Dr. Long obtained dual undergraduate degrees in Economics and Art History from Stanford prior to enrolling at UCSF where he completed his MD, a post-sophomore fellowship in Pathology, residency in Anatomic Pathology, a Fellowship in Surgical Pathology, and Clinical Instructorship in Cytopathology.

He then spent sixteen years in community practice honing his expertise in fine needle aspiration, cytopathology, and surgical pathology. Dr. Long was one of the first pathologists to pioneer the use of ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration biopsies in an outpatient clinic setting, helping to establish USFNA as a core component to contemporary cytopathology practices. During this time he also gained valuable leadership and business experience including directing two cytopathology laboratories, overseeing billing and outreach operations, and serving four consecutive terms as president of one of the largest community practice groups in California (serving 10 locations, two large clinical labs, 7 area hospitals, and providing services for over 150,000 anatomic pathology specimens/yr).

Dr. Long returned to Stanford in 2012 to join the Department of Pathology in the sections of Cytopathology and Surgical Pathology. He has been active teaching USFNA, cytopathology, and surgical pathology to residents and fellows and his research interests primarily focus on expanding and refining the role of fine needle aspiration in supporting diagnosis, precision medicine, and clinical trial research. He is currently collaborating in several clinical trials involving CarT cell therapies, and immunoncology studies for lymphoma.

His current administrative roles include: Director of Anatomic Pathology, Director of Surgical Pathology, Director of the Histology Laboratory, Co-Director of the Immunohistochemistry Laboratory, and Medical Director of the Cancer Center South Bay (CCSB), in Los Gatos, CA. In these roles he has helped lead the Surgical Pathology section to move from a general service to one that now includes sub-specialty sections in: gastrointestinal, gynecologic, breast, head and neck, genitourinary, and pediatric pathology. The Surgical Pathology consultation service was also sub-specialized and the AP residency program was entirely re-worked to take advantage of the newly created subspecialty formats.

Dr. Long is currently the department’s physician improvement leader for the newly launched Improvement Capability Development Program (ICDP) at Stanford Medicine. This major initiative between the School of Medicine and Stanford Hospital and Clinics is designed to promote significant improvement projects and skills training in quality improvement and quality leadership. Our current initiative focuses on improving the efficiency, turn around time, and consistency of our AP operational units including: accessioning, grossing, and histology.

From May 2016 – Nov 2017 Dr. Long participated in the second cohort of the Stanford Medicine Leadership Academy (SMLA). This intensive and rigorous eighteen-month leadership course was designed to prepare our 15-member cohort for advanced leadership roles both at Stanford Medicine and beyond. Participants received training coursework from Business School faculty in: Negotiation, Strategy, Difficult Conversations and Conflict Resolution, Scaling, Finance, Interpersonal Communications, as well as in depth 360 analysis, and Myers-Briggs testing. Each member was assigned an executive coach, and mentor, and was required to initiate and complete a strategic initiative. Other elements of the course included leadership interviews, attendance at two Stanford Medicine leadership retreats, and our mid-term SMLA retreat. A link describing the program can be found at: And a video of the SMLA cohort 2 discussing their leadership experiences can be viewed here:

Clinical Focus

  • Cytopathology
  • Surgical Pathology
  • Fine Needle Aspiration
  • Ultrasound Guided Fine Needle Aspiration
  • Head & Neck Surgical Pathology
  • Genitourinary Surgical Pathology
  • Pathology

Academic Appointments

  • Clinical Professor, Pathology

Administrative Appointments

  • Director of Anatomic Pathology, Department of pathology (2016 - Present)
  • Director of Surgical Pathology, Department of Pathology (2014 - Present)
  • Medical Director (Pathology and Clinical Laboratory), Stanford Cancer Center South Bay (2016 - Present)
  • Director of Histology and Immunohistochemistry Laboratories, Department of Pathology (2012 - Present)
  • Interim Vice Chair, Anatomic Pathology, Department of Pathology (2015 - 2016)

