Bio

Clinical Focus


  • Emergency Medicine

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Chief, Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Surgery (1991 - 1995)
  • Medical Director, Strategic Projects, Stanford Health Care (2015 - Present)
  • Adjunct Professor of Military/Emergency Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (2016 - Present)

Honors & Awards


  • Diver of the Year, Beneath the Sea (2008)
  • DAN America Award, Divers Alert Network (1998)
  • Outstanding Contribution in Education Award, American College of Emergency Physicians (1999)
  • Founders Award, Wilderness Medical Society (2000)
  • New Orleans Grand Isle (NOGI) Award for Science, The Academy of Underwater Arts and Sciences (2006)
  • Hero of Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians (2008)
  • DAN/Rolex Diver of the Year, Divers Alert Network (2009)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • High Threat Emergency Casualty Care Task Force, American College of Emergency Physicians (2016 - Present)
  • Development Committee, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Foundation (2016 - Present)
  • Board of Directors, Emergency Medicine Foundation, American College of Emergency Physicians (2015 - Present)
  • Member, Council on Foreign Relations (2010 - Present)

Professional Education


  • MS, Stanford Graduate School of Business, Management (1989)
  • Board Certification: Emergency Medicine, American Board of Emergency Medicine (1981)
  • Residency:UCLA Medical Center (1980) CA
  • Internship:Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center (1978) NH
  • Medical Education:Duke University School of Medicine (1977) NC

Community and International Work


  • Volunteer physician, Haiti

    Topic

    Emergency medical response

    Partnering Organization(s)

    International Medical Corps

    Location

    International

    Ongoing Project

    No

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    No

  • Volunteer physician, Kathmandu, Nepal

    Topic

    Emergency medical care

    Partnering Organization(s)

    Health Care Foundation of Nepal

    Populations Served

    local residents

    Location

    International

    Ongoing Project

    Yes

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    Yes

  • Hospitalito Atitlan, Santiago, Atitlan, Guatemala

    Topic

    Clinical practice

    Partnering Organization(s)

    Pueblo a Pueblo

    Populations Served

    local citizens

    Location

    International

    Ongoing Project

    Yes

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    Yes

Patents


  • Paul Auerbach, Joshua Carter, Lauren Fuller, Daniel Haylett, Aaron Knoll, John Reitenberg, Andrew Smith, Eric Thorsell. "United States Patent 8,061,293 Avalanche rescue device", Nov 22, 2011
  • Paul Auerbach. "United States Patent 4,801,777 A device for microwave rewarming of blood products", Jan 31, 1989

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


wilderness medicine; frostbite; marine envenomation; emergency medical care; disaster response; concussion

Clinical Trials


  • Effective Treatments for Jellyfish Stings Not Recruiting

    The purpose of the study is to attempt to determine which treatment from commonly used treatments is the best at reducing pain and redness of the skin after a sting from a Portuguese Man of War, Chrysaora chinensis, or Chrysaora fuscescens. Jellyfish stings are a common occurrence in many parts of the world causing significant morbidity to persons stung by jellyfish while participating in marine activities whether commercial or recreational. Much debate and confusion exist both in the medical literature and the common recommendations regarding how to treat persons stung by jellyfish. Specifically concerning what topical treatments are most efficacious at decreasing envenomation by nematocyst on skin, preventing the firing of un-discharged nematocyst, decreasing inflammation and pain resulting from envenomation by nematocyst. Antidotal recommendations and past studies have referenced numerous different topical treatments for jellyfish stings including but not limited to vinegar, urine, alcohol, distilled spirits, ammonia, bleach, acetone, bicarbonate slurry, lidocaine, meat tenderizer, Coca Cola, old wine, salt water, cold packs, hot water, and commercial products such as Stingose and Stingaid. Conflicting data exists regarding what works and what does not for nematocysts discharge, skin erythema, and pain reaction. The investigators would like to investigate which treatment is best out of some of the more commonly studied treatments for reducing pain and erythema. The investigators would like to complete a research study to try to bring some reasonable evidence to the field treatment of jellyfish stings, namely, the decontamination process (e.g., what can you put on a jellyfish sting that will be helpful, based on real data?). The questions asked are as follows: - What topical treatments for jellyfish stings actually decrease the amount of inflammation seen on a macroscopic level on the skin of humans? - What topical treatments for jellyfish stings actually decrease the sensation of pain in humans? - Do topical chemical treatments cause different outcomes when exposed to the above parameters? - Do different species of jellyfish nematocysts react differently based on the type of topical chemical treatment used? What is the variation of effects of topical treatments based on the species of jellyfish sting? Specifically, the investigators will be stinging human subject on both arms with a segment of tentacle for approximately 2 minutes. This will be followed by no treatment on one arm (control arm) and by treatment on the other arm with either: acetic acid (5%), sodium bicarbonate slurry (50%), papain slurry (70%), ammonia (10%), viscous lidocaine (4%), isopropyl alcohol (70%), or hot tap water (40 degrees Celsius). Outcomes measured will include pain and erythema.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial.

