Bio

Clinical Focus


  • Cancer > Cutaneous (Dermatologic) Oncology
  • lymphoma/melanoma/cutaneouslymphoma
  • Medical Oncology

Academic Appointments


Professional Education


  • Fellowship:Stanford University Hematology and Oncology Fellowship (2000) CA
  • Residency:University of Michigan Health System Internal Medicine Residency (1997) MI
  • Internship:University of Michigan Health System Internal Medicine Residency (1995) MI
  • Medical Education:University of California at Irvine School of Medicine Registrar (1994) CA
  • Board Certification: Medical Oncology, American Board of Internal Medicine (2003)

Research & Scholarship

Clinical Trials


  • A Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Study of RO5185426 in Previously Treated Patients With Metastatic Melanoma Not Recruiting

    This open-label study will assess the pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of RO5185426 administered as 240mg tablets in previously treated patients with metastatic melanoma. Patients will be randomized to receive one of four dose-levels of RO5185426 [RG7204; PLEXXIKON; PLX4032] orally twice daily on days 1 to 15 (morning dose). Starting on day 22, treatment with RO5185426 may be resumed at a dose of 960 mg twice daily and continued until disease progression. Target sample size is <100 patients.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Dana Supan, (650) 736 - 1684.

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  • A Randomized Phase II Study of Oral Sapacitabine in Patients With Advanced Cutaneous T-cell Lymphoma Not Recruiting

    This is an open label, randomized phase II study designed to evaluate the tolerability and response rate of high-dose and low-dose regimens in patients with advanced cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) who have had progressive, recurrent, or persistent disease on or following 2 systemic therapies.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Daniel Navi, (650) 736 - 2300.

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  • A Study for Patients With Relapsed Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma Not Recruiting

    The purpose of the study is to determine the efficacy and safety of enzastaurin in patients with CTCL who failed prior therapies.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Natalie Viakhireva, (650) 723 - 8949.

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  • A Study of Bevacizumab With Carboplatin and Paclitaxel Chemotherapy for the First-Line Treatment of Patients With Metastatic Melanoma Not Recruiting

    This Phase II, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was designed to estimate the efficacy and characterize the safety of bevacizumab when combined with carboplatin + paclitaxel chemotherapy compared with carboplatin + paclitaxel chemotherapy alone in patients with previously untreated metastatic melanoma.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Sunil Arani Reddy, (650) 736 - 1234.

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  • A Study of CDX-1127 (Varlilumab) in Patients With Select Solid Tumor Types or Hematologic Cancers Not Recruiting

    This is a study of CDX-1127, a therapy that targets the immune system and may act to promote anti-cancer effects. The study enrolls patients with hematologic cancers (certain leukemias and lymphomas), as well as patients with select types of solid tumors.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Jennifer Vargas, 650-723-0371.

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  • A Study of Pharmacokinetic Drug Interaction Study of the Hedgehog Pathway Inhibitor GDC-0449 in Combination With Rosiglitazone or Combined Oral Contraceptive in Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Solid Tumors That Are Refractory to Standard Therapy or for Whom No Standard Therapy Exists Not Recruiting

    This is a single-arm, multicenter, Phase Ib study designed to describe the effect of GDC-0449 on the pharmacokinetics of rosiglitazone and oral contraceptives in patients with advanced solid tumors who are refractory to treatment or for whom no standard therapy exists.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Ruth Lira, (650) 723 - 1367.

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  • An Open Label Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Mechlorethamine(MCH) 0.04% Formulation in Mycosis Fungoides Not Recruiting

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical application of MCH 0.04% in a propylene glycol ointment (PG)in patients with stage I or IIA MF previously treated with MCH 0.02% in a PG or AP ointment who did not achieve a complete response.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Kokil Bakshi, (650) 421 - 6370.

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  • Brentuximab Vedotin (SGN-35) in Patients With Mycosis Fungoides With Variable CD30 Expression Level Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to learn the effects of brentuximab vedotin (SGN-35), an investigational medication, on patients with cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL), specifically mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sezary syndrome (SS). Despite a wide range of therapeutic options, the treatments are associated with short response duration, thus this condition is largely incurable. This investigational drug may offer less toxicity than standard treatments and have better tumor specific targeting.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Kokil Bakshi, 650-421-6370.

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  • Carboplatin and Paclitaxel With or Without Sorafenib Tosylate in Treating Patients With Stage III or Stage IV Melanoma That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery Not Recruiting

    This randomized phase III trial studies carboplatin, paclitaxel, and sorafenib tosylate to see how well they work compared to carboplatin and paclitaxel in treating patients with stage III or stage IV melanoma that cannot be removed by surgery. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as carboplatin and paclitaxel, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Sorafenib tosylate may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth and by blocking blood flow to the tumor. It is not yet known whether giving carboplatin and paclitaxel together with sorafenib tosylate is more effective than carboplatin and paclitaxel in treating melanoma.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Sunil Reddy, (650) 736 - 1234.

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  • Compassionate Use Trial for Unresectable Melanoma With Ipilimumab Not Recruiting

    The primary objective of the study is to provide treatment with Ipilimumab to subjects who have serious or immediately life-threatening unresectable Stage III or Stage IV melanoma, who have no alternative treatment options, and whose physicians believe, based upon available data on benefit and risk, that it is appropriate to administer Ipilimumab at a dose of 3 mg/kg induction (with re-induction, if eligible), or for eligible subjects previously enrolled in Ipilimumab studies CA184-042, CA184-078, CA184-087, MDX010-16, or MDX010-20.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Sunil Arani Reddy, (650) 736 - 1234.

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  • Dasatinib in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Mucosal Melanoma, Acral Melanoma, or Vulvovaginal Melanoma That Cannot Be Removed By Surgery Not Recruiting

    RATIONALE: Dasatinib may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. PURPOSE: This phase II trial is studying how well dasatinib works in treating patients with locally advanced or metastatic mucosal melanoma or acral melanoma.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Jennifer Wong, 650-723-1002.

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  • Everolimus (RAD001) in Primary Therapy of Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this research study is to determine the safety of RAD001(Everolimus) and the highest dose of this drug that can be given to people safely. RAD001(Everolimus) is a drug that works by preventing cells in the body from growing and dividing. Information from basic and Phase I clinical research studies suggests that RAD001 also may help to prevent tumor growth in people with relapsed or refractory lymphoma.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Sipra Choudhury, (650) 736 - 2563.

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  • Extension Study in Subjects Who Relapsed After Complete Response on Study KW-0761-001 Not Recruiting

    This study will enroll subjects with either Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma (PTCL) or Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma(CTCL),including mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sezary Syndrome (SS), who have relapsed after achieving a complete response in study, KW-0761-001.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Cutaneous Lymphoma Coordinator, (650) 421 - 6370.

