Doctor of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University (2009)
Samuel Cheshier, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
Safety of and humoral immune response to the anti-influenza vaccine in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients were evaluated. The trivalent vaccine was administered to 137 eligible CAD patients and 67 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. Antibody (Ab) titers were measured before and 1 month after vaccination. CAD and HC groups were not significantly different in serologic response and magnitude of change in antibody titers against each of the vaccine antigens. In multivariate analyses, regular exercise and using multivitamin supplements were independently associated with better antibody response among CAD patients. There were no major cardiac or general adverse effects. Influenza vaccine was found safe in CAD patients and antibody responses were similar to HCs.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.09.108
View details for Web of Science ID 000274869200014
View details for PubMedID 19819210
MYC-amplified medulloblastomas are highly lethal tumors. BET bromodomain inhibition has recently been shown to suppress MYC-associated transcriptional activity in other cancers. The compound JQ1 inhibits BET bromodomain-containing proteins, including BRD4. Here we investigate BET bromodomain targeting for the treatment of MYC-amplified medulloblastoma.We evaluated the effects of genetic and pharmacological inhibition of BET bromodomains on proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis in established and newly generated patient- and GEMM-derived medulloblastoma cell lines and xenografts that harbored amplifications of MYC or MYCN. We also assessed the effect of JQ1 on MYC expression and global MYC-associated transcriptional activity. We assessed in vivo efficacy of JQ1 in orthotopic xenografts established in immunocompromised mice.Treatment of MYC-amplified medulloblastoma cells with JQ1 decreased cell viability associated with arrest at G1 and apoptosis. We observed down-regulation of MYC expression and confirmed inhibition of MYC-associated transcriptional targets. Exogenous expression of MYC from a retroviral promoter reduced the effect of JQ1 on cell viability, suggesting that attenuated levels of MYC contribute to the functional effects of JQ1. JQ1 significantly prolonged survival of orthotopic xenograft models of MYC-amplified medulloblastoma (p<0.001). Xenografts harvested from mice after five doses of JQ1 had reduced expression of MYC mRNA and a reduced proliferative index.JQ1 suppresses MYC expression and MYC-associated transcriptional activity in medulloblastomas, resulting in an overall decrease in medulloblastoma cell viability. These preclinical findings highlight the promise of BET bromodomain inhibitors as novel agents for MYC-amplified medulloblastoma.
View details for DOI 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-13-2281
View details for PubMedID 24297863
Hyperlipidemia can lead to atherosclerosis by lipoprotein deposition inside the vessel wall and oxidative stress induction that leads to the formation of atherosclerotic plaque. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein particles (Ox-LDL) have a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The lipid-lowering properties and antioxidants of the grape seed can be beneficial in atherosclerosis prevention. We conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial. Fifty-two mildly hyperlipidemic individuals were divided into two groups that received either 200 mg/day of the red grape seed extract (RGSE) or placebo for 8 weeks. After an 8-week washout period, the groups were crossed over for another 8 weeks. Lipid profiles and Ox-LDL were measured at the beginning and the end of each phase. RGSE consumption reduced total cholesterol (-10.68±26.76 mg/dL, P=.015), LDL cholesterol (-9.66±23.92 mg/dL, P=.014), and Ox-LDL (-5.47±12.12 mg/dL, P=.008). While triglyceride and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were decreased and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was increased by RGSE, the changes were not statistically significant. RGSE consumption decreases Ox-LDL and has beneficial effects on lipid profile-consequently decreasing the risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disorders-in mild hyperlipidemic individuals.
