Cyclophosphamide dose intensification during induction therapy for intermediate-risk pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma is feasible but does not improve outcome: A report from the soft tissue sarcoma committee of the children's oncology group
CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH
2004; 10 (18): 6072-6079
Late events occurring five years or more after successful therapy for childhood rhabdomyosarcoma: a report from the Soft Tissue Sarcoma Committee of the Children's Oncology Group
EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CANCER
2004; 40 (12): 1878-1885
More than half of pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma cases have intermediate-risk features and suboptimal outcome (3-year failure-free survival estimates, 55 to 76%). Dose intensification of known active agents may improve outcome.This pilot study evaluated the feasibility of dose intensification of cyclophosphamide in previously untreated patients ages < 21 years with intermediate-risk rhabdomyosarcoma. Induction therapy comprised four 3-week cycles of VAC: vincristine (V) 1.5 mg/m2 on days 0, 7, and 14; actinomycin D (A) 1.35 mg/m2 on day 0; and dose-intensified cyclophosphamide (C) on days 0, 1, and 2. The three cyclophosphamide dose levels tested were as follows: (a) 1.2 g/m2/dose; (b) 1.5 g/m2/dose; and (c) 1.8 g/m2/dose. Continuation therapy comprised nine additional cycles of VAC with 2.2 g/m2/cycle of C. Radiotherapy was administered at week 0 (parameningeal tumors with intracranial extension) or week 12 or 15 (all others).Between October 1996 and August 1999, 115 eligible patients were enrolled. Three of 15 patients treated at dose level 2 experienced life-threatening dose-limiting toxicity (typhlitis +/- other severe toxicity). Dose level 1 was the maximum-tolerated dose, and 91 evaluable patients were treated at this level. The 3-year failure-free and overall survival estimates for patients treated at the maximum-tolerated dose were 52% (95% confidence interval, 41-64%) and 67% (95% confidence interval, 56-77%), respectively, at a median follow-up of 3 years.A 64% increase in the standard cyclophosphamide dosage during induction (to 3.6 g/m2/cycle) was tolerated. However, outcomes were similar to those observed at lower dosages, suggesting that alkylator dose intensification does not benefit patients with intermediate-risk rhabdomyosarcoma.
View details for Web of Science ID 000224080200014
View details for PubMedID 15447992
The aim of our study was to describe late failures in children who initially survived event-free five years from a diagnosis of rhabdomyosarcoma. Charts of children enrolled in the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group (IRSG) trials III, IV pilot and IV (1984-1997) who survived five years event-free and subsequently experienced an adverse event (disease recurrence, second malignant neoplasm or death from other causes) were reviewed. Of the 2534 enrolled patients, 1160 were event-free at five years and 48 subsequently experienced a late event. The estimated 10-year event rate for the 1160 patients who were alive and event-free at five years was 9% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 5%, 13%). Patients with both advanced disease (Group III/IV) and large primary tumours at diagnosis (> 5 cm) were at the highest risk for late events (19%; 95% CI 8%, 30%). Late events after successful treatment for rhabdomyosarcoma occur in 9%. Those with advanced disease and large primary tumours have the highest risk of late events.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ejca.2004.04.005
View details for Web of Science ID 000223456600018
View details for PubMedID 15288290