Bio

Clinical Focus


  • Anesthesia for ENT Surgery
  • Difficult Airway
  • Anesthesia
  • Anesthesia for Liver Transplantation
  • Neuroanesthesia

Academic Appointments


Professional Education


  • Residency:Dalhousie University (1995) Canada
  • Internship:Dalhousie University (1991) Canada
  • Board Certification: Anesthesia, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons (1995)
  • Medical Education:Dalhousie University (1990) Canada
  • BSc, Dalhousie University, Science (1985)
  • MSc, Dalhousie University, Clinical Chemistry (1988)
  • MD, Dalhousie University, Medicine (1990)
  • FRCP(C), Dalhousie University, Anesthesia (1995)

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Field of clinical pharmacology. This involves analysis of what the body does to a drug (pharmacokinetics) and how exactly a specific drug affects the body (pharmacodynamics). His research starts at the level of new drug development with detailed analysis of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a medication.

Clinical Trials


  • Study of Drug Concentration of Ondansetron and Cefazolin in Mothers and Neonates Not Recruiting

    This study proposes to look at the pharmacokinetics of two drugs (Cefazolin and ondansetron) given routinely to pregnant women who are planning to deliver via cesarean section. The investigators will evaluate the metabolism of both drugs by the pregnant woman, the placental transfer over time, and the subsequent metabolism of the transferred drug in the neonate.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Martha Tingle, (650) 724 - 2742.

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  • Heritability of Opioid Effects: A Twin Study Not Recruiting

    Proposed twin study will test to what degree inter-individual differences in pain sensitivity and amount of pain relief in response to opioid therapy are inherited or alternatively, are due to environmental factors. This knowledge is important to guide future studies trying to explain such inter-individual differences. For example, finding that differences are largely due to environmental factors would discourage genomic studies and emphasize epidemiological studies.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Martha Tingle, (650) 724 - 2742.

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  • Effects of Epidural Lidocaine on the Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Profiles of DepoDur® After Cesarean Delivery Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the levels of morphine in a patients blood when morphine is given into the epidural space in the form of DepoDur® either alone or following a dose of lidocaine also given in the epidural space. Specifically, we are looking at pregnant women undergoing cesarean delivery who will be receiving these medications. A secondary objective is to evaluate the how well DepoDur® works for pain control, as well as its safety, when it is given either alone or following a dose of epidural lidocaine.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Brendan Carvalho, (650) 861 - 8607.

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  • Using the SEDLine for the Titration of Sevoflurane in Elderly Patients Recovery Using the SEDLine TM for the Titration of Sevoflurane in Elderly Patients Undergoing Non-Cardiac Surgery After Beta-Adrenergic Blockade Not Recruiting

    Asses the effect of the use of Patient State Index (PSI) monitoring on difference in emergence profiles in the elderly (age >65 yrs) population to develop a cost-benefit profile. Assess differences in Quality of Life using the QoR-40 (a validated 40-item questionnaire on quality of recovery from anesthesia) between the two treatment groups.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact David Drover, (650) 725 - 0364.

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  • A Randomized Controlled Study of Rolapitant for the Prevention of Nausea and Vomiting Following Surgery (Study P04937AM1)(COMPLETED) Not Recruiting

    This is a multicenter, randomized, controlled study in women who are having elective open abdominal surgery with general anesthesia and who are expected to need patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) after surgery. The primary objective is to assess the effect of rolapitant in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting as measured by the prevention of vomiting in the first 24 hours after surgery. Participation in the study may last up to 3 months. The total duration of the study will be approximately 36 weeks.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact David Drover, (650) 725 - 0364.