View details for DOI 10.1089/jmf.2012.2408
View details for Web of Science ID 000316051800010
View details for PubMedID 23437789
This review was undertaken to determine the role of surgery in the treatment of brucella endocarditis. All English and French articles reporting brucella endocarditis (1966 to 2011) in PubMed, Google, and Scopus were reviewed. In all, 308 cases were identified, and linear and logistic regression was performed. Surgery improved outcomes by decreasing mortality from 32.7% in the medical treatment only group to 6.7% in the combined surgical and medical treatment group (p<0.001). This association was still significant while controlling for other contributing factors. In the absence of a controlled trial, we recommend the utmost vigilance and consideration of surgical management in treating such patients.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2012.07.006
View details for Web of Science ID 000311436300076
View details for PubMedID 23102495
Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory, granulomatous disorder of unknown etiology. The role of cellular and humoral immune systems in this disease is unclear, whereas dysregulation of the immune system is suggested. Patients with sarcoidosis show diverse responses while exposed to various antigens. Although influenza vaccination is recommended in pulmonary sarcoidosis, its efficacy and safety has not been investigated.? To evaluate safety and immunogenicity of influenza vaccine in patients with sarcoidosis.Influenza vaccination was performed in 23 eligible patients with sarcoidosis (SP) and 26 healthy controls (HC). Antibody titers against H1N1, H3N2, and B influenza virus antigens were evaluated just before and 1 month after vaccination. Patients were followed for 6 months to assess vaccine safety.Serological response and magnitude of changes in antibody titers against influenza vaccine antigens were comparable between SPs and HCs. Women showed a better serological response against B antigen (P = 0·034) than men. Twenty-four-hour urine calcium was associated with antibody response against H1N1 [correlation coefficient (CC) = 0·477, P = 0·003] and H3N2 (CC = 0·352, P = 0·028) antigens. Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme correlated negatively with antibody response against B antigen (CC = -0·331, P = 0·040). Higher residual volume was associated with fewer rises in antibody titer against H3N2 antigen (CC = -0·377, P = 0·035). No major adverse events or disease flare-up was observed during follow-up.In this study, influenza vaccination did not cause any major adverse event in SPs, and their serological response was equal to HCs. Studies with larger sample size and a broader selection of subjects could help validate the results of this study.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1750-2659.2011.00290.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000300689300009
View details for PubMedID 21955954
INTRODUCTION: Drug resistance mutations (DRM) in viral RNA are important in defining to provide effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-1 infected patients. Detection of DRM in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) DNA is another source of information, although the clinical significance of DRMs in proviral DNA is less clear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 25 patients receiving ART at a center in Zimbabwe, 32 blood samples were collected. Dideoxy-sequencing of gag-pol identified subtype and resistance mutations from plasma viral RNA and proviral DNA. Drug resistance was estimated using the calibrated population resistance tool on www.hivdb.stanford.edu database. Numerical resistance scores were calculated for all antiretroviral drugs and for the subjects' reported regimen. Phylogenetic analysis as maximum likelihood was performed to determine the evolutionary distance between sequences. RESULTS: Of the 25 patients, 4 patients (2 of which had given 2 blood samples) were not known to be on ART (NA) and had exclusively wild-type virus, 17 had received Protease inhibitors (PI), 18, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) and 19, two or more nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI). Of the 17 with history of PI, 10 had PI mutations, 5 had minor differences between mutations in RNA and DNA. Eighteen samples had NNRTI mutations, six of which demonstrated some discordance between DNA and RNA mutations. Although NRTI resistance mutations were frequently different between analyses, mutations resulted in very similar estimated phenotypes as measured by resistance scores. The numerical resistance scores from RNA and DNA for PIs differed between 2/10, for NNRTIs between 8/18, and for NRTIs between 17/32 pairs. When calculated resistance scores were collapsed, 3 pairs showed discordance between RNA and DNA for at least one PI, 6 were discordant for at least one NNRTI and 11 for at least one NRTI. Regarding phylogenetic evolutionary analysis, all RNA and DNA sequence pairs clustered closely in a maximum likelihood tree. CONCLUSION: PBMC DNA could be useful for testing drug resistance in conjunction with plasma RNA where the results of each yielded complementary information about drug resistance. Identification of DRM, archived in proviral DNA, could be used to provide for sustainable public health surveillance among subtype C infected patients.
View details for PubMedID 23019537
Cystic lymphangiomas originate as benign masses which occur mostly in children especially in the head and neck region and/or the groin. Although abdominal lymphangiomas are rare, they are most commonly reported in adults. In addition, pancreatic involvement is rare. Lymphatic malformation with blockage of the lymphatic flow is the most common etiology leading to the formation of lymphangiomas. Cystic lymphangiomas should always be included in the differential diagnosis of abdominal masses which present with mass effect signs and symptoms. Due to its rarity, it forms a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for the clinician.We herein report the case of a 43-year-old man with a cystic lymphangioma detected in the head of the pancreas and describe the surgical procedure utilized as the therapeutic medium.To remove this mass, we utilized a modified approach to a classic pancreaticoduodenectomy. This technique involved resection of the head of the pancreas while preserving the upper 2nd portion of the duodenum and the ampulla of Vater. The result of our 30-month follow-up of this patient has been very satisfactory with no complications.
View details for PubMedID 21068498