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  • Forodesine in the Treatment of Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma Not Recruiting

    This is a Phase II, non-randomized, open-label, single-arm trial that will be conducted at up to 50 sites in North America, Europe and Australia. This study is designed to assess objective response (OR) [complete response (CR) or partial response (PR)] in subjects with cutaneous manifestations of CTCL with a requirement for maintenance of such objective response for at least 28 days in subjects with stage IIB, III, and IVA CTCL. Additionally, this study will evaluate the safety and tolerability of CTCL subjects Stages IB, IIA, IIB, III, or IVA treated with oral forodesine.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Natalie Viakhireva, (650) 723 - 8949.

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  • High-Dose Interferon Alfa in Treating Patients With Stage II or Stage III Melanoma Not Recruiting

    RATIONALE: Interferon alfa may interfere with the growth of cancer cells. It is not yet known whether treatment with interferon alfa is more effective than observation alone for stage II or stage III melanoma that has been completely removed surgically. PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying high dose interferon alfa to see how well it works compared to observation only in treating patients with stage II or stage III melanoma that has been completely removed by surgery.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Sunil Arani Reddy, (650) 736 - 1234.

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  • Ipilimumab or High-Dose Interferon Alfa-2b in Treating Patients With High-Risk Stage III-IV Melanoma That Has Been Removed by Surgery Not Recruiting

    This randomized phase III trial studies ipilimumab to see how well it works compared to high-dose interferon alfa-2b in treating patients with high-risk stage III-IV melanoma that has been removed by surgery. Monoclonal antibodies, such as ipilimumab, may interfere with the ability of tumor cells to grow and spread. Interferon alfa-2b may interfere with the growth of tumor cells and slow the growth of melanoma and other cancers. It is not yet known whether ipilimumab is more effective than interferon alfa-2b in treating patients with melanoma.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Preeti Chavan, 650-725-0426.

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  • Ipilimumab With or Without Sargramostim in Treating Patients With Stage III or Stage IV Melanoma That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery Not Recruiting

    This randomized phase II trial is studying how well giving ipilimumab with or without sargramostim (GM-CSF) works in treating patients with stage III or stage IV melanoma that cannot be removed by surgery. Ipilimumab works by activating the patient's immune system to fight cancer. Colony-stimulating factors, such as sargramostim, may increase the number of immune cells found in bone marrow or peripheral blood and may help the immune system recover from the side effects of treatment. It is not yet known whether giving ipilimumab together with sargramostim is more effective than ipilimumab alone in treating melanoma.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Vani Jain, (650) 725 - 5459.

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  • Lenalidomide in Treating Patients With Relapsed Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome Not Recruiting

    RATIONALE: Lenalidomide may stop the growth of mycosis fungoides/Sezary syndrome by blocking blood flow to the cancer. PURPOSE: This phase II trial is studying how well lenalidomide works in treating patients with relapsed mycosis fungoides/Sezary syndrome.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Natalie Viakhireva, (650) 723 - 8949.

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  • Low-dose (12 Gy) TSEBT+Vorinostat Versus Low-dose TSEBT Monotherapy in Mycosis Fungoides Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to determine if vorinostat combined with low-dose total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) offers superior clinical benefit (efficacy & safety) over low-dose TSEBT alone in participants with mycosis fungoides (MF) Treatment in this study is TSEBT +/- vorinostat, with participants stratified by MF stage.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Cutaneous Lymphoma Coordinator, 650-421-6370.

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  • Pilot Ipilimumab in Stage IV Melanoma Receiving Palliative Radiation Therapy Not Recruiting

    To determine the safety of local palliative radiation therapy used in combination with anti-CTLA-4 immunotherapy.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Chuck Di Bari, 650-498-4073.

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  • Pralatrexate and Bexarotene in Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Cutaneous T-cell Lymphoma Not Recruiting

    This study is designed to determine the recommended dose, safety, pharmacokinetics, and early efficacy of the combination of pralatrexate plus oral bexarotene in patients with relapsed or refractory CTCL.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Cutaneous Lymphoma Coordinator, (650) 421 - 6370.

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  • Safety and Efficacy of Nitrogen Mustard in Treatment of Mycosis Fungoides Not Recruiting

    This study will evaluate the efficacy, tolerability and safety of the topical application of mechlorethamine (MCH) formulations in patients with stage I or IIA mycosis fungoides (MF).

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Natalie Viakhireva, (650) 723 - 8949.

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  • Safety Study to Evaluate Monoclonal Antibody KW-0761 in Subjects With Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma Not Recruiting

    This study will determine the maximum dose of KW-0761 administered intravenously that can be given safely in subjects with previously treated peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) or cutaneous T-cell lymphoma(CTCL)and will see if it is effective in treating the disease.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Katie Turner, (650) 725 - 1202.

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  • Safety, Pharmacodynamics (PD), Pharmacokinetics (PK) Study of SHP141 in 1A, 1B, or 2A Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma (CTCL) Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the safety and tolerability of topical SHP141 applied directly to skin lesions in patients with Stage IA, IB, or IIA Cutaneous T-cell Lymphoma. This study will also investigate the effect of SHP141 on skin lesions in patients with Stage IA, IB, or IIA CTCL.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Illisha Rajasansi, 650-421-1397.

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  • Study of Oral LBH589 in Adult Patients With Refractory/Resistant Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma Not Recruiting

    This study will evaluate the safety and efficacy of LBH589B in adult patients with refractory/resistant Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma and prior HDAC inhibitor therapy.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Natalie Viakhireva, (650) 723 - 8949.

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  • Study of Pralatrexate in Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Cutaneous T-cell Lymphoma Not Recruiting

    This study is being conducted to identify how much and how often pralatrexate, given with vitamin B12 and folic acid, can be given safely to patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) that has relapsed (returned after responding to previous treatment) or is refractory (has not responded to previous treatment). It is also being conducted to get information on whether or not pralatrexate is effective in treating relapsed or refractory CTCL.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Cameron Harrison, (650) 721 - 7186.