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  • Measuring the Amount of Methadone or Morphine in the Blood of Neonates, Infants & Children After Cardiac Surgery. Not Recruiting

    Study Population: Neonates, infants and children from birth to 5 years of age undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. The use of methadone to provide analgesia may be increasing due to advantages compared to other commonly used opioid analgesic drugs. While efficacy of methadone has been reported in adults, there is a paucity of information in neonates and infants. In the latter population, fentanyl and morphine are most commonly used for opioid analgesia following major surgery, while methadone is frequently used for weaning of opioid dependent and tolerant patients, in spite of the paucity of knowledge of methadone pharmacology in this population. There are several clinical problems associated with fentanyl and morphine, and methadone may offer superior efficacy with fewer side effects than these agents. We propose to study the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of methadone in neonates and infants in the intensive care unit following cardiac surgery.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Gregory Hammer, (650) 723 - 7835.

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  • Postoperative Pain and Functional Patient Outcomes After Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery Not Recruiting

    The aim of the study is to quantify postoperative pain after functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) and investigate whether preemptive analgesia may positively impact intraoperative anesthetic management, decrease patient postoperative pain and discomfort, and improve patient functional outcomes.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact David Drover, (650) 725 - 0364.

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Teaching

2013-14 Courses


Graduate and Fellowship Programs


Publications

Journal Articles


  • The effects of ketamine on dexmedetomidine-induced electrophysiologic changes in children. Paediatric anaesthesia Char, D., Drover, D. R., Motonaga, K. S., Gupta, S., Miyake, C. Y., Dubin, A. M., Hammer, G. B. 2013; 23 (10): 898-905

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine is an alpha2-adrenergic agonist used for sedation and analgesia in children. We previously showed that dexmedetomidine depresses sinus and AV nodal function resulting in adverse hemodynamic effects such as bradycardia and increased blood pressure. We hypothesized that these effects of dexmedetomidine might be antagonized by co-administration of ketamine, which has sympathomimetic properties. METHODS: Twenty-two children (ages 5-17 years) undergoing electrophysiologic (EP) study and ablation for supraventricular tachycardia were enrolled. Patients were kept sedated with continuous infusion of propofol at a fixed rate. Hemodynamic and EP parameters were measured before and after a loading dose of dexmedetomidine (1 ?g·kg(-1) ). A continuous infusion of dexmedetomidine (0.7 ?g·kg(-1) ·h(-1) ) was initiated and a ketamine loading dose (1 mg·kg(-1) ), followed by continuous infusion (1 mg·kg(-1) ·h(-1) ), was given. A repeat set of hemodynamic and EP parameters were then measured at the time of projected peak tissue concentration for both drugs. RESULTS: A significant increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) was seen compared with baseline after loading of dexmedetomidine. This returned to baseline after co-administration of ketamine (mean difference between baseline and after ketamine 1.8 mmHg; 95%CI, -7.8 to 4.3; P = <0.001). A decrease in heart rate was seen after dexmedetomidine followed by a return to baseline after co-administration of ketamine (mean difference between baseline and after ketamine -6.5 bpm; 95%CI, -11.2 to -1.8; P = 0.005). Sinus node recovery time was lengthened after dexmedetomidine but returned to baseline after ketamine (mean difference between baseline and after ketamine -16.2 ms; 95%CI, -63 to 30; P = 0.014). QT was prolonged after dexmedetomidine and returned to baseline after ketamine (mean difference between baseline and after ketamine -34.2 ms; 95%CI, -48.4 to -20.2; P = 0.004). AV nodal effective refractory period was also impaired after dexmedetomidine and showed weak evidence for return to baseline function after ketamine (mean difference between baseline and after ketamine -22.8 ms; 95%CI, -40.2 to -5.2; P = 0.069). CONCLUSION: The concurrent use of ketamine may mitigate the negative chronotropic effects of dexmedetomidine.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/pan.12143

    View details for PubMedID 23506472

  • Comparison of a New Cobinamide-Based Method to a Standard Laboratory Method for Measuring Cyanide in Human Blood JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL TOXICOLOGY Swezey, R., Shinn, W., Green, C., Drover, D. R., Hammer, G. B., Schulman, S. R., Zajicek, A., Jett, D. A., Boss, G. R. 2013; 37 (6): 382-385