    View full details

Teaching

2016-17 Courses


Publications

All Publications


  • It's Time to Change the Rules. JAMA Auerbach, P. S., Waggoner, W. H. 2016; 316 (12): 1260-1261

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jama.2016.8184

    View details for PubMedID 27673303

  • Detection of Concussion Using Cranial Accelerometry CLINICAL JOURNAL OF SPORT MEDICINE Auerbach, P. S., Baine, J. G., Schott, M. L., Greenhaw, A., Acharya, M. G., Smith, W. S. 2015; 25 (2): 126-132

    Abstract

    To determine whether skull motion produced by pulsatile cerebral blood flow, as measured by cranial accelerometry, is altered during concussion.In phase 1, to identify a specific pattern indicative of concussion, cranial accelerometry of subjects who sustained a concussion underwent analysis of waveforms, which was compared with accelerometry from subjects without a concussion (baseline). In phase 2, this concussion pattern was tested against prospectively acquired, blinded data.High school tackle football practice and game play.Eighty-four football players.Subjects had accelerometry measurements and concurrent 2-lead electrocardiograms. In players with a concussion, multiple sequential measurements were obtained. Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 2 was used to assist clinical determination of concussion.Whether a characteristic waveform pattern of cranial accelerometry occurs in subjects with concussion.Phase 1 demonstrated a consistent pattern correlated to concussion. Phase 2 found this pattern in 10 of 13 subjects with concussion (76.9% sensitivity). Seventy-nine of 82 baseline plus nine postseason (total = 91) recordings from nonconcussed subjects did not show the concussion pattern (87% specificity).In subjects with concussion, we observed a unique pattern determined by cranial accelerometry. This may provide a method to noninvasively detect and longitudinally observe concussion.There is no objective, real-time, noninvasive, and easily accessible measure for concussion. If accelerometry is validated, it could provide a critical diagnostic tool for sports medicine physicians.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000350998200008

  • Poly-L-Arginine Topical Lotion Tested in a Mouse Model for Frostbite Injury WILDERNESS & ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE Auerbach, L. J., DeClerk, B. K., Fathman, C. G., Gurtner, G. C., Auerbach, P. S. 2014; 25 (2): 160-165

