Clinical Focus

  • Urology

Academic Appointments

Professional Education

  • Residency:Stanford Medicine Dept of Urology (2015) CA
  • Residency:Stanford University - General Surgery (2011) CA
  • Internship:Stanford University - Dept of Surgery (2010) CA
  • Medical Education:University of California San Francisco (2009) CA


All Publications

  • Hyperhomocysteinemia as an Early Predictor of Erectile Dysfunction: International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and Penile Doppler Ultrasound Correlation With Plasma Levels of Homocysteine. Medicine Giovannone, R., Busetto, G. M., Antonini, G., De Cobelli, O., Ferro, M., Tricarico, S., Del Giudice, F., Ragonesi, G., Conti, S. L., Lucarelli, G., Gentile, V., De Berardinis, E. 2015; 94 (39)


    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is inability to achieve and maintain an erection to permit satisfactory sexual activity. Homocysteine (Hcys) is a sulfur-containing amino acid synthesized from the essential amino acid methionine. Experimental models have elucidated the role of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcys) as a strong and independent predictor for atherosclerosis progression and impaired cavernosal perfusion.The aim of this study is to investigate the serum levels of Hcys in our cohort of patients with ED, to compare these values with these of control population and to examine Hcys as a predictive marker for those patients who are beginning to complain mild-moderate ED.A total of 431 patients were enrolled in the study. The whole cohort was asked to complete the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire. The study population was divided in 3 main groups: Group A: 145 patients with no ED serving as a control group; Group B: 145 patients with mild or mild-moderate ED; Group C: 141 patients with moderate or severe ED. Each participant underwent blood analysis. All patients underwent baseline and dynamic penile Doppler ultrasonography.We found in our cohort mean Hcys plasma concentrations significantly higher than the cut-off point in both groups B and C (18.6 ± 4.7 and 28.38 ± 7.8, respectively). Mean IIEF score was 27.9 ± 1.39, 19.5 ± 2.6, and 11.1 ± 2.5 for groups A, B, and C, respectively (P < 0.0001). In the penile Doppler ultrasonography studies, a high significant inverse correlation was detected between the mean values of the 10th minute's peak-systolic velocity (PSV) and Hcys levels for the groups B and C.This establishes a dose-dependent association between Hcys and ED. Furthermore, we showed that Hcys was an earlier predictor of ED than Doppler studies, as the Hcys increase was present in patients with mild ED even before abnormal Doppler values.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/MD.0000000000001556

    View details for PubMedID 26426624

  • Alterations in DNA methylation may be the key to early detection and treatment of schistosomal bladder cancer. PLoS neglected tropical diseases Conti, S. L., Honeycutt, J., Odegaard, J. I., Gonzalgo, M. L., Hsieh, M. H. 2015; 9 (6)

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003696

    View details for PubMedID 26042665

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4456143

  • Oncologic outcomes between open and robotic-assisted radical cystectomy: a propensity score matched analysis WORLD JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Ahdoot, M., Almario, L., Araya, H., Busch, J., Conti, S., Gonzalgo, M. L. 2014; 32 (6): 1441-1446
  • Procedures needed to maintain functionality of adult continent catheterizable channels: a comparison of continent cutaneous ileal cecocystoplasty with tunneled catheterizable channels. journal of urology Redshaw, J. D., Elliott, S. P., Rosenstein, D. I., Erickson, B. A., Presson, A. P., Conti, S. L., McAdams, S., Nguyen, A., West, J. M., Brant, W. O., Myers, J. B. 2014; 192 (3): 821-826


    We compared the outcomes of various adult continent catheterizable channels in a multi-institutional setting.We retrospectively reviewed the records of all adults who underwent construction of a continent catheterizable channel at our 4 institutions from 2004 to 2013 and who had at least 6 months of followup. Patients were stratified by channel type, including continent cutaneous ileal cecocystoplasty or tunneled cutaneous channel, eg appendicovesicostomy, Monti channel, etc. The primary study outcome was the need for a secondary procedure to correct stomal leakage, catheterizable channel obstruction or stomal stenosis. Secondary outcomes were patient reported leakage and 30-day postoperative complications. We used Firth logistic regression to control for the heterogeneity induced by multiple institutions.A total of 61 patients were included in study, of whom 31 underwent continent cutaneous ileal cecocystoplasty. Mean age was 41.4 years (range 22 to 76). Median followup was 16 months. More patients with a tunneled channel required a secondary procedure than those with cecocystoplasty (15 of 30 or 50% vs 4 of 31 or 13%, OR 6.4, 95% CI 1.8-28). The total number of required secondary procedures was also greater for tunneled channels than for cecocystoplasty (27 vs 4). Of patients with cecocystoplasty 29% reported stomal leakage compared with 43% of those with a tunneled channel (p = 0.12). A high rate of postoperative complications was observed regardless of technique, including 40% for channels and 51.7% for cecocystoplasty.Patients with continent cutaneous ileal cecocystoplasty undergo fewer interventions to maintain the catheterizable channel than patients with a tunneled continent catheterizable channel.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2014.03.088