    Abstract

    Most hospital laboratories do not measure blood cyanide concentrations, and samples must be sent to reference laboratories. A simple method is needed for measuring cyanide in hospitals. The authors previously developed a method to quantify cyanide based on the high binding affinity of the vitamin B12 analog, cobinamide, for cyanide and a major spectral change observed for cyanide-bound cobinamide. This method is now validated in human blood, and the findings include a mean inter-assay accuracy of 99.1%, precision of 8.75% and a lower limit of quantification of 3.27 µM cyanide. The method was applied to blood samples from children treated with sodium nitroprusside and it yielded measurable results in 88 of 172 samples (51%), whereas the reference laboratory yielded results in only 19 samples (11%). In all 19 samples, the cobinamide-based method also yielded measurable results. The two methods showed reasonable agreement when analyzed by linear regression, but not when analyzed by a standard error of the estimate or paired t-test. Differences in results between the two methods may be because samples were assayed at different times on different sample types. The cobinamide-based method is applicable to human blood, and can be used in hospital laboratories and emergency rooms.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/jat/bkt037

    View details for Web of Science ID 000321456900010

    View details for PubMedID 23653045

  • Sodium nitroprusside is not associated with metabolic acidosis during intraoperative infusion in children BMC ANESTHESIOLOGY Hammer, G. B., Connolly, S. G., Schulman, S. R., Lewandowski, A., Cohane, C., Reece, T. L., Anand, R., Mitchell, J., Drover, D. R. 2013; 13

    Abstract

    Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) is a potent vasodilator that has been used to induce deliberate hypotension in children during surgery involving significant blood loss, including craniofacial and spinal fusion procedures. SNP metabolism liberates cyanide, which may cause interference with cellular energy metabolism, leading to metabolic acidosis and central nervous system injury. We performed a retrospective, case-control study to determine whether the short-term intra-operative use of SNP for deliberate hypotension is associated with metabolic acidosis in children undergoing surgical procedures for craniofacial or spinal anomalies. Cyanide and thiocyanate concentrations were also recorded in patients who received SNP.Data from 166 children undergoing craniofacial and spinal fusion surgery between 2005 and 2010 at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital (LPCH) at Stanford were analyzed. Records from 60 patients who received SNP (SNP group) as part of a multicenter, randomized, double-blind study were compared with records from 106 eligible patients who had blood pressure reduction using anesthetic agents and did not receive SNP (control group). Metabolic acidosis was defined as serum bicarbonate (HCO3) < 18.5 mEq/L. Whole blood CN, plasma thiocyanate and urinary thiocyanate concentrations were measured in patients in the SNP group. Differences in metabolic acidosis rates between the SNP and control groups were assessed through a test of noninferiority in the rate for the SNP group with a noninferiority threshold of 0.2. A z-test was used to test the null hypothesis. The alternative hypothesis was that the difference in these rates was less than 0.2. The same noninferiority threshold of 0.2 was also used to perform separate, secondary tests for noninferiority in the proportion of patients with HCO3 levels below 18.5 mEq/L and the proportion of patients who required HCO3 administration.Fewer patients in the SNP group experienced metabolic acidosis compared to the control group (31.7% vs. 36.8%, respectively; p < .001). No whole blood CN levels above the lower limit of quantification were detected in any of the 51 patients with validated CN data. Plasma and urinary thiocyanate levels were also low.Our findings suggest that SNP, when used for short-term deliberate hypotension, does not cause an increased incidence of metabolic acidosis compared with the use of anesthetic agents alone.Trial registration number: NCT00135668.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1471-2253-13-9

    View details for Web of Science ID 000318602200001

    View details for PubMedID 23631460

  • Aversive and Reinforcing Opioid Effects A Pharmacogenomic Twin Study ANESTHESIOLOGY Angst, M. S., Lazzeroni, L. C., Phillips, N. G., Drover, D. R., Tingle, M., Ray, A., Swan, G. E., Clark, J. D. 2012; 117 (1): 22-37

