Clinical Focus

  • Gynecology
  • Obstetrics
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Breastfeeding

Academic Appointments

Professional Education

  • Residency:Kaiser Permanente/Santa Clara (1998) CA
  • Internship:Kaiser Permanente/Santa Clara (1995) CA
  • Board Certification: Obstetrics and Gynecology, American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology (2000)
  • Medical Education:Loyola Univ Of Chicago Stritch (1994) IL


2016-17 Courses


All Publications

  • Maternal attachment insecurity is a potent predictor of depressive symptoms in the early postnatal period JOURNAL OF AFFECTIVE DISORDERS Robakis, T. K., Williams, K. E., Crowe, S., Lin, K. W., Gannon, J., Rasgon, N. L. 2016; 190: 623-631
  • Optimistic outlook regarding maternity protects against depressive symptoms postpartum ARCHIVES OF WOMENS MENTAL HEALTH Robakis, T. K., Williams, K. E., Crowe, S., Kenna, H., Gannon, J., Rasgon, N. L. 2015; 18 (2): 197-208


    The transition to motherhood is a time of elevated risk for clinical depression. Dispositional optimism may be protective against depressive symptoms; however, the arrival of a newborn presents numerous challenges that may be at odds with initially positive expectations, and which may contribute to depressed mood. We have explored the relative contributions of antenatal and postnatal optimism regarding maternity to depressive symptoms in the postnatal period. Ninety-eight pregnant women underwent clinician interview in the third trimester to record psychiatric history, antenatal depressive symptoms, and administer a novel measure of optimism towards maternity. Measures of depressive symptoms, attitudes to maternity, and mother-to-infant bonding were obtained from 97 study completers at monthly intervals through 3 months postpartum. We found a positive effect of antenatal optimism, and a negative effect of postnatal disconfirmation of expectations, on depressive mood postnatally. Postnatal disconfirmation, but not antenatal optimism, was associated with more negative attitudes toward maternity postnatally. Antenatal optimism, but not postnatal disconfirmation, was associated with reduced scores on a mother-to-infant bonding measure. The relationships between antenatal optimism, postnatal disconfirmation of expectations, and postnatal depression held true among primigravidas and multigravidas, as well as among women with prior histories of mood disorders, although antenatal optimism tended to be lower among women with mental health histories. We conclude that cautious antenatal optimism, rather than immoderate optimism or frank pessimism, is the approach that is most protective against postnatal depressive symptoms, and that this is true irrespective of either mood disorder history or parity. Factors predisposing to negative cognitive assessments and impaired mother-to-infant bonding may be substantially different than those associated with depressive symptoms, a finding that merits further study.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00737-014-0446-3

    View details for Web of Science ID 000351476400006

    View details for PubMedID 25088532

  • Lean management system application in creation of a postpartum hemorrhage prevention bundle on postpartum units. Obstetrics and gynecology Crowe, S. D., Faulkner, B. 2014; 123: 45S-?


    Postpartum hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death worldwide. Lean management principles incorporate a family-centered improvement system making work more effective and safer.Application of lean management principles in development of the Postpartum Hemorrhage Care Bundle and the Postpartum Hemorrhage Prevention Bundle is an innovative approach to improving patient outcomes. Implementing a bundle with high reliability requires redesign of work processes, communication, infrastructure, and sustained measurement. A lean process is a set of interventions, each of which creates value for the customer. Lean is not a new concept, but relatively new to health care.Through simulation training over a 6-month period 100 registered nurses, physicians, and family representatives simulated the innovative approach developed by a multidisciplinary local improvement team (clinical microsystems methodology) in the maternity department of Lucile Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford. Simulation training was held at the nationally renowned Center for Advanced Pediatric and Perinatal Education. The local improvement team was able to demonstrate significant decreased response time for emergencies.Supply retrieval time decreased by 99.9%, physician response time decreased by 81%, and family-centered care increased by 100%. The Postpartum Hemorrhage Prevention Bundle could become the first national standard in prevention of postpartum hemorrhages on a postpartum unit.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.AOG.0000447328.58883.1e

    View details for PubMedID 24770195