    Abstract

    Frostbite injury occurs when exposure to cold results in frozen tissue. We recently reported a novel mouse model for frostbite injury to be used in screening potentially therapeutic drugs and other modalities.We used the mouse skin frostbite model to evaluate the effect of poly-l-arginine contained in lotion (PAL) applied topically to involved skin.Sixty mice were studied in a randomized, double-blind method. Standardized 2.9-cm-diameter circles were tattooed on the mouse dorsum. Magnets snap frozen in dry ice (-78.5°C) were used to create a frostbite injury on skin within the circle as a continuous 5-minute freeze. Mice were treated with prefreeze placebo, postthaw placebo, combined prefreeze and postthaw placebo, prefreeze with PAL, postthaw with PAL, or combined prefreeze and postthaw with PAL. Appearance, healing rate, tissue loss, and histology were recorded until the wounds were healed.Application of PAL before inducing frostbite injury resulted in decreased tissue loss as compared with other treatment conditions.Applying PAL topically to frostbitten mouse skin caused decreased tissue loss. Poly-l-arginine should be studied further to determine whether it is a beneficial therapeutic modality for frostbite injury.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000336946800005

    View details for PubMedID 24631228

  • A Novel Mouse Model for Frostbite Injury WILDERNESS & ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE Auerbach, L. J., Galvez, M. G., De Clerck, B. K., Glotzbach, J., Wehner, M. R., Chang, E. I., Gurtner, G. C., Auerbach, P. S. 2013; 24 (2): 94-104

    Abstract

    Frostbite injury occurs when exposure to cold results in frozen tissue. To screen drugs and other field therapies that might improve the outcome for a frostbite victim, it would be helpful to have a reliable and cost-effective preclinical in vivo model.We sought to create a novel mouse skin model of induced frostbite injury. This model would allow quantification of the surface area of involved skin, histology of the wound, rate of wound healing, and skin loss in a standardized fashion after the frostbite injury.Thirty-six mice were studied. Standardized 2.9-cm diameter circles were tattooed on the mouse dorsum. Magnets frozen in dry ice (-78.5°C) were used to create a frostbite injury on skin within the circle, either as a continuous 5-minute freeze or as 3 repeated freeze (1-minute) and thaw (3-minute) cycles. Appearance, healing rate, skin surface area loss, and histology were recorded until the wounds were healed.The amount of skin surface area loss was approximately 50% for both freeze methods. Although the time to surface skin healing was similar for both freeze methods, the initial healing rate was significantly (P = .001) slower in mice exposed to the freeze-thaw cycles compared with the continuous freeze model. Histopathology reflected inflammatory changes, cell death, and necrosis.This novel in vivo mouse model for frostbite allows quantification of affected skin surface area, histology, healing rate, and skin loss and has the potential of being utilized to screen future treatment modalities.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000320290400002

    View details for PubMedID 23481507

  • Civil-Military Collaboration in the Initial Medical Response to the Earthquake in Haiti NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Auerbach, P. S., Norris, R. L., Menon, A. S., Brown, I. P., Kuah, S., Schwieger, J., Kinyon, J., Helderman, T. N., Lawry, L. 2010; 362 (10)

    View details for DOI 10.1056/NEJMp1001555

    View details for Web of Science ID 000275365900007

    View details for PubMedID 20181962

  • Physicians and the environment JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Auerbach, P. S. 2008; 299 (8): 956-958

    View details for Web of Science ID 000253413200026

    View details for PubMedID 18314440

  • Wilderness Medical Society Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Drowning WILDERNESS & ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE Schmidt, A. C., Sempsrott, J. R., Hawkins, S. C., Arastu, A. S., Cushing, T. A., Auerbach, P. S. 2016; 27 (2): 236-251

    Abstract

    The Wilderness Medical Society convened a panel to review available evidence supporting practices for the prevention and acute management of drowning in out-of-hospital and emergency medical care settings. Literature about definition and terminology, epidemiology, rescue, resuscitation, acute clinical management, disposition, and drowning prevention was reviewed. The panel graded evidence supporting practices according to the American College of Chest Physicians criteria, then made recommendations based on that evidence. Recommendations were based on the panel's collective clinical experience and judgment when published evidence was lacking.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000378467700010

    View details for PubMedID 27061040

  • The 6-Minute Walk Test as a Predictor of Summit Success on Denali WILDERNESS & ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE Shea, K. M., Ladd, E. R., Lipman, G. S., Bagley, P., Pirrotta, E. A., Vongsachang, H., Wang, N. E., Auerbach, P. S. 2016; 27 (1): 19-24