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Publications

All Publications


  • Management of Immunotherapy-Related Toxicities. Version 1.2019 JOURNAL OF THE NATIONAL COMPREHENSIVE CANCER NETWORK Thompson, J. A., Schneider, B. J., Brahmer, J., Andrews, S., Armand, P., Bhatia, S., Budde, L. E., Costa, L., Davies, M., Dunnington, D., Ernstoff, M. S., Frigault, M., Hoffner, B., Hoimes, C. J., Lacouture, M., Locke, F., Lunning, M., Mohindra, N. A., Naidoo, J., Olszanski, A. J., Oluwole, O., Patel, S. P., Reddy, S., Ryder, M., Santomasso, B., Shofer, S., Sosman, J. A., Wahidi, M., Wang, Y., Johnson-Chilla, A., Scavone, J. L. 2019; 17 (3): 255–88

    Abstract

    The aim of the NCCN Guidelines for Management of Immunotherapy-Related Toxicities is to provide guidance on the management of immune-related adverse events resulting from cancer immunotherapy. The NCCN Management of Immunotherapy-Related Toxicities Panel is an interdisciplinary group of representatives from NCCN Member Institutions and ASCO, consisting of medical and hematologic oncologists with expertise in a wide array of disease sites, and experts from the fields of dermatology, gastroenterology, neuro-oncology, nephrology, emergency medicine, cardiology, oncology nursing, and patient advocacy. Several panel representatives are members of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC). The initial version of the NCCN Guidelines was designed in general alignment with recommendations published by ASCO and SITC. The content featured in this issue is an excerpt of the recommendations for managing toxicity related to immune checkpoint blockade and a review of existing evidence. For the full version of the NCCN Guidelines, including recommendations for managing toxicities related to chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy, visit NCCN.org.

    View details for DOI 10.6004/jnccn.2019.0013

    View details for Web of Science ID 000461084700008

    View details for PubMedID 30865922

  • Durable Tumor Regression and Overall Survival in Patients With Advanced Merkel Cell Carcinoma Receiving Pembrolizumab as First-Line Therapy. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology Nghiem, P., Bhatia, S., Lipson, E. J., Sharfman, W. H., Kudchadkar, R. R., Brohl, A. S., Friedlander, P. A., Daud, A., Kluger, H. M., Reddy, S. A., Boulmay, B. C., Riker, A. I., Burgess, M. A., Hanks, B. A., Olencki, T., Margolin, K., Lundgren, L. M., Soni, A., Ramchurren, N., Church, C., Park, S. Y., Shinohara, M. M., Salim, B., Taube, J. M., Bird, S. R., Ibrahim, N., Fling, S. P., Homet Moreno, B., Sharon, E., Cheever, M. A., Topalian, S. L. 2019: JCO1801896

    Abstract

    PURPOSE: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive skin cancer often caused by the Merkel cell polyomavirus. Clinical trials of programmed cell death-1 pathway inhibitors for advanced MCC (aMCC) demonstrate increased progression-free survival (PFS) compared with historical chemotherapy data. However, response durability and overall survival (OS) data are limited.PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this multicenter phase II trial (Cancer Immunotherapy Trials Network-09/Keynote-017), 50 adults naive to systemic therapy for aMCC received pembrolizumab (2 mg/kg every 3 weeks) for up to 2 years. Radiographic responses were assessed centrally per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) v1.1.RESULTS: Among 50 patients, the median age was 70.5 years, and 64% had Merkel cell polyomavirus-positive tumors. The objective response rate (ORR) to pembrolizumab was 56% (complete response [24%] plus partial response [32%]; 95% CI, 41.3% to 70.0%), with ORRs of 59% in virus-positive and 53% in virus-negative tumors. Median follow-up time was 14.9 months (range, 0.4 to 36.4+ months). Among 28 responders, median response duration was not reached (range, 5.9 to 34.5+ months). The 24-month PFS rate was 48.3%, and median PFS time was 16.8 months (95% CI, 4.6 months to not estimable). The 24-month OS rate was 68.7%, and median OS time was not reached. Although tumor viral status did not correlate with ORR, PFS, or OS, there was a trend toward improved PFS and OS in patients with programmed death ligand-1-positive tumors. Grade 3 or greater treatment-related adverse events occurred in 14 (28%) of 50 patients and led to treatment discontinuation in seven (14%) of 50 patients, including one treatment-related death.CONCLUSION: Here, we present the longest observation to date of patients with aMCC receiving first-line anti-programmed cell death-1 therapy. Pembrolizumab demonstrated durable tumor control, a generally manageable safety profile, and favorable OS compared with historical data from patients treated with first-line chemotherapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1200/JCO.18.01896

    View details for PubMedID 30726175

  • Predicting Response to Immunotherapy by Evaluating Tumors, Lymphoid Cell-Rich Organs, and Immune-Related Adverse Events Using FDG-PET/CT. Clinical nuclear medicine Nobashi, T., Baratto, L., Reddy, S. A., Srinivas, S., Toriihara, A., Hatami, N., Yohannan, T. K., Mittra, E. 2019

    Abstract

    PURPOSE: To investigate whether the evaluation of tumors, lymphoid cell-rich organs, and immune-related adverse events (IRAE) with F-FDG PET/CT can predict the efficacy and outcome of immunotherapy.METHODS: Forty patients who underwent F-FDG-PET/CT scans before and after therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors from December 2013 to December 2016 were retrospectively enrolled (malignant melanoma, n = 21; malignant lymphoma, n = 11; renal cell carcinoma, n = 8). SUVmax of the baseline and first restaging scans were evaluated in tumors, spleen, bone marrow, thyroid and pituitary glands, and were correlated to best overall response in the first year after therapy; IRAE-affected areas were also evaluated.RESULTS: Interval change between the baseline and first restaging scans showed that patients with a clinical benefit had a significant decrease in tumor parameters (P < 0.001). All patients with an increase of SUVmax in the thyroid of more than 1.5 (n = 5) on the first restaging scan had a complete response (CR) in 1 year. Patients with CR within 1 year (n = 22) were significantly associated with a favorable long-term outcome (P = 0.002). Nine patients with IRAE findings had CR at final evaluation. Among IRAE, thyroiditis was seen significantly earlier than arthritis (P = 0.040).CONCLUSIONS: The decrease of tumor parameters at early time-point PET scans was seen in patients with immunotherapy who had clinical benefit within 1 year. PET-detectable IRAE was useful for prediction of a favorable outcome. Early development of thyroiditis may particularly represent an early response indicator to immunotherapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/RLU.0000000000002453

    View details for PubMedID 30688730

  • Complete Response of Metastatic Melanoma to Local Radiation and Immunotherapy: 6.5 Year Follow-Up. Cureus Gutkin, P. M., Hiniker, S. M., Swetter, S. M., Reddy, S. A., Knox, S. J. 2018; 10 (12): e3723

    Abstract

    The combined use of immunotherapy and radiation therapy is emerging as a potentially effective treatment for patients with immunogenic tumors such as melanoma; however, evidence for long-term treatment outcomes is lacking. Herein, we summarize our previously described case study of a patient with metastatic melanoma treated with two cycles of ipilimumab, followed by stereotactic body radiotherapy to two of seven liver metastases, with two additional cycles of ipilimumab. In the longest follow-up to date, we report a successful treatment outcome at 6.5 years. Our patient remains in complete remission, with no evidence of disease or recurrence 6.5 years after treatment. He continues to manage chronic hypophysitis developed secondary to immunotherapy and has developed osteopenia from prolonged systemic glucocorticoid use. The use of radiotherapy in combination with targeted immune therapy appears to be an effective treatment strategy, with long-lasting efficacy.