    View details for PubMedID 24657838

  • A new mouse model for female genital schistosomiasis. PLoS neglected tropical diseases Richardson, M. L., Fu, C., Pennington, L. F., Honeycutt, J. D., Odegaard, J. L., Hsieh, Y., Hammam, O., Conti, S. L., Hsieh, M. H. 2014; 8 (5)

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002825

    View details for PubMedID 24786606

  • Utilization of cytoreductive nephrectomy and patient survival in the targeted therapy era. International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer Conti, S. L., Thomas, I., Hagedorn, J. C., Chung, B. I., Chertow, G. M., Wagner, T. H., Brooks, J. D., Srinivas, S., Leppert, J. T. 2014; 134 (9): 2245-2252


    We sought to analyze utilization and survival outcomes of cytoreductive nephrectomy in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) before and after introduction of targeted therapy. We identified patients with metastatic RCC between 1993 and 2010 in the SEER registry and examined temporal trends in utilization. We performed a joinpoint regression to determine when changes in utilization of cytoreductive nephrectomy occurred. We fitted multivariable proportional hazard models in full and propensity score-matched cohorts. We performed a difference-in-difference analysis to compare survival outcomes before and after introduction of targeted therapy. The proportion of patients undergoing cytoreductive nephrectomy increased from 1993 to 2004, from 29% to 39%. We identified a primary joinpoint of 2004, just prior to the introduction of targeted therapy. Beginning in 2005, there was a modest decrease in utilization of cytoreductive nephrectomy. Cytoreductive nephrectomy was associated with a lower adjusted relative hazard (0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.34 to 0.43). Median survival among patients receiving cytoreductive nephrectomy increased in the targeted therapy era (19 versus 13 months), while median survival among patients not receiving cytoreductive nephrectomy increased only slightly (4 versus 3 months). Difference-in-difference analysis showed a significant decrease in hazard of death among patients who received cytoreductive nephrectomy in the targeted therapy era. Despite decreased utilization in the targeted therapy era, cytoreductive nephrectomy remains associated with improved survival. Prospective randomized trials are needed to confirm the benefit of cytoreductive nephrectomy among patients with metastatic RCC treated with novel targeted therapies. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    View details for PubMedID 24135850

  • Prostate Size Does Not Predict High Grade Cancer JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Ngo, T. C., Conti, S. L., Shinghal, R., Presti, J. C. 2012; 187 (2): 477-480


    Several radical prostatectomy series have linked small prostates with high grade cancer based on the hypothesis that a small prostate results from a low androgen milieu that selects for less hormone dependent, more aggressive tumors. We previously reported that this association resulted from ascertainment bias from the performance characteristics of prostate specific antigen rather than from tumor biology in our radical prostatectomy cohort. In this study we analyzed this association in a more generalized population of men who underwent prostate needle biopsy.The prostate needle biopsy database at our institution was queried for all initial biopsies. Included patient characteristics were age, race, family history of prostate cancer, prostate specific antigen, abnormal digital rectal examination and prostate volume in ml on transrectal ultrasound. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the influence of prostate volume on the odds of high grade cancer.The study population included 1,295 patients during 2000 to 2010, of whom 582 (44.9%) had prostate cancer and 398 (30.7%) had high grade cancer. When all patients were pooled, the OR for high grade cancer was 0.85 (95% CI 0.78-0.92) for each 10 ml increase in prostate volume. When patients were divided by clinical T stage, the corresponding ORs for those with T1c disease was 0.83 (95% CI 0.74-0.93) and for those with T2 or greater disease it was 0.99 (0.98-1.00).The association between small prostates and high grade cancer exists only in men with clinical T1c (normal digital rectal examination) prostate cancer. It likely resulted from ascertainment bias due to the performance characteristics of prostate specific antigen rather than tumor biology.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2011.10.042

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299070400031

    View details for PubMedID 22177152

  • A pilot study to develop a prediction instrument for endocarditis in injection drug users admitted with fever AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EMERGENCY MEDICINE Rodriguez, R., Alter, H., Romero, K., Kea, B., Chiang, W., Fortman, J., Marks, C., Cheung, P., Conti, S. 2011; 29 (8): 894-898