    Abstract

    To test whether the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), including postexercise vital sign measurements and distance walked, predicts summit success on Denali, AK.This was a prospective observational study of healthy volunteers between the ages of 18 and 65 years who had been at 4267 m for less than 24 hours on Denali. Physiologic measurements were made after the 6MWT. Subjects then attempted to summit at their own pace and, at the time of descent, completed a Lake Louise Acute Mountain Sickness Questionnaire and reported maximum elevation reached.One hundred twenty-one participants enrolled in the study. Data were collected on 111 subjects (92% response rate), of whom 60% summited. On univariate analysis, there was no association between any postexercise vital sign and summit success. Specifically, there was no significant difference in the mean postexercise peripheral oxygen saturation (Spo2) between summiters (75%) and nonsummiters (74%; 95% CI, -3 to 1; P = .37). The distance a subject walked in 6 minutes (6MWTD) was longer in summiters (617 m) compared with nonsummiters (560 m; 95% CI, 7.6 to 106; P = .02). However, this significance was not maintained on a multivariate analysis performed to control for age, sex, and guide status (P = .08), leading to the conclusion that 6MWTD was not a robust predictor of summit success.This study did not show a correlation between postexercise oxygen saturation or 6MWTD and summit success on Denali.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000372379000005

    View details for PubMedID 26712335

  • Efficacy of Topical Treatments for Chrysaora chinensis Species: A Human Model in Comparison with an In Vitro Model WILDERNESS & ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE Declerck, M. P., Bailey, Y., Craig, D., Lin, M., Auerbach, L. J., Linney, O., Morrison, D. E., Patry, W., Auerbach, P. S. 2016; 27 (1): 25-38
  • Failure of Real-time Passive Notification about Radiation Exposure to Influence Physician Ordering Behavior. Cure¯us Polen, L. A., Rossi, J. K., Berg, C. K., Balise, R. R., Herfkens, R. J., Auerbach, P. S. 2016; 8 (7)

    Abstract

    Objectives  To determine whether real-time passive notification of patient radiation exposure via a computerized physician order entry system would alter the number of computed tomography scans ordered by physicians in the Emergency Department (ED) setting. Methods  When a practitioner ordered a computed tomography scan, a passive notification was immediately and prominently displayed via the computerized physician order entry system. The notification stated the following: the amount of estimated radiation in millisieverts (mSv), the equivalent number of single-view chest radiographs, and equivalent days of average environmental background radiation to which a patient during a specific computed tomography scan would be exposed. The primary outcome was changed in the number of computed tomography scans ordered when comparing data collected before and after the addition of the notification. Results  Before the dosimetry notification ("intervention") was instituted, 1,747 computed tomography scans were performed on patients during 11,709 Emergency Department visits (14.9% computed tomography scan rate). After the intervention had been instituted, 1,827 computed tomography scans were performed on patients during 11,582 Emergency Department patient visits (15.8% computed tomography scan rate). No statistically significant difference was found for all chief complaints combined (p = 0.17), or for any individual chief complaint, between the number of computed tomography scans performed on Emergency Department patients before versus after the intervention. Conclusions  Passive real-time notification of patient radiation exposure displayed in a computerized physician order entry system at the time of computed tomography scan ordering in the Emergency Department did not significantly change the number of ordered scans.