    View details for DOI 10.7759/cureus.3723

    View details for PubMedID 30788205

  • Pembrolizumab for advanced basal cell carcinoma: an investigator-initiated, proof-of-concept study. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology Chang, A. L., Tran, D. C., Cannon, J. G., Li, S., Jeng, M., Patel, R., Van der Bokke, L., Pague, A., Brotherton, R., Rieger, K. E., Satpathy, A. T., Yost, K. E., Reddy, S., Sarin, K., Colevas, A. D. 2018

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jaad.2018.08.017

    View details for PubMedID 30145186

  • Phase I Trial: SABR and Ipilimumab-Letter. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research Hiniker, S. M., Reddy, S. A., Swetter, S. M., Knox, S. J. 2017; 23 (1): 320

    View details for DOI 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-16-2495

    View details for PubMedID 28049160

  • A Prospective Clinical Trial Combining Radiation Therapy With Systemic Immunotherapy in Metastatic Melanoma. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics Hiniker, S. M., Reddy, S. A., Maecker, H. T., Subrahmanyam, P. B., Rosenberg-Hasson, Y., Swetter, S. M., Saha, S., Shura, L., Knox, S. J. 2016; 96 (3): 578-588

    Abstract

    Local radiation therapy (RT) combined with systemic anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein-4 immunotherapy may enhance induction of systemic antimelanoma immune responses. The primary objective of the present trial was to assess the safety and efficacy of combining ipilimumab with RT in patients with stage IV melanoma. The secondary objectives included laboratory assessment of induction of antimelanoma immune responses.In our prospective clinical trial, 22 patients with stage IV melanoma were treated with palliative RT and ipilimumab for 4 cycles. RT to 1 to 2 disease sites was initiated within 5 days after starting ipilimumab. Patients had ≥1 nonirradiated metastasis measuring ≥1.5 cm available for response assessment. Tumor imaging studies were obtained at baseline, 2 to 4 weeks after cycle 4 of ipilimumab, and every 3 months until progression. Laboratory immune response parameters were measured before and during treatment.Combination therapy was well-tolerated without unexpected toxicities. Eleven patients (50.0%) experienced clinical benefit from therapy, including complete and partial responses and stable disease at median follow-up of 55 weeks. Three patients (27.3%) achieved an ongoing systemic complete response at a median follow-up of 55 weeks (range 32-65), and 3 (27.3%) had an initial partial response for a median of 40 weeks. Analysis of immune response data suggested a relationship between elevated CD8-activated T-cells and response.This is the second prospective clinical trial of treatment of metastatic melanoma using the combination of RT and systemic immunotherapy and the first using this sequence of therapy. The results from the present trial demonstrate that a subset of patients may benefit from combination therapy, arguing for continued clinical investigation of the use of RT combined with immunotherapy, including programmed cell death 1 inhibitors, which might have the potential to be even more effective in combination with RT.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2016.07.005

    View details for PubMedID 27681753

  • Romidepsin for the treatment of relapsed/refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (mycosis fungoides/Sézary syndrome): Use in a community setting. Critical reviews in oncology/hematology Reddy, S. A. 2016; 106: 99-107

    Abstract

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a heterogeneous group of rare non-Hodgkin lymphomas that arise in the skin. In advanced stages, CTCL becomes systemic and is associated with poor prognosis. Diagnosis of CTCL and treatment of early-stage disease with topical therapies often occurs under the care of a dermatologist. Community oncologists see few patients with CTCL due to direct referrals from dermatologists to academic or lymphoma specialty centers. However, some patients will continue to be managed in a community setting. Currently there is no evidence-based stepwise algorithm for treatment of patients with CTCL, and guidelines suggest a wide range of systemic therapies, including biologics, targeted agents, and more traditional chemotherapies. To provide optimal care in a community setting, oncologists must become familiar with newer nonchemotherapeutic treatment options. This review highlights romidepsin, a histone deacetylase inhibitor approved for the treatment of patients with CTCL who have received ≥1 prior systemic therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.critrevonc.2016.07.001

    View details for PubMedID 27637355

  • PD-1 Blockade with Pembrolizumab in Advanced Merkel-Cell Carcinoma NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Nghiem, P. T., Bhatia, S., Lipson, E. J., Kudchadkar, R. R., Miller, N. J., Annamalai, L., Berry, S., Chartash, E. K., Daud, A., Fling, S. P., Friedlander, P. A., Kluger, H. M., Kohrt, H. E., Lundgren, L., Margolin, K., Mitchell, A., Olencki, T., Pardoll, D. M., Reddy, S. A., Shantha, E. M., Sharfman, W. H., Sharon, E., Shemanski, L. R., Shinohara, M. M., Sunshine, J. C., Taube, J. M., Thompson, J. A., Townson, S. M., Yearley, J. H., Topalian, S. L., Cheever, M. A. 2016; 374 (26): 2542-2552

    Abstract

    Merkel-cell carcinoma is an aggressive skin cancer that is linked to exposure to ultraviolet light and the Merkel-cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). Advanced Merkel-cell carcinoma often responds to chemotherapy, but responses are transient. Blocking the programmed death 1 (PD-1) immune inhibitory pathway is of interest, because these tumors often express PD-L1, and MCPyV-specific T cells express PD-1.In this multicenter, phase 2, noncontrolled study, we assigned adults with advanced Merkel-cell carcinoma who had received no previous systemic therapy to receive pembrolizumab (anti-PD-1) at a dose of 2 mg per kilogram of body weight every 3 weeks. The primary end point was the objective response rate according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1. Efficacy was correlated with tumor viral status, as assessed by serologic and immunohistochemical testing.A total of 26 patients received at least one dose of pembrolizumab. The objective response rate among the 25 patients with at least one evaluation during treatment was 56% (95% confidence interval [CI], 35 to 76); 4 patients had a complete response, and 10 had a partial response. With a median follow-up of 33 weeks (range, 7 to 53), relapses occurred in 2 of the 14 patients who had had a response (14%). The response duration ranged from at least 2.2 months to at least 9.7 months. The rate of progression-free survival at 6 months was 67% (95% CI, 49 to 86). A total of 17 of the 26 patients (65%) had virus-positive tumors. The response rate was 62% among patients with MCPyV-positive tumors (10 of 16 patients) and 44% among those with virus-negative tumors (4 of 9 patients). Drug-related grade 3 or 4 adverse events occurred in 15% of the patients.In this study, first-line therapy with pembrolizumab in patients with advanced Merkel-cell carcinoma was associated with an objective response rate of 56%. Responses were observed in patients with virus-positive tumors and those with virus-negative tumors. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and Merck; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02267603.).