Honors & Awards

  • Teaching Award, Stanford Department of Pathology (6/2013)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations

  • Membership Committee, American Society of Cytology (2015 - Present)
  • Member, ASCP (1996 - Present)
  • Member, CAP (2004 - Present)
  • member, USCAP (2014 - Present)

Professional Education

  • Medical Education:University of California at San Francisco School of Medicine (1992) CA
  • Residency:University of California at San Francisco School of Medicine (1995) CA
  • Fellowship, UCSF, Surgical Pathology (1995)
  • Fellowship/ Clinical Instructor, UCSF, Cytopathology (1996)
  • Undergraduate Education, Stanford University, Economics; Art History (1983)
  • Board Certification: Pathology, American Board of Pathology (2014)
  • Board Certification: Cytopathology, American Board of Pathology (1997)
  • Board Certification: Anatomic Pathology, American Board of Pathology (1996)

Community and International Work

  • Guide Dogs for the Blind


    Puppy raising

    Populations Served




    Ongoing Project


    Opportunities for Student Involvement


Research & Scholarship

Clinical Trials

  • Study of SD-101 in Combination With Localized Low-dose Radiation in Patients With Untreated Low-grade B-cell Lymphoma Not Recruiting

    To assess the safety and tolerability of escalating doses of SD-101 in combination with localized low-dose radiation therapy in adult subjects with untreated low-grade B-cell lymphoma.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Kathleen McDonald, 650-725-8589.

    View full details

  • Comparison of Ro 31-8959 Plus Zidovudine (AZT) Versus AZT Plus Zalcitabine (ddC) Versus Ro 31-8959 Plus AZT Plus ddC Not Recruiting

    PRIMARY: To determine the efficacy and toxicity of three treatment regimens: saquinavir mesylate (Ro 31-8959) plus zidovudine (AZT) vs. AZT plus zalcitabine (dideoxycytidine; ddC) vs. Ro 31-8959 plus AZT plus ddC. SECONDARY: To investigate the pharmacokinetics and effects on various clinical parameters of the three regimens.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial.

    View full details

  • The Effects of Staggered Dosing on Interactions Between Paired Combinations of Nelfinavir, Ritonavir, and Saquinavir Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to see if staggering doses of nelfinavir, ritonavir, and saquinavir has any effect on the interactions between these drugs.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial.

    View full details

  • Evaluation of Patients Who Have Not Had Success With Zidovudine Not Recruiting

    To determine the relationship of viral susceptibility to zidovudine (AZT) and baseline viral load (as determined by plasma viremia and quantitative endpoint dilution). To determine the relationship between viral load and susceptibility during different antiretroviral therapy strategies. To correlate measures of viral load and short term clinical and laboratory markers (such as weight, CD4 count, p24 antigenemia, and beta2 microglobulin) on the different therapy arms. High-grade resistance to AZT has been detected in HIV isolates from approximately 25 percent of individuals with AIDS who received AZT for at least 1 year. To elucidate the clinical significance of in vitro AZT resistance, it is necessary to distinguish between clinical failure caused by AZT resistance and clinical decompensation caused by other factors.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial.

    View full details

  • A Multi-Center Study of Ibrutinib in Combination With MEDI4736 in Subjects With Relapsed or Refractory Lymphomas Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of the combination treatment of ibrutinib and MEDI4736 in patients with relapsed or refractory lymphomas.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Cancer Clinical Trials Office (CCTO), 650-498-7061.