    View details for DOI 10.7759/cureus.695

    View details for PubMedID 27570716

  • Extreme, expedition, and wilderness medicine LANCET Imray, C. H., Grocott, M. P., Wilson, M. H., Hughes, A., Auerbach, P. S. 2015; 386 (10012): 2520-2525
  • Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for the out-of-hospital evaluation and treatment of accidental hypothermia: 2014 update. Wilderness & environmental medicine Zafren, K., Giesbrecht, G. G., Danzl, D. F., Brugger, H., Sagalyn, E. B., Walpoth, B., Weiss, E. A., Auerbach, P. S., McIntosh, S. E., Némethy, M., McDevitt, M., Dow, J., Schoene, R. B., Rodway, G. W., Hackett, P. H., Bennett, B. L., Grissom, C. K. 2014; 25 (4): S66-85

    Abstract

    To provide guidance to clinicians, the Wilderness Medical Society (WMS) convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for the out-of-hospital evaluation and treatment of victims of accidental hypothermia. The guidelines present the main diagnostic and therapeutic modalities and provide recommendations for the management of hypothermic patients. The panel graded the recommendations based on the quality of supporting evidence and the balance between benefits and risks/burdens according the criteria published by the American College of Chest Physicians. The guidelines also provide suggested general approaches to the evaluation and treatment of accidental hypothermia that incorporate specific recommendations. This is an updated version of the original Wilderness Medical Society Practice Guidelines for the Out-of-Hospital Evaluation and Treatment of Accidental Hypothermia published in Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 2014;25(4):425-445.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.wem.2014.10.010

    View details for PubMedID 25498264

  • Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of acute altitude illness: 2014 update. Wilderness & environmental medicine Luks, A. M., McIntosh, S. E., Grissom, C. K., Auerbach, P. S., Rodway, G. W., Schoene, R. B., Zafren, K., Hackett, P. H. 2014; 25 (4): S4-14

    Abstract

    To provide guidance to clinicians about best practices, the Wilderness Medical Society convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for prevention and treatment of acute mountain sickness, high altitude cerebral edema, and high altitude pulmonary edema. These guidelines present the main prophylactic and therapeutic modalities for each disorder and provide recommendations about their role in disease management. Recommendations are graded based on the quality of supporting evidence and balance between the benefits and risks/burdens according to criteria put forth by the American College of Chest Physicians. The guidelines also provide suggested approaches to prevention and management of each disorder that incorporate these recommendations. This is an updated version of the original WMS Consensus Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Acute Altitude Illness published in Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 2010;21(2):146-155.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.wem.2014.06.017

    View details for PubMedID 25498261

  • Implementing an Emergency Medical Services System in Kathmandu, Nepal: A Model for "White Coat Diplomacy" WILDERNESS & ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE Walker, R., Auerbach, P. S., Kelley, B. V., Gongal, R., Amsalem, D., Mahadevan, S. 2014; 25 (3): 311-318

    Abstract

    Wilderness medicine providers often visit foreign lands, where they come in contact with medical situations that are representative of the prevailing healthcare issues in the host countries. The standards of care for matters of acute and chronic care, public health, and crisis intervention are often below those we consider to be modern and essential. Emergency medical services (EMS) is an essential public medical service that is often found to be underdeveloped. We describe our efforts to support development of an EMS system in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal, including training the first-ever class of emergency medical technicians in that country. The purpose of this description is to assist others who might attempt similar efforts in other countries and to support the notion that an effective approach to improving foreign relations is assistance such as this, which may be considered a form of "white coat diplomacy."

    View details for Web of Science ID 000341286100008

    View details for PubMedID 24954196

  • Migraine Headache Confounding the Diagnosis of Acute Mountain Sickness WILDERNESS & ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE Karle, F. J., Auerbach, P. S. 2014; 25 (1): 60-68

    Abstract

    A 36-year-old man with a history of migraine headache attempted to hike from Lukla, Nepal, to Mount Everest Base Camp. On the sixth day of hiking, he had a migraine headache. After achieving resolution with typical therapies and rest, he ascended higher. Another headache developed that was interpreted to be a migraine. The headache was treated, and he ascended higher, after which severe symptoms of acute mountain sickness developed, necessitating his evacuation by helicopter. Persons with headaches in daily life may present challenges to diagnosis when traveling to high altitude. Careful evaluation and decision making are needed to achieve proper diagnosis and treatment of acute mountain sickness.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000332593100010