    View details for DOI 10.1056/NEJMoa1603702

    View details for Web of Science ID 000378727200006

    View details for PubMedID 27093365

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4927341

  • Tumor DNA in cerebral spinal fluid reflects clinical course in a patient with melanoma leptomeningeal brain metastases JOURNAL OF NEURO-ONCOLOGY Li, Y., Pan, W., Connolly, I. D., Reddy, S., Nagpal, S., Quake, S., Gephart, M. H. 2016; 128 (1): 93-100

    Abstract

    Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) from brain tumor patients contains tumor cellular and cell-free DNA (cfDNA), which provides a less-invasive and routinely accessible method to obtain tumor genomic information. In this report, we used droplet digital PCR to test mutant tumor DNA in CSF of a patient to monitor the treatment response of metastatic melanoma leptomeningeal disease (LMD). The primary melanoma was known to have a BRAF (V600E) mutation, and the patient was treated with whole brain radiotherapy and BRAF inhibitors. We collected 9 CSF samples over 6 months. The mutant cfDNA fraction gradually decreased from 53 % (time of diagnosis) to 0 (time of symptom alleviation) over the first 6 time points. Three months after clinical improvement, the patient returned with severe symptoms and the mutant cfDNA was again detected in CSF at high levels. The mutant DNA fraction corresponded well with the patient's clinical response. We used whole exome sequencing to examine the mutation profiles of the LMD tumor DNA in CSF before therapeutic response and after disease relapse, and discovered a canonical cancer mutation PTEN (R130*) at both time points. The cellular and cfDNA revealed similar mutation profiles, suggesting cfDNA is representative of LMD cells. This study demonstrates the potential of using cellular or cfDNA in CSF to monitor treatment response for LMD.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11060-016-2081-5

    View details for Web of Science ID 000376095600011

    View details for PubMedID 26961773

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5412509

  • Toward rapid learning in cancer treatment selection: An analytical engine for practice-based clinical data. Journal of biomedical informatics Finlayson, S. G., Levy, M., Reddy, S., Rubin, D. L. 2016; 60: 104-113

    Abstract

    Wide-scale adoption of electronic medical records (EMRs) has created an unprecedented opportunity for the implementation of Rapid Learning Systems (RLSs) that leverage primary clinical data for real-time decision support. In cancer, where large variations among patient features leave gaps in traditional forms of medical evidence, the potential impact of a RLS is particularly promising. We developed the Melanoma Rapid Learning Utility (MRLU), a component of the RLS, providing an analytical engine and user interface that enables physicians to gain clinical insights by rapidly identifying and analyzing cohorts of patients similar to their own.A new approach for clinical decision support in Melanoma was developed and implemented, in which patient-centered cohorts are generated from practice-based evidence and used to power on-the-fly stratified survival analyses. A database to underlie the system was generated from clinical, pharmaceutical, and molecular data from 237 patients with metastatic melanoma from two academic medical centers. The system was assessed in two ways: (1) ability to rediscover known knowledge and (2) potential clinical utility and usability through a user study of 13 practicing oncologists.The MRLU enables physician-driven cohort selection and stratified survival analysis. The system successfully identified several known clinical trends in melanoma, including frequency of BRAF mutations, survival rate of patients with BRAF mutant tumors in response to BRAF inhibitor therapy, and sex-based trends in prevalence and survival. Surveyed physician users expressed great interest in using such on-the-fly evidence systems in practice (mean response from relevant survey questions 4.54/5.0), and generally found the MRLU in particular to be both useful (mean score 4.2/5.0) and useable (4.42/5.0).The MRLU is an RLS analytical engine and user interface for Melanoma treatment planning that presents design principles useful in building RLSs. Further research is necessary to evaluate when and how to best use this functionality within the EMR clinical workflow for guiding clinical decision making.The MRLU is an important component in building a RLS for data driven precision medicine in Melanoma treatment that could be generalized to other clinical disorders.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jbi.2016.01.005

    View details for PubMedID 26836975

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4836997

  • Phase II Investigator-Initiated Study of Brentuximab Vedotin in Mycosis Fungoides and Sézary Syndrome With Variable CD30 Expression Level: A Multi-Institution Collaborative Project. Journal of clinical oncology Kim, Y. H., Tavallaee, M., Sundram, U., Salva, K. A., Wood, G. S., Li, S., Rozati, S., Nagpal, S., Krathen, M., Reddy, S., Hoppe, R. T., Nguyen-Lin, A., Weng, W., Armstrong, R., Pulitzer, M., Advani, R. H., Horwitz, S. M. 2015; 33 (32): 3750-3758

    Abstract

    In contrast to Hodgkin lymphoma and systemic anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, CD30 expression of malignant lymphocytes in mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS) is quite variable. Clinical activity and safety of brentuximab vedotin, a CD30 targeting antibody-drug conjugate, was evaluated in MF and SS. Tissue and blood biomarkers of clinical response were explored.In this phase II study, patients with MF or SS with negligible to 100% CD30 expression levels were treated with brentuximab vedotin (1.8 mg/kg) every 3 weeks for a maximum of sixteen doses. The primary end point was overall global response rate. Secondary end points included correlation of tissue CD30 expression level with clinical response, time to response, duration of response, progression-free and event-free survivals, and safety.Of the 32 patients enrolled and treated, 30 patients had available efficacy evaluations. Objective global response was observed in 21 (70%) of 30 patients (90% CI, 53% to 83%). CD30 expression assessed by immunohistochemistry was highly variable, with a median CD30max of 13% (range, 0% to 100%). Those with <5% CD30 expression had a lower likelihood of global response than did those with 5% or greater CD30 expression (P < .005). CD163 positive tumor-associated macrophages, many of which coexpress CD30, were abundant in tissue. Peripheral neuropathy was the most common adverse event.Brentuximab vedotin demonstrated significant clinical activity in treatment-refractory or advanced MF or SS with a wide range of CD30 expression levels. Additional biomarker studies may help optimize rational design of combination therapies with brentuximab vedotin.