    Seeking to evaluate the feasibility of a prediction instrument for endocarditis in febrile injection drug users (IDUs), we determined (1) the frequency percentage of IDUs admitted with fever diagnosed with endocarditis and (2) whether individual or combinations of emergency department (ED) clinical criteria (patient history, physical examination findings, and laboratory tests) are associated with endocarditis in IDUs admitted to rule out endocarditis.The ED and inpatient charts of all IDUs with a diagnosis of rule out endocarditis admitted at 3 urban hospitals in 2006 were reviewed. Screening performance of individual criteria was determined, and the most sensitive combination of criteria was derived by classification tree analysis.Of 236 IDUs admitted with fever, 20 (8.5%) were diagnosed with endocarditis. Lack of skin infection, tachycardia, hyponatremia, pneumonia on chest radiograph, history of endocarditis, thrombocytopenia, and heart murmur had the best screening performance. The classification tree-derived best criteria combination of tachycardia, lack of skin infection, and cardiac murmur had a sensitivity of 100% (95% confidence interval, 84%-100%) and negative predictive value of 100% (95% confidence interval, 88%-100%).Using ED clinical criteria, a multicenter prospective study to develop an instrument for endocarditis prediction in febrile IDUs is feasible, with an estimated target enrollment of 588 patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajem.2010.04.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296057000009

    View details for PubMedID 20685064

  • Penile Sonographic and Clinical Characteristics in Men with Peyronie's Disease JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE Smith, J. F., Brant, W. O., Fradet, V., Shindel, A. W., Vittinghoff, E., Chi, T., Huang, Y., Davis, C. B., Conti, S., Lue, T. F. 2009; 6 (10): 2858-2867


    Ultrasonography of the penis is readily available to the urologist and gives good anatomic detail of soft tissue structures. It has not been widely utilized in the assessment of Peyronie's disease (PD).To describe the sonographic characteristics of the penis in PD and the relationship between clinical and sonographic features.This cross-sectional study enrolled patients from a single clinical practice. A PD-specific questionnaire was administered and sonographic evaluations were performed.Sonographic characteristics of men with PD.Tunical thickening, calcifications, septal fibrosis, and intracavernosal fibrosis, were observed at initial clinical evaluation in 50%, 31%, 20%, and 15% of men, respectively. Men aged 40-49 (OR 2.4, P = 0.02) and men aged 50-59 (OR 2.4, P = 0.004) were more likely to have sub-tunical calcifications relative to men under age 40. Men with septal fibrosis had fewer chronic medical conditions such as diabetes (OR 0.3, P = 0.04), hypertension (OR 0.5, P = 0.03), and coronary artery disease (OR 0.2, P = 0.05), and presented within 1 year of disease onset (OR 2.1, P = 0.001). Men with septal fibrosis were less likely to have lost penile length (OR 0.5, P = 0.04) and more likely to be able to have intercourse (OR 1.9, P = 0.05). Men with intracavernosal fibrosis were less likely to have penile pain (OR 0.5, P = 0.05), but more likely to have penetration difficulty during intercourse (OR 1.9, P = 0.008), an additional penile deformity (OR 1.8, P = 0.02), or rapid onset of disease (OR 1.7, P = 0.04). Tunical thickening was associated with a decreased ability to have intercourse (OR 2.3, P < 0.001).PD is a clinically and sonographically heterogeneous condition. Sonography is a safe, low-cost, and rapid means of objectively characterizing lesions in this condition. This may help track the evolution of the condition in individual patients and in the future may be useful for tailoring treatment strategies.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2009.01438.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000270311400028

    View details for PubMedID 19732312

  • Pathological Outcomes of Candidates for Active Surveillance of Prostate Cancer JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Conti, S. L., Dall'Era, M., Fradet, V., Cowan, J. E., Simko, J., Carroll, P. R. 2009; 181 (4): 1628-1633