    Abstract

    The clinical utility of opioids is limited by adverse drug effects including respiratory depression, sedation, nausea, and pruritus. In addition, abuse of prescription opioids is problematic. Gaining a better understanding of the genetic and environmental mechanisms contributing to an individual's susceptibility to adverse opioid effects is essential to identify patients at risk.A classic twin study paradigm provided estimates for the genetic and familial (genetic and/or shared environment) contribution to acute adverse and affective opioid responses, all secondary outcomes of a larger dataset. One hundred twenty-one twin pairs were recruited in a single occasion, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study. The ?-opioid receptor agonist alfentanil and saline placebo were administered as target-controlled infusions under carefully monitored laboratory conditions. Measured outcomes included respiratory depression, sedation, nausea, pruritus, drug liking, and drug disliking. Demographic information was collected, and aspects of mood and sleep were evaluated.Significant heritability was detected for respiratory depression (30%), nausea (59%), and drug disliking (36%). Significant familial effects were detected for sedation (29%), pruritus (38%), dizziness (32%), and drug liking (26%). Significant covariates included age, sex, race, ethnicity, education, mood, and depression. Covariates affected sedation, pruritus, drug liking and disliking, and dizziness.This study demonstrates that large-scale efforts to collect quantitative and well-defined opioid response data are not only feasible but also produce data that are suitable for genetic analysis. Genetic, environmental, and demographic factors work together to control adverse and reinforcing opioid responses, but contribute differently to specific responses.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305672800007

    View details for PubMedID 22713632

  • Pain sensitivity and opioid analgesia: A pharmacogenomic twin study PAIN Angst, M. S., Phillips, N. G., Drover, D. R., Tingle, M., Ray, A., Swan, G. E., Lazzeroni, L. C., Clark, J. D. 2012; 153 (7): 1397-1409

    Abstract

    Opioids are the cornerstone medication for the management of moderate to severe pain. Unfortunately, vast inter-individual differences in dose requirements complicate their effective and safe clinical use. Mechanisms underlying such differences are incompletely understood, are likely multifactorial, and include genetic and environmental contributions. While accumulating evidence suggests that variants of several genes account for some of the observed response variance, the relative contribution of these factors remains unknown. This study used a twin paradigm to provide a global estimate of the genetic and environmental contributions to inter-individual differences in pain sensitivity and analgesic opioid effects. Eighty one monozygotic and 31 dizygotic twin pairs successfully underwent a computer-controlled infusion with the ?-opioid agonist alfentanil in a single occasion, randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study design. Pain sensitivity and analgesic effects were assessed with experimental heat and cold pressor pain models along with important covariates including demographic factors, depression, anxiety, and sleep quality. Significant heritability was detected for cold pressor pain tolerance and opioid-mediated elevations in heat and cold pressor pain thresholds. Genetic effects accounted for 12-60% of the observed response variance. Significant familial effects accounting for 24-32% of observed variance were detected for heat and cold pressor pain thresholds and opioid-mediated elevation in cold pressor pain tolerance. Significant covariates included age, gender, race, education, and anxiety. Results provide a strong rationale for more detailed molecular genetic studies to elucidate mechanisms underlying inter-individual differences in pain sensitivity and analgesic opioid responses. Such studies will require careful consideration of the studied pain phenotype.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.pain.2012.02.022

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305423700014

    View details for PubMedID 22444188

  • The Pharmacokinetics of Ketorolac After Single Postoperative Intranasal Administration in Adolescent Patients ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA Drover, D. R., Hammer, G. B., Anderson, B. J. 2012; 114 (6): 1270-1276