    View details for DOI 10.1200/JCO.2014.60.3969

    View details for PubMedID 26195720

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5089160

  • Clinically significant responses achieved with romidepsin across disease compartments in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma LEUKEMIA & LYMPHOMA Kim, E. J., Kim, Y. H., Rook, A. H., Lerner, A., Duvic, M., Reddy, S., Robak, T., Becker, J. C., Samtsov, A., McCulloch, W., Waksman, J., Whittaker, S. 2015; 56 (10): 2847-2854

    Abstract

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a rare heterogeneous group of non-Hodgkin lymphomas that arises in the skin but can progress to systemic disease (lymph nodes, blood, viscera). Historically, in clinical trials of CTCL there has been little consistency in how responses were defined in each disease "compartment"; some studies only assessed responses in the skin. The histone deacetylase inhibitor romidepsin is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of CTCL in patients who have received at least one prior systemic therapy. Phase II studies that led to approval used rigorous composite end points that incorporated disease assessments in all compartments. The objective of this analysis was to thoroughly examine the activity of romidepsin within each disease compartment in patients with CTCL. Romidepsin was shown to have clinical activity across disease compartments and is suitable for use in patients with CTCL having skin involvement only, erythroderma, lymphadenopathy and/or blood involvement.

    View details for DOI 10.3109/10428194.2015.1014360

    View details for Web of Science ID 000365241700015

    View details for PubMedID 25791237

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4732431

  • Involution of Eruptive Melanocytic Nevi on Combination BRAF and MEK Inhibitor Therapy JAMA DERMATOLOGY Chen, F. W., Tseng, D., Reddy, S., Daud, A. I., Swetter, S. M. 2014; 150 (11): 1209-1212

    Abstract

    Eruptive melanocytic nevi (EMN) are characterized by the sudden onset of numerous melanocytic nevi and have been traditionally described in the setting of immunosuppression. Selective BRAF inhibitors, such as vemurafenib cause multiple cutaneous adverse effects, including the formation of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, as well as EMN. We describe the first reported case, to our knowledge, of involution of BRAF inhibitor-induced EMN following the concomitant addition of a MEK inhibitor, cobimetinib.A woman in her 20s with a history of metastatic melanoma developed EMN while receiving therapy with vemurafenib, a selective BRAF inhibitor. After disease progression, the patient was placed on a clinical trial that combined vemurafenib with a MEK inhibitor, cobimetinib. Within months, we noted clinical involution of many of her EMN. In addition, numerous preexisting nevi were noted to fade in color on the dual regimen. Over a year after initiating this combination therapy, most of the patient's EMN were no longer clinically evident.Our case report describing the involution of EMN supports data from previous clinical trials indicating that combination BRAF and MEK inhibition may reduce cutaneous proliferative effects that arise on BRAF inhibitor monotherapy. Further studies are necessary to characterize the biological mechanisms underlying this phenomenon.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamadermatol.2014.838

    View details for Web of Science ID 000346234300020

    View details for PubMedID 25142409

  • Markedly improved overall survival in 10 consecutive patients with metastatic basal cell carcinoma BRITISH JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY Danial, C., Lingala, B., Balise, R., Oro, A. E., Reddy, S., Colevas, A., Chang, A. L. 2013; 169 (3): 673-676

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Metastatic basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a rare but life-threatening condition. Prior estimates of overall survival (OS) from time of diagnosis of distant metastasis to death are approximately 8-14 months. However, these estimates are based on analyses of case reports published prior to 1984. OBJECTIVES: To assess a more updated OS in metastatic BCC patients at a single academic institution. METHODS: Using patients from 1997 to 2011, a retrospective chart review was performed on biopsy-confirmed cases of distant metastatic BCC at Stanford University School of Medicine. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to determine OS and progression free survival (PFS). RESULTS: Ten consecutive cases of distant metastatic BCC were identified. Median OS was 7.3 (95% confidence interval, CI; 1.6, ∞) years; median PFS was 3.4 (95% CI; 1.1, 5.2) years. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that OS in patients with distant metastaticBCC may be more favorable than previously reported.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/bjd.12333

    View details for Web of Science ID 000323700000027

  • Markedly improved overall survival in 10 consecutive patients with metastatic basal cell carcinoma. British journal of dermatology Danial, C., Lingala, B., Balise, R., Oro, A. E., Reddy, S., Colevas, A., Chang, A. L. 2013; 169 (3): 673-676

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Metastatic basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a rare but life-threatening condition. Prior estimates of overall survival (OS) from time of diagnosis of distant metastasis to death are approximately 8-14 months. However, these estimates are based on analyses of case reports published prior to 1984. OBJECTIVES: To assess a more updated OS in metastatic BCC patients at a single academic institution. METHODS: Using patients from 1997 to 2011, a retrospective chart review was performed on biopsy-confirmed cases of distant metastatic BCC at Stanford University School of Medicine. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to determine OS and progression free survival (PFS). RESULTS: Ten consecutive cases of distant metastatic BCC were identified. Median OS was 7.3 (95% confidence interval, CI; 1.6, ∞) years; median PFS was 3.4 (95% CI; 1.1, 5.2) years. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that OS in patients with distant metastaticBCC may be more favorable than previously reported.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/bjd.12333

    View details for PubMedID 23521172

  • A Systemic Complete Response of Metastatic Melanoma to Local Radiation and Immunotherapy TRANSLATIONAL ONCOLOGY Hiniker, S. M., Chen, D. S., Reddy, S., Chang, D. T., Jones, J. C., Mollick, J. A., Swetter, S. M., Knox, S. J. 2012; 5 (6): 404-407

    Abstract

    Melanoma is a relatively immunogenic tumor, in which infiltration of melanoma cells by T lymphocytes is associated with a better clinical prognosis. We hypothesized that radiation-induced cell death may provide additional stimulation of an anti-tumor immune response in the setting of anti-CTLA-4 treatment.In a pilot melanoma patient, we prospectively tested this hypothesis. We treated the patient with two cycles of ipilimumab, followed by stereotactic ablative radiotherapy to two of seven hepatic metastases, and two additional cycles of ipilimumab.Subsequent positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan indicated that all metastases, including unirradiated liver lesions and an unirradiated axillary lesion, had completely resolved, consistent with a complete response by RECIST.The use of radiotherapy in combination with targeted immunotherapy as a noninvasive in vivo tumor vaccine strategy appears to be a promising method of enhancing the induction of systemic immune responses and anti-tumor effect.

