Highly Efficient and Marker-free Genome Editing of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells by CRISPR-Cas9 RNP and AAV6 Donor-Mediated Homologous Recombination
CELL STEM CELL
2019; 24 (5): 821-+
High-Efficiency, Selection-free Gene Repair in Airway Stem Cells from Cystic Fibrosis Patients Rescues CFTR Function in Differentiated Epithelia.
Cell stem cell
Tailoring dendrimer conjugates for biomedical applications: the impact of altering hydrophobicity
JOURNAL OF NANOPARTICLE RESEARCH
2018; 20 (10)
Uridine Depletion and Chemical Modification Increase Cas9 mRNA Activity and Reduce Immunogenicity without HPLC Purification.
Molecular therapy. Nucleic acids
2018; 12: 530–42
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a monogenic disorder caused by mutations in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene. Mortality in CF patients is mostly due to respiratory sequelae. Challenges with gene delivery have limited attempts to treat CF using in vivo gene therapy, and low correction levels have hindered ex vivo gene therapy efforts. We have used Cas9 and adeno-associated virus 6 to correct the ΔF508 mutation in readily accessible upper-airway basal stem cells (UABCs) obtained from CF patients. On average, we achieved 30%-50% allelic correction in UABCs and bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) from 10 CF patients and observed 20%-50% CFTR function relative to non-CF controls in differentiated epithelia. Furthermore, we successfully embedded the corrected UABCs on an FDA-approved porcine small intestinal submucosal membrane (pSIS), and they retained differentiation capacity. This study supports further development of genetically corrected autologous airway stem cell transplant as a treatment for CF.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2019.11.002
View details for PubMedID 31839569
Global Transcriptional Response to CRISPR/Cas9-AAV6-Based Genome Editing in CD34+ Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells.
Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
The Cas9/guide RNA (Cas9/gRNA) system is commonly used for genome editing. mRNA expressing Cas9 can induce innate immune responses, reducing Cas9 expression. First-generation Cas9 mRNAs were modified with pseudouridine and 5-methylcytosine to reduce innate immune responses. We combined four approaches to produce more active, less immunogenic second-generation Cas9 mRNAs. First, we developed a novel co-transcriptional capping method yielding natural Cap 1. Second, we screened modified nucleotides in Cas9 mRNA to identify novel modifications that increase Cas9 activity. Third, we depleted the mRNA of uridines to improve mRNA activity. Lastly, we tested high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) purification to remove double-stranded RNAs. The activity of these mRNAs was tested in cell lines and primary human CD34+ cells. Cytokines were measured in whole blood and mice. These approaches yielded more active and less immunogenic mRNA. Uridine depletion (UD) most impacted insertion or deletion (indel) activity. Specifically, 5-methoxyuridine UD induced indel frequencies as high as 88% (average± SD= 79%± 11%) and elicited minimal immune responses without needing HPLC purification. Our work suggests that uridine-depleted Cas9 mRNA modified with 5-methoxyuridine (without HPLC purification) or pseudouridine may be optimal for the broad use of Cas9 both invitro and invivo.
View details for PubMedID 30195789
Priming Human Repopulating Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells for Cas9/sgRNA Gene Targeting
Molecular Therapy Nucleic Acids
2018; 12: 89-104
Priming Human Repopulating Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells for Cas9/sgRNA Gene Targeting.
Molecular therapy. Nucleic acids
2018; 12: 89–104
Genome-editing technologies are currently being translated to the clinic. However, cellular effects of the editing machinery have yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we performed global microarray-based gene expression measurements on human CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells that underwent editing. We probed effects of the entire editing process as well as each component individually, including electroporation, Cas9 (mRNA or protein) with chemically modified sgRNA, and AAV6 transduction. We identified differentially expressed genes relative to control treatments, which displayed enrichment for particular biological processes. All editing machinery components elicited immune, stress, and apoptotic responses. Cas9 mRNA invoked the greatest amount of transcriptional change, eliciting a distinct viral response and global transcriptional downregulation, particularly of metabolic and cell cycle processes. Electroporation also induced significant transcriptional change, with notable downregulation of metabolic processes. Surprisingly, AAV6 evoked no detectable viral response. We also found Cas9/sgRNA ribonucleoprotein treatment to be well tolerated, in spite of eliciting a DNA damage signature. Overall, this data establishes a benchmark for cellular tolerance of CRISPR/Cas9-AAV6-based genome editing, ensuring that the clinical protocol is as safe and efficient as possible.
View details for PubMedID 30005866
Engineered nuclease-mediated gene targeting through homologous recombination (HR) in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) has the potential to treat a variety of genetic hematologic and immunologic disorders. Here, we identify critical parameters to reproducibly achieve high frequencies of RNA-guided (single-guide RNA [sgRNA]; CRISPR)-Cas9 nuclease (Cas9/sgRNA) and rAAV6-mediated HR at the β-globin (HBB) locus in HSPCs. We identified that by transducing HSPCs with rAAV6 post-electroporation, there was a greater than 2-fold electroporation-aided transduction (EAT) of rAAV6 endocytosis with roughly 70% of the cell population having undergone transduction within 2 hr. When HSPCs are cultured at low densities (1 × 105 cells/mL) prior to HBB targeting, HSPC expansion rates are significantly positively correlated with HR frequencies in vitro as well as in repopulating cells in immunodeficient NSG mice in vivo. We also show that culturing fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)-enriched HBB-targeted HSPCs at low cell densities in the presence of the small molecules, UM171 and SR1, stimulates the expansion of gene-edited HSPCs as measured by higher engraftment levels in immunodeficient mice. This work serves not only as an optimized protocol for genome editing HSPCs at the HBB locus for the treatment of β-hemoglobinopathies but also as a foundation for editing HSPCs at other loci for both basic and translational research.
View details for PubMedID 30195800