    Abstract

    Ketorolac tromethamine (ketorolac) administration reduces postoperative opioid requirements. The pharmacokinetic characteristics of intranasal ketorolac tromethamine in children have not been characterized. Our objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of a single intranasal dose of ketorolac in adolescent patients.Twenty surgical patients, ages 12 to 17 years, were enrolled. After surgery, subjects received intranasal ketorolac 15 mg (weight ?50 kg) or 30 mg (weight >50 kg) using a proprietary administration system. Blood samples were obtained for ketorolac assay at baseline (within 15 minutes before the dose) and at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hours after the dose. A population analysis was undertaken using nonlinear mixed-effects models. Parameter estimates were standardized to a 70-kg person.The intranasal dosing in adolescents was well tolerated with minimal adverse effects. A 1-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination was satisfactory to describe time-concentration profiles. Population parameter estimates (between subject variability) were clearance (CL/F) 2.05 L/h (60.5%), volume of distribution (V/F) 15.2 L (32.4%), absorption half-life (t(1/2)abs) 0.173 hour (25.0%). Time to peak concentration (Tmax) was 52 minutes (SD 6 minutes).Administration of ketorolac by the intranasal route resulted in a rapid increase in plasma concentration and may be a useful therapeutic alternative to IV injection in adolescents because plasma concentrations attained with the device are likely to be analgesic (investigational new drug no. 62,829).

    View details for DOI 10.1213/ANE.06013e31824f92c2

    View details for Web of Science ID 000304504000019

    View details for PubMedID 22467894

  • Intrathecal fentanyl added to bupivacaine and morphine for cesarean delivery may induce a subtle acute opioid tolerance INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRIC ANESTHESIA Carvalho, B., Drover, D. R., Ginosar, Y., Cohen, S. E., Riley, E. T. 2012; 21 (1): 29-34

    Abstract

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the addition of intrathecal fentanyl to a spinal anesthetic for cesarean delivery improves intraoperative analgesia. However, intrathecal fentanyl may induce acute tolerance to opioids. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the addition of intrathecal fentanyl to spinal anesthesia with intrathecal morphine increases postoperative analgesic requirements and pain scores.In this randomized, double-blinded study, 40 women having elective cesarean delivery were enrolled. Patients received spinal anesthesia with hyperbaric bupivacaine 12 mg, morphine 200 ?g, and fentanyl 0, 5, 10 or 25 ?g. Each patient received intravenous patient-controlled analgesia morphine for 24h postoperatively. Outcome measures included postoperative morphine usage and pain scores, as well as intraoperative pain, nausea, hypotension and vasopressor use.Total morphine use over the 24-h post-spinal study period was similar among the study groups (P=0.129). Postoperative pain scores were higher in patients receiving fentanyl 5, 10 and 25 ?g compared to fentanyl 0 ?g control group (P=0.003).The study results suggest that intrathecal fentanyl may induce acute tolerance to intrathecal morphine. However, because there was no difference in postoperative analgesia requirement and the difference in pain scores was small, the clinical significance of this finding is uncertain.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijoa.2011.09.002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301325800006

    View details for PubMedID 22100823

  • Comparative clinical effects of hydromorphone and morphine: a meta-analysis BRITISH JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIA Felden, L., Walter, C., Harder, S., Treede, R., Kayser, H., Drover, D., Geisslinger, G., Loetsch, J. 2011; 107 (3): 319-328

    Abstract

    We have conducted a meta-analysis of the clinical effects of morphine and hydromorphone to compare their benefit in analgesia. Embase and Medline were searched with an end-date of June 2009 for randomized, controlled trials or observational studies that addressed comparative analgesic and side-effects or particular side-effects. Two researchers independently identified included studies and extracted the data. Estimates of opioid effects were combined by using a random-effects model. Meta-analysis of eight studies suggested that hydromorphone (494 patients) provides slightly better (P=0.012) clinical analgesia than morphine (510 patients). The effect-size was small (Cohen's d=0.266) and disappeared when one study was removed, although the advantage of hydromorphone was more evident in studies of better quality (Jadad's rating). Side-effects were similar, for example, nausea (P=0.383, nine studies, 456 patients receiving hydromorphone and 460 morphine); vomiting (P=0.306, six studies, 246 patients receiving hydromorphone and 239 morphine); or itching (P=0.249, eight studies, 405 patients receiving hydromorphone, 410 morphine). This suggests some advantage of hydromorphone over morphine for analgesia. Additional potential clinical pharmacological advantages with regard to side-effects, such as safety in renal failure or during acute analgesia titration, are based on limited evidence and require substantiation by further studies.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/bja/aer232