    Active surveillance of prostate cancer has emerged as a viable treatment option for men with features of low risk disease. Five prospective studies have enrolled patients for active surveillance with varying inclusion criteria. We evaluated the pathological outcomes of men meeting published criteria for active surveillance who elected immediate radical prostatectomy to assess the risk of under grading and under staging in candidates for active surveillance.Data were extracted from our institutional urological oncology database for all men who underwent radical prostatectomy between 1996 and 2007. The primary outcome was pathological up staging, defined as the occurrence of extracapsular extension or seminal vesicle involvement. Pathological upgrading was identified as a secondary outcome. We determined the proportion of men who would have qualified for each published active surveillance study and the respective rates of upgrading and up staging in each group.We identified 1,097 men who underwent radical prostatectomy with a mean age of 59 years. Overall 28% of the men experienced a Gleason upgrade, 21% had extracapsular extension and 11% had seminal vesicle involvement. In men qualifying based on published active surveillance inclusion criteria, rates of upgrading varied between 23% and 35%, the incidence of extracapsular extension ranged from 7% to 19% and seminal vesicle involvement ranged from 2% to 9%.Varying entry criteria for active surveillance show different rates of adverse pathological features at radical prostatectomy. Predictably fewer men met the more stringent criteria but these men had a lower incidence of seminal vesicle involvement and extracapsular extension. Such data can be used to advise men of the risks of active surveillance.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2008.11.107

    View details for Web of Science ID 000264448200036

    View details for PubMedID 19233388

  • Risk factors for emotional and relationship problems in Peyronie's disease JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE Smith, J. F., Walsh, T. J., Conti, S. L., Turek, P., Lue, T. 2008; 5 (9): 2179-2184


    Peyronie's disease (PD) occurs in 3-9% of all men. Little is known regarding the specific psychological or emotional disruptions to sexuality associated with PD.Our primary aim was to identify risk factors associated with psychosocial difficulties in men with PD.This cross-sectional study enrolled patients from a single clinical practice. Detailed medical histories, physical examinations, and a PD-specific questionnaire were used to define clinical characteristics. Odds ratios (ORs) were used as a measure of association.Emotional and relationship problems were determined by "yes" or "no" answers to two specific questions.The mean age of all PD patients (N = 245) was 54.4 years (range 19.4-75.6); 62% were married, and 59% presented within 2 years of disease onset. The overall prevalence of emotional and relationship problems attributable to PD was 81% and 54%, respectively. Among men who had relationship problems, the prevalence of emotional problems was 93%. In men with emotional problems due to PD, relationship issues were observed in 62%. Multivariable analysis revealed that emotional difficulties (OR 6.9, P < 0.001) and ability to have intercourse (OR 0.4, P = 0.004) were independently associated with relationship problems. Relationship problems (OR 8.0, P < 0.001) and loss of penile length (OR 2.7, P = 0.02) were significant independent predictors of emotional problems after adjustment for the ability to maintain erections, low libido, and penile pain.Among men with PD, there is a very high prevalence of emotional and relationship problems. Loss of penile length and inability to have intercourse are strong predictors of these problems and as such make ideal targets for intervention. Medical and surgical therapies may enhance quality of life through their ability to improve sexual function. Further research will characterize the ways in which individual symptoms affect emotional and psychological well-being.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2008.00949.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000259150200021

    View details for PubMedID 18638001

  • Paleolithic Y-haplogroup heritage predominates in a Cretan highland plateau EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS Martinez, L., Underhill, P. A., Zhivotovsky, L. A., Gayden, T., Moschonas, N. K., Chow, C. T., Conti, S., Mamolini, E., Cavalli-Sforza, L. L., Herrera, R. J. 2007; 15 (4): 485-493


    The island of Crete, credited by some historical scholars as a central crucible of western civilization, has been under continuous archeological investigation since the second half of the nineteenth century. In the present work, the geographic stratification of the contemporary Cretan Y-chromosome gene pool was assessed by high-resolution haplotyping to investigate the potential imprints of past colonization episodes and the population substructure. In addition to analyzing the possible geographic origins of Y-chromosome lineages in relatively accessible areas of the island, this study includes samples from the isolated interior of the Lasithi Plateau--a mountain plain located in eastern Crete. The potential significance of the results from the latter region is underscored by the possibility that this region was used as a Minoan refugium. Comparisons of Y-haplogroup frequencies among three Cretan populations as well as with published data from additional Mediterranean locations revealed significant differences in the frequency distributions of Y-chromosome haplogroups within the island. The most outstanding differences were observed in haplogroups J2 and R1, with the predominance of haplogroup R lineages in the Lasithi Plateau and of haplogroup J lineages in the more accessible regions of the island. Y-STR-based analyses demonstrated the close affinity that R1a1 chromosomes from the Lasithi Plateau shared with those from the Balkans, but not with those from lowland eastern Crete. In contrast, Cretan R1b microsatellite-defined haplotypes displayed more resemblance to those from Northeast Italy than to those from Turkey and the Balkans.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201769

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245103100014

    View details for PubMedID 17264870