    View details for PubMedID 24462763

  • Core Content for Wilderness Medicine Fellowship Training of Emergency Medicine Graduates ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE Lipman, G. S., Weichenthal, L., Harris, N. S., McIntosh, S. E., Cushing, T., Caudell, M. J., Macias, D. J., Weiss, E. A., Lemery, J., Ellis, M. A., Spano, S., McDevitt, M., Tedeschi, C., Dow, J., Mazzorana, V., McGinnis, H., Gardner, A. F., Auerbach, P. S. 2014; 21 (2): 204-207

    Abstract

    Wilderness medicine is the practice of resource-limited medicine under austere conditions. In 2003, the first wilderness medicine fellowship was established, and as of March 2013, a total of 12 wilderness medicine fellowships exist. In 2009 the American College of Emergency Physicians Wilderness Medicine Section created a Fellowship Subcommittee and Taskforce to bring together fellowship directors, associate directors, and other interested stakeholders to research and develop a standardized curriculum and core content for emergency medicine (EM)-based wilderness medicine fellowships. This paper describes the process and results of what became a 4-year project to articulate a standardized curriculum for wilderness medicine fellowships. The final product specifies the minimum core content that should be covered during a 1-year wilderness medicine fellowship. It also describes the structure, length, site, and program requirements for a wilderness medicine fellowship.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/acem.12304

    View details for Web of Science ID 000331297500013

  • Wilderness Medical Society Practice Guidelines for the Out-of-Hospital Evaluation and Treatment of Accidental Hypothermia WILDERNESS & ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE Zafren, K., Giesbrecht, G. G., Danzl, D. F., Brugger, H., Sagalyn, E. B., Walpoth, B., Weiss, E. A., Auerbach, P. S., McIntosh, S. E., Nemethy, M., McDevitt, M., Dow, J., Schoene, R. B., Rodway, G. W., Hackett, P. H., Bennett, B. L., Grissom, C. K. 2014; 25 (4): 425-445

    Abstract

    To provide guidance to clinicians, the Wilderness Medical Society (WMS) convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for the out-of-hospital evaluation and treatment of victims of accidental hypothermia. The guidelines present the main diagnostic and therapeutic modalities and provide recommendations for the management of hypothermic patients. The panel graded the recommendations based on the quality of supporting evidence and the balance between benefits and risks/burdens according the criteria published by the American College of Chest Physicians. The guidelines also provide suggested general approaches to the evaluation and treatment of accidental hypothermia that incorporate specific recommendations.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000346895300010

  • Wilderness Medical Society Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Acute Altitude Illness: 2014 Update WILDERNESS & ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE Luks, A. M., McIntosh, S. E., Grissom, C. K., Auerbach, P. S., Rodway, G. W., Schoene, R. B., Zafren, K., Hackett, P. H. 2014; 25 (4): S4-S14
  • Wilderness Medical Society Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Frostbite: 2014 Update WILDERNESS & ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE McIntosh, S. E., Opacic, M., Freer, L., Grissom, C. K., Auerbach, P. S., Rodway, G. W., Cochran, A., Giesbrecht, G. G., McDevitt, M., Imray, C. H., Johnson, E. L., Dow, J., Hackett, P. H. 2014; 25 (4): S43-S54

    Abstract

    The Wilderness Medical Society convened an expert panel to develop a set of evidence-based guidelines for the prevention and treatment of frostbite. We present a review of pertinent pathophysiology. We then discuss primary and secondary prevention measures and therapeutic management. Recommendations are made regarding each treatment and its role in management. These recommendations are graded on the basis of the quality of supporting evidence and balance between the benefits and risks or burdens for each modality according to methodology stipulated by the American College of Chest Physicians. This is an updated version of the original guidelines published in Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 2011;22(2):156-166.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.wem.2014.09.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000346949400006