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293910400005

    View details for PubMedID 21841049

  • Prior epidural lidocaine alters the pharmacokinetics and drug effects of extended-release epidural morphine (DepoDur®) after cesarean delivery. Anesthesia and analgesia Atkinson Ralls, L., Drover, D. R., Clavijo, C. F., Carvalho, B. 2011; 113 (2): 251-258

    Abstract

    A potential physicochemical interaction between epidural local anesthetics and extended-release epidural morphine (EREM) could negate the sustained release. In this study, we sought to determine the pharmacokinetic and drug effects of prior epidural lidocaine administration on EREM.Thirty healthy women undergoing cesarean delivery were enrolled in this randomized study. Patients received 8 mg EREM 1 hour after either a combined spinal-epidural (intrathecal bupivacaine and fentanyl 20 ?g with no epidural medication; group SE) or an epidural anesthetic (epidural 2% lidocaine with fentanyl 100 ?g; group E). Maximal concentration (Cmax), time to Cmax (Tmax), and AUC(0-last) (area under the concentration-time curve until the last plasma concentration that was below the limit of quantitation) for morphine levels were determined from a plasma sample at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 30 minutes, and 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 hours. Drug effects including pain, analgesic use, and side effects were measured for 72 hours after cesarean delivery.Epidural lidocaine administration (20-35 mL) 1 hour before epidural EREM administration increased the Cmax in group E (11.1 ± 4.9) compared with group SE (8.3 ± 7.1 ng/mL) (P = 0.038). There were no significant effects on Tmax and AUC(0-last) of venous morphine between the groups (P > 0.05). There was an increased incidence in vomiting, oxygen use, and hypotension in group E (patients who received lidocaine before EREM).A large dose of epidural lidocaine 1 hour before EREM administration alters the pharmacokinetics and drug effects of EREM. Clinicians must apply caution when EREM is administered even 1 hour after an epidural lidocaine "top-up" for cesarean delivery.

    View details for DOI 10.1213/ANE.0b013e318222f59c

    View details for PubMedID 21642610

  • TITRATION OF SEVOFLURANE IN ELDERLY PATIENTS: BLINDED, RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL, IN NON-CARDIAC SURGERY AFTER BETA-ADRENERGIC BLOCKADE JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MONITORING AND COMPUTING Drover, D. R., Schmiesing, C., Buchin, A. F., Ortega, H. R., Tanner, J. W., Atkins, J. H., Macario, A. 2011; 25 (3): 175-181

    Abstract

    Monitoring depth of anesthesia via the processed electroencephalogram (EEG) has been found useful in reducing the amount of anesthetic drugs, optimizing wake-up times, and, in some studies, reducing awareness. Our goal was to determine if titrating sevoflurane as the maintenance anesthetic to a depth of anesthesia monitor (SEDLine?, Masimo, CA) would shorten time to extubation in elderly patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery while on beta-adrenergic blockade. This patient population was selected because the usual cardiovascular signs of inadequate general anesthesia may be masked by beta-blocker therapy.Surgical patients older than 65 years of age receiving beta-adrenergic blockers for a minimum of 24 h preoperatively were randomized to two groups: a group whose titration of sevoflurane was based on SEDLine? data (SEDLine? group) and a group whose titration was based on usual clinical criteria (control group) where SEDLine? data were concealed. The primary endpoint was time from skin closure to time to extubation. Aldrete score, White Fast Track score and QoR-40 were also assessed.There was no significant difference in time to extubation [12.5 (SD 7.4) min in the control group versus 13.0 (SD 5.9) min for the treatment group]. The control group used more fentanyl [339 mcg (SD 205)] than did the treatment group [238 mcg (SD 123)] (P<0.02). There was no difference in sevoflurane utilization, Aldrete, White Fast Track scores, time to PACU discharge, or QoR-40 assessments between the groups.Use of the SEDLine? monitor's data to titrate sevoflurane did not improve the time to extubation or change short-term outcome of geriatric surgical patients receiving beta-adrenergic blockers. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00938782).