    View full details


2018-19 Courses

Graduate and Fellowship Programs

  • Cytopathology (Fellowship Program)


All Publications

  • Hyaluronan levels are increased systemically in human type 2 but not type 1 diabetes independently of glycemic control. Matrix biology : journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology Nagy, N., Sunkari, V. G., Kaber, G., Hasbun, S., Lam, D. N., Speake, C., Sanda, S., McLaughlin, T. L., Wight, T. N., Long, S. R., Bollyky, P. L. 2018


    Hyaluronan (HA), an extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan, is implicated in the pathogenesis of both type 1 diabetes (T1D) as well as type 2 diabetes (T2D) and has been postulated to be increased in these diseases due to hyperglycemia. We have examined the serum and tissue distribution of HA in human subjects with T1D and T2D and in mouse models of these diseases and evaluated the relationship between HA levels and glycemic control. We found that serum HA levels are increased in T2D but not T1D independently of hemoglobin-A1c, C-peptide, body mass index, or time since diabetes diagnosis. HA is likewise increased in skeletal muscle in T2D subjects relative to non-diabetic controls. Analogous increases in serum and muscle HA are seen in diabetic db/db mice (T2D), but not in diabetic DORmO mice (T1D). Diabetes induced by the beta-cell toxin streptozotozin (STZ) lead to an increase in blood glucose but not to an increase in serum HA. These data indicate that HA levels are increased in multiple tissue compartments in T2D but not T1D independently of glycemic control. Given that T2D but not T1D is associated with systemic inflammation, these patterns are consistent with inflammatory factors and not hyperglycemia driving increased HA. Serum HA may have value as a biomarker of systemic inflammation in T2D.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.matbio.2018.09.003

    View details for PubMedID 30196101

  • In Situ Vaccination with a TLR 9 Agonist and Local Low Dose Radiation Induces Systemic Responses in Untreated Indolent Lymphoma. Cancer discovery Frank, M. J., Reagan, P. M., Bartlett, N. L., Gordon, L. I., Friedberg, J. W., Czerwinski, D. K., Long, S. R., Hoppe, R. T., Janssen, R. S., Candia, A. F., Coffman, R. L., Levy, R. 2018


    This multicenter phase 1/2 clinical trial evaluated intratumoral SD-101, a TLR9 agonist, and low-dose radiation in patients with untreated indolent lymphoma. 29 enrolled patients received 4 Gy of radiation followed by five weekly intratumoral injections of SD-101 at a single tumor site. No treatment-related grade 4 or serious adverse events occurred. Nearly all patients had tumor reduction at their treated site. More importantly, 24 patients had tumor reduction at their non-treated sites with 5 patients achieving a partial response and one achieving a complete response. Treatment-related increases of CD8+ and CD4+ effector T-cells and decreases of T Follicular Helper and T regulatory cells (Tregs) were observed in the tumor microenvironment. Low pre-treatment levels of CD4+ Tregs, proliferating CD8+ T-cells, and GranzymeB+ CD8+ T-cells were associated with favorable outcomes. Intratumoral SD-101 in combination with low-dose radiation is well tolerated and results in regression of both treated and untreated sites of disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-18-0743

    View details for PubMedID 30154192

  • A Dual-Modality Hybrid Imaging System Harnesses Radioluminescence and Sound to Reveal Molecular Pathology of Atherosclerotic Plaques SCIENTIFIC REPORTS Zaman, R. T., Yousefi, S., Long, S. R., Saito, T., Mandella, M., Qiu, Z., Chen, R., Contag, C. H., Gambhir, S. S., Chin, F. T., Khuri-Yakub, B. T., McConnell, M. V., Shung, K., Xing, L. 2018; 8: 8992


