hours to more than 200 hours (8 days). The causes of these extreme disparities in length of stay are unknown.
Our objective is to identify the influence of patient characteristics, specific psychiatric diagnosis, co-existent diagnoses, and institutional and regional characteristics on access to treatment of acute psychiatric emergencies to inform the design of further research investigating psychiatric outcomes and coordination of regional acute psychiatric care services.


My interests are focused on translational knowledge, expert learners, and fostering the development of sophisticated inquiry skills among learners. Standard content-based assessments, though of obvious importance, are insufficient. I am working with SCiMERI (the Stanford Medical Education Research group) to design assessment tools capable of examining the content as well as the skill acquisition of students completing medical, inquiry-driven-learning courses. We are piloting and evaluating live and online versions of my Stanford inquiry-driven learning emergency medicine course. Through these assessments, I hope to identify the strengths and weaknesses of an online versus live inquiry-driven-learning EM curriculum in order to drive the academic conversation and the capacity for online learning forward and make it accessible to a global audience.


2015-16 Courses


All Publications

  • Educating Health Care Professionals on Human Trafficking PEDIATRIC EMERGENCY CARE Grace, A. M., Lippert, S., Collins, K., Pineda, N., Tolani, A., Walker, R., Jeong, M., Trounce, M. B., Graham-Lamberts, C., Bersamin, M., Martinez, J., Dotzler, J., Vanek, J., Storfer-Isser, A., Chamberlain, L. J., Horwitz, S. M. 2014; 30 (12): 856-861


    The US Department of State estimates that there are between 4 and 27 million individuals worldwide in some form of modern slavery. Recent studies have demonstrated that 28% to 50% of trafficking victims in the United States encountered health care professionals while in captivity, but were not identified and recognized. This study aimed to determine whether an educational presentation increased emergency department (ED) providers' recognition of human trafficking (HT) victims and knowledge of resources to manage cases of HT.The 20 largest San Francisco Bay Area EDs were randomized into intervention (10 EDs) or delayed intervention comparison groups (10 EDs) to receive a standardized educational presentation containing the following: background about HT, relevance of HT to health care, clinical signs in potential victims, and referral options for potential victims. Participants in the delayed intervention group completed a pretest in the period the immediate intervention group received the educational presentation, and all participants were assessed immediately before (pretest) and after (posttest) the intervention. The intervention effect was tested by comparing the pre-post change in the intervention group to the change in 2 pretests in the delayed intervention group adjusted for the effect of clustering within EDs. The 4 primary outcomes were importance of knowledge of HT to the participant's profession (5-point Likert scale), self-rated knowledge of HT (5-point Likert scale), knowledge of who to call for potential HT victims (yes/no), and suspecting that a patient was a victim of HT (yes/no).There were 258 study participants from 14 EDs; 141 from 8 EDs in the intervention group and 117 from 7 EDs in the delayed intervention comparison group, of which 20 served as the delayed intervention comparison group. Participants in the intervention group reported greater increases in their level of knowledge about HT versus those in the delayed intervention comparison group (1.42 vs -0.15; adjusted difference = 1.57 [95% confidence interval, 1.02-2.12]; P < 0.001). Pretest ratings of the importance of knowledge about HT to the participant's profession were high in both groups and there was no intervention effect (0.31 vs 0.55; -0.24 [-0.90-0.42], P = 0.49). Knowing who to call for potential HT victims increased from 7.2% to 59% in the intervention group and was unchanged (15%) in the delayed intervention comparison group (61.4% [28.5%-94.4%]; P < 0.01). The proportion of participants who suspected their patient was a victim of HT increased from 17% to 38% in the intervention group and remained unchanged (10%) in the delayed intervention comparison group (20.9 [8.6%-33.1%]; P < 0.01).A brief educational intervention increased ED provider knowledge and self-reported recognition of HT victims.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000345912500005

    View details for PubMedID 25407038

  • Pain Control in Disaster Settings: A Role for Ultrasound-Guided Nerve Blocks ANNALS OF EMERGENCY MEDICINE Lippert, S. C., Nagdev, A., Stone, M. B., Herring, A., Norris, R. 2013; 61 (6): 690-696
  • Perceptions of Conflict of Interest Disclosures among Peer Reviewers PLOS ONE Lippert, S., Callaham, M. L., Lo, B. 2011; 6 (11)


    Disclosure of financial conflicts of interest (COI) is intended to help reviewers assess the impact of potential bias on the validity of research results; however, there have been no empiric assessments of how reviewers understand and use disclosures in article evaluation. We investigate reviewers' perceptions of potential bias introduced by particular author disclosures, and whether reviewer characteristics are associated with a greater likelihood of perceiving bias.Of the 911 active reviewers from the Annals of Emergency Medicine, 410 were randomly selected and invited to complete our web-based, 3-part survey. We completed descriptive analysis of all survey responses and compared those responses across reviewer characteristics using 2 × 2 analyses and the Fisher exact test. We had a response rate of 54%. The majority of reviewers surveyed reported a high level of skepticism regarding financial relationships between authors and industry without a clear or consistent translation of that skepticism into the self-reported actions that characterize manuscript assessment. Only 13% of respondents believed physician consultants authoring articles based on company data are likely to have unlimited data access. 54% believed that bias most likely exists with any honorarium, regardless of monetary amount. Between 46% and 64%, depending on the type of financial relationship disclosed, reported that their recommendation for publication remains unchanged. Respondents reporting personal financial ties to industry were less likely to perceive bias in industry relationships and less likely to believe that bias exists with any monetary amount of honoraria.We recommend that the monetary amount of all financial relationships be reported with manuscript submissions, lead authors certify that they have unrestricted access to data, and reviewers disclose any financial ties to industry whether or not they are related to the manuscript under review. Further research is required to better understand reviewers' perceptions of financial relationships between authors and industry in order to develop clear and consistent guidelines for incorporating the perception of potential bias into manuscript assessments.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0026900