    View details for PubMedID 25498262

  • Wilderness Medical Society Practice Guidelines for the Out-of-Hospital Evaluation and Treatment of Accidental Hypothermia: 2014 Update WILDERNESS & ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE Zafren, K., Giesbrecht, G. G., Danzl, D. F., Brugger, H., Sagalyn, E. B., Walpoth, B., Weiss, E. A., Auerbach, P. S., McIntosh, S. E., Nemethy, M., McDevitt, M., Dow, J., Schoene, R. B., Rodway, G. W., Hackett, P. H., Bennett, B. L., Grissom, C. K. 2014; 25 (4): S66-S85
  • In Reply to Evidence-Based Treatment of Jellyfish Stings in North America and Hawaii ANNALS OF EMERGENCY MEDICINE Auerbach, P. S. 2013; 61 (2): 253-254
  • Getting the evidence. The challenge of implementing evidence-based medicine in tough global environments. Health management technology Auerbach, P. S. 2012; 33 (12): 18-20

    View details for PubMedID 23301420

  • Prehospital Medical Care and the National Ski Patrol: How Does Outdoor Emergency Care Compare to Traditional EMS Training? WILDERNESS & ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE Constance, B. B., Auerbach, P. S., Johe, D. H. 2012; 23 (2): 177-189

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to identify the differences between the educational curricula, skill sets, and funds of knowledge required for certification as an Outdoor Emergency Care Technician (OEC-T), Emergency Medical Technician (EMT), and Emergency Medical Responder (EMR).We directly and in detail compared topics and skills presented in the OEC-T curriculum with those presented in the EMT and EMR education and training curricula.The information and skills taught in the OEC-T curriculum are in general more extensive than those taught in EMR training but are not equivalent to EMT. The OEC-T program has more depth in environmental medical issues, such as altitude illness, hyperthermia and hypothermia. Completion of the EMR program is 112 hours shorter and constitutes 30% of the duration of the EMT program. Completion of the OEC-T program (for certification only and not including additional "on-hill" patroller training) is 80 hours shorter and is half the duration of the EMT program.The OEC-T curriculum includes a skill set and fund of knowledge that exceeds those of the EMR program, but does not include all the knowledge needed for an EMT program. The OEC-T program prepares out-of-hospital providers to care for patients in the wilderness, with special emphasis on snowsports pathology. The EMT program places a greater emphasis on medical disease and emergency medication administration. These differences should be considered when determining staffing requirements for agencies caring for patients with snowsports pathology.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305098100017

    View details for PubMedID 22656667

  • The expanded scope of emergency medical practice necessary for initial disaster response: lessons from Haiti. Journal of special operations medicine : a peer reviewed journal for SOF medical professionals Menon, A. S., Norris, R. L., Racciopi, J., Tilson, H., Gardner, J., McAdoo, G., Brown, I. P., Auerbach, P. S. 2012; 12 (1): 31-36

    Abstract

    A team of emergency physicians and nurses from Stanford University responded to the devastating January 2010 earthquake in Haiti. Because of the extreme nature of the situation, combined with limited resources, the team provided not only acute medical and surgical care to critically injured and ill victims, but was required to uniquely expand its scope of practice. Using a narrative format and discussion, it is the purpose of this paper to highlight our experience in Haiti and use these to estimate some of the skills and capabilities that will be useful for physicians who respond to similar future disasters.