    Atherosclerosis is a progressive inflammatory condition caused by an unstable lesion, called thin-cap fibro atheromata (TCFA) that underlies coronary artery disease (CAD)-one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Therefore, early clinical diagnosis and effective risk stratification is important for CAD management as well as preventing progression to catastrophic events. However, early detection could be difficult due to their small size, motion, obscuring 18F-FDG uptake by adjacent myocardium, and complex morphological/biological features. To overcome these limitations, we developed a catheter-based Circumferential-Intravascular-Radioluminescence-Photoacoustic-Imaging (CIRPI) system that can detect vulnerable plaques in coronary arteries and characterizes them with respect to pathology and biology. Our CIRPI system combined two imaging modalities: Circumferential Radioluminescence Imaging (CRI) and PhotoAcoustic Tomography (PAT) within a novel optical probe. The probe's CaF2:Eu based scintillating imaging window provides a 360° view of human (n = 7) and murine carotid (n = 10) arterial plaques by converting β-particles into visible photons during 18F-FDG decay. A 60× and 63× higher radioluminescent signals were detected from the human and murine plaque inflammations, respectively, compared to the control. The system's photoacoustic imaging provided a comprehensive analysis of the plaque compositions and its morphologic information. These results were further verified with IVIS-200, immunohistochemical analysis, and autoradiography.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41598-018-26696-8

    View details for Web of Science ID 000434921300001

    View details for PubMedID 29895966

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5997702

  • Comparison of MYC Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization Testing of Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphomas in Fine Needle Aspiration and Surgical Specimens Menke, J., Gupta, S., Bangs, C. D., Kong, C., Natkunam, Y., Long, S., Gratzinger, D. NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. 2018: 162
  • Nodular Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma: Cytopathologic and Immunophenotypic Correlation and Diagnostic Pitfalls Gupta, S., Natkunam, Y., Long, S., Gratzinger, D. NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. 2018: 146
  • Diagnostic Utility of Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) Testing on Cytology Cell Blocks for the Definitive Classification of Salivary Gland Neoplasms Darras, N., Mooney, K., Long, S. NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. 2018: 772
  • Comprehensive Genomic Profiling of Malignant Effusions in Patients with Metastatic Lung Adenocarcinoma. The Journal of molecular diagnostics : JMD Yang, S. R., Lin, C. Y., Stehr, H., Long, S. R., Kong, C. S., Berry, G. J., Zehnder, J. L., Kunder, C. A. 2017


    Cytology samples are being increasingly utilized for comprehensive molecular testing. Although fine-needle aspirates are adequate substrates for high-throughput sequencing, the suitability of malignant body fluids remains largely unexplored. Herein, we investigated the adequacy and utility of performing targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) on malignant effusions from patients with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma. Thirty-two effusion samples that were submitted for hybrid capture-based NGS using a clinically validated solid tumor genotyping panel were examined. All cases showed ≥5% tumor cellularity; however, 28 (88%) provided sufficient DNA for NGS (≥1 ng/μL). The sequencing reads showed satisfactory quality control statistics, and the variant allele frequencies were correlated with tumor cellularity. Furthermore, pathogenic or likely pathogenic genomic alterations were identified in 26/28 samples (93%), whereas clinically actionable alterations were present in 18 (64%). Notably, nine patients had additional molecular testing performed on preceding/subsequent biopsies, and the results across multiple samples were compared. In two patients, the NGS-based fluid analysis identified clinically actionable alterations that were not detected by other hotspot testing. In four patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, malignant fluid sequencing confirmed driver alterations from prior testing and revealed new resistance mechanisms. Hence, given adequate DNA input and tumor cellularity, comprehensive genomic profiling of malignant effusions may be used to establish mutational status at diagnosis and inform treatment resistance during targeted therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jmoldx.2017.10.007

    View details for PubMedID 29269277

  • Low-grade lymphoma of mucosa-associated tissue in the parotid gland: A case report of fine-needle aspiration cytology diagnosis using flow cytometric immunophenotyping DIAGNOSTIC CYTOPATHOLOGY Cha, I., Long, S. R., Ljung, B. M., Miller, T. R. 1997; 16 (4): 345-349