    View details for DOI 10.1593/tlo.12280

    View details for Web of Science ID 000313359800002

    View details for PubMedID 23323154

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3542835

  • Final Results From a Multicenter, International, Pivotal Study of Romidepsin in Refractory Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY Whittaker, S. J., Demierre, M., Kim, E. J., Rook, A. H., Lerner, A., Duvic, M., Scarisbrick, J., Reddy, S., Robak, T., Becker, J. C., Samtsov, A., McCulloch, W., Kim, Y. H. 2010; 28 (29): 4485-4491

    Abstract

    The primary objective of this study was to confirm the efficacy of romidepsin in patients with treatment refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL).This international, pivotal, single-arm, open-label, phase II study was conducted in patients with stage IB to IVA CTCL who had received one or more prior systemic therapies. Patients received romidepsin as an intravenous infusion at a dose of 14 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days. Response was determined by a composite assessment of total tumor burden including cutaneous disease, lymph node involvement, and blood (Sézary cells).Ninety-six patients were enrolled and received one or more doses of romidepsin. Most patients (71%) had advanced stage disease (≥ IIB). The response rate was 34% (primary end point), including six patients with complete response (CR). Twenty-six of 68 patients (38%) with advanced disease achieved a response, including five CRs. The median time to response was 2 months, and the median duration of response was 15 months. A clinically meaningful improvement in pruritus was observed in 28 (43%) of 65 patients, including patients who did not achieve an objective response. Median duration of reduction in pruritus was 6 months. Drug-related adverse events were generally mild and consisted mainly of GI disturbances and asthenic conditions. Nonspecific, reversible ECG changes were noted in some patients.Romidepsin has significant and sustainable single-agent activity (including improvement in pruritus) and an acceptable safety profile, making it an important therapeutic option for treatment refractory CTCL.

    View details for DOI 10.1200/JCO.2010.28.9066

    View details for Web of Science ID 000282643600038

    View details for PubMedID 20697094

  • A Phase II Study of SGN-30 in Cutaneous Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma and Related Lymphoproliferative Disorders CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH Duvic, M., Reddy, S. A., Pinter-Brown, L., Korman, N. J., Zic, J., Kennedy, D. A., Lorenz, J., Sievers, E. L., Kim, Y. H. 2009; 15 (19): 6217-6224

    Abstract

    An open-label, multicenter, phase II study was conducted to define the safety and antitumor activity of the monoclonal antibody SGN-30 in patients with CD30(+) primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (pc-ALCL), lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP), or transformed mycosis fungoides (T-MF).In the initial course (six doses), patients received i.v. SGN-30 every 3 weeks; eligible patients could receive two additional courses. The initial dose level of 4 mg/kg was increased to 12 mg/kg by protocol amendment.The overall objective response rate [complete response (CR) + partial response (PR)] was 70% (16 of 23 patients): 10 patients achieved a CR and another 6 patients achieved a PR. Overall, clinical benefit of SGN-30, as assessed by achieving a response to therapy or stable disease (CR + PR + stable disease), was shown by 87% of patients during the study, including all patients with pc-ALCL or LyP and two thirds of patients with T-MF or with multiple clinical diagnoses. Nine of the 10 patients who achieved a CR and 5 of the 6 patients who achieved a PR were in remission at their follow-up evaluation (median duration, 84 days). Fifteen of 23 patients (65%) experienced at least one adverse event during the study, most of which were mild or moderate.SGN-30 was clinically active in 16 of 23 patients with heavily pretreated pc-ALCL, LyP, and T-MF and was well tolerated in this study.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-09-0162

    View details for Web of Science ID 000270498700034

    View details for PubMedID 19789316

  • Prognostic Factors in Primary Cutaneous Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma Characterization of Clinical Subset With Worse Outcome 49th Annual Meeting of the American-Society-of-Hematology Woo, D. K., Jones, C. R., Vanoli-Storz, M. N., Kohler, S., Reddy, S., Advani, R., Hoppe, R. T., Kim, Y. H. AMER MEDICAL ASSOC. 2009: 667–74

    Abstract

    To identify prognostic factors in primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (pcALCL), focusing on extensive limb disease (ELD), defined as initial presentation or progression to multiple skin tumors in 1 limb or contiguous body regions, and to study gene expression profiles of patients with pcALCL.Retrospective cohort study.The Stanford Comprehensive Cancer Center and dermatology ambulatory clinics.A total of 48 patients with pcALCL evaluated from 1990 through 2005.Hazard ratios (HRs) for prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) and risk factors for progression to extracutaneous disease were identified using Cox regression. Gene expression profiles of 9 typical pcALCL and 3 ELD samples were investigated using complementary DNA microarrays.Univariate analysis demonstrated age, ELD, and progression to extracutaneous disease as significant prognostic factors for OS, whereas ELD and progression to extracutaneous disease were significant for DSS. In multivariate analysis, age (HR, 1.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-3.26) and progression to extracutaneous disease (HR, 6.42; 95% CI, 1.39-29.68) remained significant for OS, whereas ELD (HR, 29.31; 95% CI, 1.72-500.82) and progression to extracutaneous disease (HR, 13.12; 95% CI, 1.03-167.96) remained independent prognostic factors for DSS. Presentation with T3 disease was a risk factor for progression to extracutaneous disease (HR, 10.20; 95% CI, 1.84-56.72). Microarray data revealed that patients with ELD and typical pcALCL formed distinct clusters.Patients with ELD have a more aggressive course associated with a differential gene expression profile. More aggressive treatments may be indicated for patients with ELD and those whose disease progresses to extracutaneous disease because they have poorer outcomes.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000267010900006

    View details for PubMedID 19528422

  • Indolent primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma: Experience using systemic rituximab JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF DERMATOLOGY Morales, A. V., Advani, R., Horwitz, S. M., Riaz, N., Reddy, S., Hoppe, R. T., Kim, Y. H. 2008; 59 (6): 953-957

    Abstract

    Optimal treatment of indolent primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma (CBCL), marginal zone lymphoma, and follicle center lymphoma, presenting as multiple lesions, has yet to be established. Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal IgG1 antibody directed against the CD20 antigen of B cells. Clinical efficacy of systemic rituximab in CBCL has yet to be established.We sought to assess the efficacy of systemic rituximab in the treatment of CBCL.This was a retrospective study of 15 patients with indolent CBCL treated with intravenous rituximab (375 mg/m(2)) as a single agent. Variable maintenance regimen was used in a subset of patients. Responses were categorized as complete response, partial response, stable disease, or progressive disease. The efficacy end points included were objective response rate, time to response, time to progression, and duration of response.Ten patients with follicle center lymphoma and 5 with marginal zone lymphoma were included. The objective response rate was 87% (60% complete response, 27% partial response). All patients with follicle center lymphoma had a response with 80% achieving complete response. Of the patients with marginal zone lymphoma, 3 had a response, one stable disease, and one progressive disease. Median follow-up was 36 months. Median time to response, duration of response, and time to progression was 30 days, 24 months, and 24 months, respectively.The study was limited by the small sample size and retrospective design.This study, although small, suggests that rituximab is a reasonable first-line treatment option for indolent CBCL with multiple lesions where local treatment is not effective or desirable.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jaad.2008.08.005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000261141600006

