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  • Where Dysphagia Begins: Polypharmacy and Xerostomia. Federal practitioner : for the health care professionals of the VA, DoD, and PHS Marcott, S., Dewan, K., Kwan, M., Baik, F., Lee, Y. J., Sirjani, D. 2020; 37 (5): 234–41

    Abstract

    Xerostomia, the subjective sensation of dry mouth, contributes to dysarthria, dysphagia, and diminished quality of life. Polypharmacy is a known and modifiable risk factor for xerostomia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dry mouth, the relationship between dry mouth and other oral conditions, and the impact of polypharmacy on dry mouth.This study was a retrospective cross-sectional study of all patients seen in fiscal year (FY) 2015 (October 1, 2014 to September 30, 2015) at the VA Palo Alto Health Care System (VAPAHCS), a tertiary care US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) hospital. Patients diagnosed with xerostomia were identified using ICD-9 codes (527.7, 527.8, R68.2) and Systemized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) codes (87715008, 78948009).Of all the patients seen at VAPAHCS during FY 2015, 138 had a diagnostic code for xerostomia; of those patients, 84 had at least 1 documented speech, dentition, or swallowing (SDS) problem, and 55 (39.9%) were taking ≥ 12 medications, more than twice as many patients as in any one of the other groups studied (0-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-11 medications taken). Although 4,971 total patients seen at VAPAHCS had documented SDS problems during FY 2015, of those patients only 77 (1.5%) had an additional recorded diagnosis of xerostomia.Heightened physician awareness regarding the signs and symptoms of and risk factors for xerostomia is needed to improve health care providers' ability to diagnose dry mouth. Polypharmacy also must be considered when developing new strategies for preventing and treating xerostomia.

    View details for PubMedID 32454578

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7241606

  • Utility of videolaryngoscopy for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions in head and neck surgery. American journal of otolaryngology Shenson, J. A., Marcott, S., Dewan, K., Lee, Y. J., Mariano, E. R., Sirjani, D. B. 2019: 102284

    Abstract

    Videolaryngoscopy is commonly used by anesthesiologists to manage difficult airways. Recently otolaryngologists have reported use in select procedures; to date there is limited evaluation in head and neck surgery.Patients who underwent direct laryngoscopy (DL) with use of GlideScope videolaryngoscopy (GVL) were retrospectively identified from a tertiary care Veterans Affairs hospital. GVL was used to assist or replace traditional laryngoscopes for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.Nineteen patients (48-83 years old) underwent 21 procedures. Difficult endotracheal intubation was reported in 53% of patients. GVL replaced traditional DL in 76% of cases, assisted evaluation prior to traditional DL in 10%, and rescued failed traditional DL in 14%. No complications occurred. Three indications for GVL were identified.GVL was safe in our experience and provides unique benefits in selected scenarios in head and neck surgery. Otolaryngologists can consider videolaryngoscopy as a complement to traditional DL.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjoto.2019.102284

    View details for PubMedID 32505434

  • Temporal Bone CT Scan for Malleal Ligaments Assessment. Otology & neurotology : official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology Vaisbuch, Y., Hosseini, D. K., Lanzman, B., Marcott, S. C., Ma, Y., Song, Y., Alyono, J. C., Blevins, N. H. 2018; 39 (10): e1054–e1059

    Abstract

    To determine the feasibility of using temporal bone computed tomography (CT) scans to identify malleal ligaments and the prevalence of calcification in malleal ligaments.Retrospective case review. CT scans were blindly and retrospectively reviewed by two physicians (a radiologist and a nonradiologist). Scans differed by slice thickness, and included both conventional CT and cone beam CT (CBCT).Ambulatory tertiary referral center.One hundred fifty-one temporal bone CT scans, obtained between the years 2014 and 2017, were initially screened, which included 302 ears. Patients with previous tympanomastoid surgery or middle ear opacification were excluded, leaving 187 ears in the study.Diagnostic.Percentage of visible normal and calcified malleal ligaments.Scans with submillimeter slice thickness were more likely to demonstrate all three malleal ligaments than those with 1 ml and larger slices (83.7% versus 50.0% for nonradiologist, p < 0.0001; 59.6 versus 34.8% for radiologist, p < 0.0001). Calcification was seen in 11.8% of ears reviewed. The ability to detect malleal ligaments with cone beam CT was 86.2%, while the rate with conventional CT was 71.1%, a difference that persisted when controlling for slice thickness. Interobserver agreement for the detection of malleal ligaments was 65% with a Cohen's kappa coefficient of κ = 0.27.Visualization of the malleal ligaments using CT scans is feasible in a majority of aerated ears. Detection of malleal ligaments improves with thinner slice thickness and cone-beam technique. Low interobserver agreement suggests the importance of experience and a need for standardized review.

    View details for PubMedID 30239436

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