    A 66-year-old woman with Sjögren's syndrome for 7 years presented with an enlarged right parotid gland. The left parotid gland, which showed myoepithelial sialadenitis (MESA), had been resected 4 years earlier. A fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of the right parotid gland was performed. Examination of the smears revealed cells of intermediate size with a round-to-irregular nuclear outline and distinct pale cytoplasm intermixed with small mature round lymphocytes. The chromatin was slightly paler and less clumped than in small mature lymphocytes. A small inconspicuous nucleolus was seen in most of the cells. Flow cytometry immunophenotyping performed on the FNA biopsy material showed a monoclonal population of B cells with kappa light chain restriction. The cytomorphology coupled with the immunophenotyping study in this clinical context suggested the diagnosis of low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Extensive staging work-up revealed no evidence of disseminated disease. The right parotid gland was surgically excised. Histology and gene rearrangement studies confirmed the cytologic diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a low-grade lymphoma of MALT in a salivary gland to be diagnosed by FNA.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997WW89600008

    View details for PubMedID 9143829

  • Bacillary angiomatosis of the cervix and vulva in a patient with aids OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Long, S. R., Whitfeld, M. J., EADES, C., Koehler, J. E., Korn, A. P., Zaloudek, C. J. 1996; 88 (4): 709-711


    Bacillary angiomatosis is a clinicopathologic entity that most often is identified in the skin of patients with AIDS. This report presents an example of bacillary angiomatosis of the female genital tract.Bacillary angiomatosis presented as red-purple nodules of the vulva and cervix in a 32-year-old woman with AIDS. Histologic examination revealed the lobular epithelioid vascular proliferation and hazy clumps of bacteria that characterize bacillary angiomatosis. The diagnosis was confirmed on Warthin-Starry-stained issue and by blood cultures, which were positive for Bartonella (Rochalimaea) henselae.Accurate diagnosis of this infection is important because 1) bacillary angiomatosis is commonly mistaken for Kaposi sarcoma, 2) it is effectively treated with inexpensive antibiotics, and 3) undiagnosed and/or untreated bacillary angiomatosis may lead to overwhelming disseminated infection and death.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VL28100027

    View details for PubMedID 8841262

  • Classics in cytology .7. Kun, Lebert, and early efforts at fine-needle aspiration biopsy DIAGNOSTIC CYTOPATHOLOGY Long, S. R., Cohen, M. B. 1996; 14 (2): 182-183

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UC85100017

    View details for PubMedID 8964178

  • THE INCIDENCE AND SPECTRUM OF NEUROLOGICAL INJURY AFTER OPEN FETAL SURGERY 26th Annual Meeting of the Canadian-Association-of-Paediatric-Surgeons Bealer, J. F., Raisanen, J., Skarsgard, E. D., Long, S. R., Wong, K., Filly, R. A., Adzick, N. S., Harrison, M. R. W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC. 1995: 1150–54


    A preterm infant's immature brain is susceptible to both anoxic and hemorrhagic injury during periods of physiological stress. The advent of in utero surgery has created a new population of premature patients at risk for central nervous system (CNS) injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and nature of CNS injuries in fetal surgical patients. Of 33 fetuses with known neurological outcome after fetal surgery, CNS injuries were identified in seven (21%). Of the seven, four had significant episodes of fetal bradycardia (3) or neonatal hypotension (1), which suggests that asphyxia contributed to the neurological injury. The CNS injuries in the other three patients occurred unexpectedly and without associated signs of fetal distress. The authors speculate that these injuries may have been caused by sudden fluxes in cerebral blood flow, induced by maternal hypoxia (1) or by maternally administered tocolytic drugs (2) used to treat postoperative preterm labor.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995RQ71300010

    View details for PubMedID 7472970


    View details for Web of Science ID A1993MD83100023

    View details for PubMedID 8287774


    View details for Web of Science ID A1992HQ55900008

    View details for PubMedID 1568411

  • CLASSICS IN CYTOLOGY .4. TRAUT AND THE PAP SMEAR ACTA CYTOLOGICA Long, S. R., Cohen, M. B. 1991; 35 (1): 140-142

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991EX43200026

    View details for PubMedID 1994623