    View details for PubMedID 22427047

  • Wilderness Medical Society Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Frostbite WILDERNESS & ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE McIntosh, S. E., Hamonko, M., Freer, L., Grissom, C. K., Auerbach, P. S., Rodway, G. W., Cochran, A., Giesbrecht, G., McDevitt, M., Imray, C. H., Johnson, E., Dow, J., Hackett, P. H. 2011; 22 (2): 156-166

    Abstract

    The Wilderness Medical Society convened an expert panel to develop a set of evidence-based guidelines for the prevention and treatment of frostbite. We present a review of pertinent pathophysiology. We then discuss primary and secondary prevention measures and therapeutic management. Recommendations are made regarding each treatment and its role in management. These recommendations are graded based on the quality of supporting evidence and balance between the benefits and risks/burdens for each modality according to methodology stipulated by the American College of Chest Physicians.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292013700012

    View details for PubMedID 21664561

  • Wilderness Medical Society Consensus Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Acute Altitude Illness WILDERNESS & ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE Luks, A. M., McIntosh, S. E., Grissom, C. K., Auerbach, P. S., Rodway, G. W., Schoene, R. B., Zafren, K., Hackett, P. H. 2010; 21 (2): 146-155

    Abstract

    To provide guidance to clinicians about best practices, the Wilderness Medical Society (WMS) convened an expert panel to develop evidence-based guidelines for the prevention and treatment of acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude cerebral edema (HACE), and high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). These guidelines present the main prophylactic and therapeutic modalities for each disorder and provide recommendations for their roles in disease management. Recommendations are graded based on the quality of supporting evidence and balance between the benefits and risks/burdens according to criteria put forth by the American College of Chest Physicians. The guidelines also provide suggested approaches to the prevention and management of each disorder that incorporate these recommendations.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000279235900013

    View details for PubMedID 20591379

  • In Tribute to Charlie Houston WILDERNESS & ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE Rennie, D., Powers, P., Schoene, R. B., Hackett, P., Auerbach, P. S., Hornbein, T., Roach, R. C. 2010; 21 (2): 89-97

    View details for Web of Science ID 000279235900001

    View details for PubMedID 20591367

  • Environmental Education for Providers and Patients-What's a Doctor to Do? WILDERNESS & ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE Auerbach, P. S. 2009; 20 (3): 197-198

    View details for Web of Science ID 000270288800001

    View details for PubMedID 19737045

  • Marine catfish sting causing fatal heart perforation in a fisherman WILDERNESS & ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE Haddad, V., de Souza, R. A., Auerbach, P. S. 2008; 19 (2): 114-118

    Abstract

    Many marine catfish have serrated bony stings ("spines"), which are used in defense against predators, on the dorsal and pectoral fins. While catfish-induced injuries are generally characterized by the pain associated with envenomation, the stings in some species are sufficiently long and sharp to cause severe penetrating trauma. Most injuries are to the hands of victims, commonly fishermen. We report the death of a fisherman caused by myocardial perforation from a catfish sting. To our knowledge, this is the first such description in the medical literature.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000256509600007

    View details for PubMedID 18513109

  • A Case of Elevated Liver Function Tests After Crown-of-Thorns (Acanthaster planci) Envenomation WILDERNESS & ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE Lin, B., Norris, R. L., Auerbach, P. S. 2008; 19 (4): 275-279

    Abstract

    The crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci) inhabits coral reefs, largely throughout the Indo-Pacific region. Its dorsal surface is covered with stout thorn-like spines. When handled or stepped on by humans, the spines can puncture the skin, causing an immediate painful reaction, followed by inflammation and possible infection. Initial pain and swelling may last for days. Effects of envenomation on the liver have been demonstrated previously in animal models, but hepatic toxicity has not previously been described in humans. We describe elevated liver enzymes in a 19-year-old female associated with A planci spine puncture wounds. To our knowledge, this is the first documented report of transaminitis in a human after A planci envenomation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000261716100008

    View details for PubMedID 19099322

  • The relevance and future of wilderness medicine. Travel medicine and infectious disease Auerbach, P. S. 2005; 3 (4): 179-182

    View details for PubMedID 17292036

  • Environmental injuries - Foreword DM DISEASE-A-MONTH Leikin, J. B., Aks, S. E., Andrews, S., Auerbach, P. S., Cooper, M. A., Jacobsen, T. D., Krenzelok, E. P., Shicker, L., Wiener, S. L. 1997; 43 (12): 813-916

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