    View details for Web of Science ID 000297154900051

    View details for PubMedID 22073216

  • Maternal prenatal and child organophosphate pesticide exposures and children's autonomic function NEUROTOXICOLOGY Quiros-Alcala, L., Alkon, A. D., Boyce, W. T., Lippert, S., Davis, N. V., Bradman, A., Barr, D. B., Eskenazi, B. 2011; 32 (5): 646-655


    Organophosphate pesticides (OP), because of their effects on cholinergic fibers, may interfere with the functions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). We conducted a study to assess the relation of in utero and child OP pesticide exposures and children's autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysregulation under resting and challenge conditions. We hypothesized that children with high OP levels would show parasympathetic activation and no sympathetic activation during rest and concomitant parasympathetic and sympathetic activation during challenging conditions.OP exposures were assessed by measuring urinary dialkylphosphate metabolites (DAPs, total diethyls-DEs, and total dimethyls-DMs) in maternal and children's spot urine samples. ANS regulation was examined in relation to maternal and child DAPs in 149 children at 6 months and 1 year, 97 at 3 1/2 years and 274 at 5 years. We assessed resting and reactivity (i.e., challenge minus rest) measures using heart rate (HR), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and preejection period (PEP) during the administration of a standardized protocol. Cross-sectional (at each age) and longitudinal regression models were conducted to assess OP and ANS associations. To estimate cumulative exposure at 5 years, we used an area-under-the-concentration-time-curve (AUC) methodology. We also evaluated whether children with consistently high versus low DAP concentrations had significantly different mean ANS scores at 5 years.Child DMs and DAPs were significantly negatively associated with resting RSA at 6 months and maternal DMs and child DEs were significantly positively associated with resting PEP at 1 year. No associations with resting were observed in 3 1/2- or 5-year-old children nor with reactivity at any age. There was no significant relationship between the reactivity profiles and maternal or child DAPs. Cumulative maternal total DEs were associated with low HR (-3.19 bpm decrease; 95% CI: -6.29 to -0.09, p=0.04) only at 5 years. In addition, there were no significant differences in ANS measures for 5-year-olds with consistently high versus low DAPs.Although we observe some evidence of ANS dysregulation in infancy, we report no consistent associations of maternal and child OP pesticide exposure, as measured by urinary DAPs, on children's ANS (HR, RSA, and PEP) regulation during resting and challenging conditions up to age 5 years.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.neuro.2011.05.017

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296671800018

    View details for PubMedID 21741403

  • International Emergency Medicine: A Review of the Literature From 2010 ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE Aschkenasy, M., Arnold, K., Foran, M., Lippert, S., Schroeder, E. D., Bertsch, K., Levine, A. C. 2011; 18 (8): 872-879


    The International Emergency Medicine (IEM) Literature Review aims to highlight and disseminate high-quality global EM research in the fields of EM development, disaster and humanitarian response, and emergency care in resource-limited settings. For this review, we conducted a Medline search for articles published between January 1 and December 31, 2010, using a set of international and EM search terms and a manual search of journals that have produced large numbers of IEM articles for past reviews. This search produced 6,936 articles, which were divided among 20 reviewers who screened them using established inclusion and exclusion criteria to select articles relevant to the field of IEM. Two-hundred articles were selected by at least one reviewer and approved by an editor for scoring. Two independent reviewers using a standardized and predetermined set of criteria then scored each of the 200 articles. The 27 top-scoring articles were chosen for full review. The articles this year trended toward evidence-based research for treatment and care options in resource-limited settings, with an emphasis on childhood illness and obstetric care. These articles represent examples of high-quality international emergency research that is currently ongoing in high-, middle-, and low-income countries alike. This article is not intended to serve as a systematic review or clinical guideline but is instead meant to be a selection of current high-quality IEM literature, with the hope that it will foster further growth in the field, highlight evidence-based practice, and encourage discourse.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1553-2712.2011.01129.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293860400013

    View details for PubMedID 21790839

  • International Emergency Medicine: A Review of the Literature From 2009 ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE Foran, M., Levine, A., Lippert, S., Chan, J., Aschkenasy, M., Arnold, K., Rosborough, S. 2011; 18 (1): 86-92


    As the specialty of emergency medicine evolves in countries around the world, and as interest in international emergency medicine (IEM) grows within the United States, the IEM Literature Review Group recognizes an ongoing need for a high-quality, consolidated, and easily accessible evidence base of literature. The IEM Literature Review Group produces an annual publication that strives to provide readers with access to the highest quality and most relevant IEM research from the previous year. This publication represents our fifth annual review, covering the top 24 IEM research articles published in 2009. Articles were selected for the review according to explicit, predetermined criteria that emphasize both methodologic quality and impact of the research. It is our hope that this annual review acts as a forum for disseminating best practices, while also stimulating further research in the field of IEM.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1553-2712.2010.00961.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000286053700013

    View details for PubMedID 21182567