    View details for PubMedID 18817999

  • Plant-produced idiotype vaccines for the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: Safety and immunogenicity in a phase I clinical study PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA McCormick, A. A., Reddy, S., Reinl, S. J., Cameron, T. I., Czerwinkski, D. K., Vojdani, F., Hanley, K. M., Garger, S. J., White, E. L., Novak, J., Barrett, J., Holtz, R. B., Tuse, D., Levy, R. 2008; 105 (29): 10131-10136

    Abstract

    Plant-made vaccines have been the subject of intense interest because they can be produced economically in large scale without the use of animal-derived components. Plant-made therapeutic vaccines against challenging chronic diseases, such as cancer, have received little research attention, and no previous human clinical trials have been conducted in this vaccine category. We document the feasibility of using a plant viral expression system to produce personalized (patient-specific) recombinant idiotype vaccines against follicular B cell lymphoma and the results of administering these vaccines to lymphoma patients in a phase I safety and immunogenicity clinical trial. The system allowed rapid production and recovery of idiotypic single-chain antibodies (scFv) derived from each patient's tumor and immunization of patients with their own individual therapeutic antigen. Both low and high doses of vaccines, administered alone or co-administered with the adjuvant GM-CSF, were well tolerated with no serious adverse events. A majority (>70%) of the patients developed cellular or humoral immune responses, and 47% of the patients developed antigen-specific responses. Because 15 of 16 vaccines were glycosylated in plants, this study also shows that variation in patterns of antigen glycosylation do not impair the immunogenicity or affect the safety of the vaccines. Collectively, these findings support the conclusion that plant-produced idiotype vaccines are feasible to produce, safe to administer, and a viable option for idiotype-specific immune therapy in follicular lymphoma patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0803636105

    View details for Web of Science ID 000257913200052

    View details for PubMedID 18645180

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2481377

  • Molecular rescue of tumour-specific T cell receptor idiotype from T cell lymphomas BRITISH JOURNAL OF HAEMATOLOGY Reddy, S. A., Levy, R. 2004; 124 (5): 626-628

    Abstract

    The T cell receptor (TCR) idiotype on T cell lymphomas can serve as a vaccine target. To clone the relevant genes, 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was performed on 13 T cell lymphomas and nine control samples. Two polymerase chain reactions (PCR) were performed for each TCR chain (alpha and beta) and the proportion of the clonal TCR sequence over the total number of TCR sequences was calculated. For alpha, the average proportions were 0.43 vs. 0.05. For beta these were 0.44 and 0.04. The TCR was identified in 10 of 13 lymphoma samples.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2141.2004.04830.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000189304300007

    View details for PubMedID 14871249

  • CD30(+) cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders: The Stanford experience in lymphomatoid papulosis and primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF DERMATOLOGY Liu, H. L., Hoppe, R. T., Kohler, S., Harvell, J. D., Reddy, S., Kim, Y. H. 2003; 49 (6): 1049-1058

    Abstract

    CD30+ cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders (CLPDs) include lymphomatoid papulosis, borderline cases of CD30+CLPDs, and primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (PCALCL). Prior studies have shown CD30+CLPDs have an excellent prognosis.We sought to present the single-center experience of Stanford University, Stanford, Calif, in the management of CD30+CLPDs.A retrospective cohort analysis of 56 patients with CD30+CLPDs treated at our institution was performed.No patients with lymphomatoid papulosis died of disease, and overall survival was 92% at 5 and 10 years. Disease-specific survivals at 5 and 10 years for PCALCL were 85%. Disease-specific survival at 5 years for localized versus generalized PCALCL was 91% versus 50% (P =.31). PCALCL was highly responsive to treatment, but the relapse rate was 42%. In all, 3 patients progressed to extracutaneous stage of disease. No clinical or histologic factors analyzed were predictive of worse outcome in lymphomatoid papulosis and PCALCL.Similar to prior reports from multicenter European groups, the single-center experience at our institution demonstrates CD30+CLPDs have an overall excellent prognosis; however, cases of PCALCL with poor outcome do exist.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S0190-9622(03)02484-8

    View details for Web of Science ID 000186784800009

    View details for PubMedID 14639383

  • T cell antigen receptor vaccines for active therapy of T cell malignancies Conference on Basic and Clinical Relevant Biology of Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma Reddy, S. A., Okada, C., Wong, C., Bahler, D., Levy, R. NEW YORK ACAD SCIENCES. 2001: 97–105

    Abstract

    T cell lymphoproliferative disorders continue to be serious management problems, and so alternative therapeutic modalities are continuously being explored. One such strategy involves immunotherapy using the T cell receptor (TCR) as a target. Specifically we are attempting to develop a T cell receptor idiotype (TCR-Id) vaccine because the TCR-Id can serve as a tumor-specific antigen. In this article we will briefly review the rationale for TCR-Id vaccines, the preclinical models as developed in our laboratory, and a discussion of our current plans for a vaccine trial in mycosis fungoides.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000172619000010

    View details for PubMedID 11594586

  • Favorable treatment outcome in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients with "poor" mobilization of peripheral blood progenitor cells BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Stockerl-Goldstein, K. E., Reddy, S. A., Horning, S. J., Blume, K. G., Chao, N. J., Hu, W. W., JOHNSTON, L. J., Long, G. D., Strober, S., Wong, R. M., Feiner, R. H., Kohler, S., Negrin, R. S. 2000; 6 (5): 506-512

    Abstract

    Our purpose was to evaluate the outcome and costs of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) transplantation in patients with the inability to mobilize sufficient numbers of PBPCs to allow rapid engraftment after PBPC transplantation. We treated 172 consecutive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) patients with cyclophosphamide and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor followed by apheresis to collect PBPCs. The cells were separated on a Percoll gradient and purged with monoclonal antibodies and complement. The patients were categorized as "good" mobilizers if a collection of > or =2 x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg was obtained (n = 138, 80%) or "poor" mobilizers if <2 x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg were obtained (n = 34, 20%). With a median follow-up of 3.5 years, there is no statistically significant difference in actuarial event-free survival, overall survival, or relapse for good mobilizers compared with poor mobilizers. However, there was a trend toward increasing nonrelapse, transplantation-related mortality of 11.8% for poor mobilizers versus 3.6% for good mobilizers (P = .08) and early death from all causes including relapse within 120 days (poor 20.6% versus good 8.7%, P = .06). The total cost for bone marrow transplantation-related care was significantly higher, at $140,264 for poor mobilizers versus $80,833 for good mobilizers (P = .0001). The population of patients with NHL who mobilize PBPCs poorly into the circulation have a higher cost for posttransplant support. However, there is no significant difference in relapse, event-free survival, or overall survival for such patients compared with those who mobilize PBPCs easily.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000090049700004

    View details for PubMedID 11063379