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10877-011-9293-1

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298814400004

    View details for PubMedID 21830049

  • A sensitive assay for the quantification of morphine and its active metabolites in human plasma and dried blood spots using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry ANALYTICAL AND BIOANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY Clavijo, C. F., Hoffman, K. L., Thomas, J. J., Carvalho, B., Chu, L. F., Drover, D. R., Hammer, G. B., Christians, U., Galinkin, J. L. 2011; 400 (3): 715-728

    Abstract

    Opioids such as morphine are the cornerstone of pain treatment. The challenge of measuring the concentrations of morphine and its active metabolites in order to assess human pharmacokinetics and monitor therapeutic drugs in children requires assays with high sensitivity in small blood volumes. We developed and validated a semi-automated LC-MS/MS assay for the simultaneous quantification of morphine and its active metabolites morphine 3?-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine 6?-glucuronide (M6G) in human plasma and in dried blood spots (DBS). Reconstitution in water (DBS only) and addition of a protein precipitation solution containing the internal standards were the only manual steps. Morphine and its metabolites were separated on a Kinetex 2.6-?m PFP analytical column using an acetonitrile/0.1% formic acid gradient. The analytes were detected in the positive multiple reaction mode. In plasma, the assay had the following performance characteristics: range of reliable response of 0.25-1000 ng/mL (r(2)?>?0.99) for morphine, 1-1,000 ng/mL (r(2)?>?0.99) for M3G, and 2.5-1,000 ng/mL for M6G. In DBS, the assay had a range of reliable response of 1-1,000 ng/mL (r(2)?>?0.99) for morphine and M3G, and of 2.5-1,000 ng/mL for M6G. For inter-day accuracy and precision for morphine, M3G and M6G were within 15% of the nominal values in both plasma and DBS. There was no carryover, ion suppression, or matrix interferences. The assay fulfilled all predefined acceptance criteria, and its sensitivity using DBS samples was adequate for the measurement of pediatric pharmacokinetic samples using a small blood of only 20-50 ?L.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00216-011-4775-z

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289297000015

    View details for PubMedID 21400080

  • ED50 and ED95 of Intrathecal Bupivacaine in Morbidly Obese Patients Undergoing Cesarean Delivery ANESTHESIOLOGY Carvalho, B., Collins, J., Drover, D. R., Ralls, L. A., Riley, E. T. 2011; 114 (3): 529-535

    Abstract

    It has been suggested that morbidly obese parturients may require less local anesthetic for spinal anesthesia. The aim of this study was to determine the effective dose (ED(50)/ED(95)) of intrathecal bupivacaine for cesarean delivery in morbidly obese patients.Morbidly obese parturients (body mass index equal to or more than 40) undergoing elective cesarean delivery were enrolled in this double-blinded study. Forty-two patients were randomly assigned to receive intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine in doses of 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, or 11 mg (n = 6 per group) coadministered with 200 ?g morphine and 10 ?g fentanyl. Success (induction) was defined as block height to pinprick equal to or more than T6 and success (operation) as success (induction) plus no requirement for epidural supplementation throughout surgery. The ED(50)/ED(95) values were determined using a logistic regression model.ED(50) and ED(95) (with 95% confidence intervals) for success (operation) were 9.8 (8.6-11.0) and 15.0 (10.0-20.0), respectively, and were similar to corresponding values of a nonobese population determined previously using similar methodology. We were unable to measure ED(50)/ED(95) values for success (induction) because so few blocks failed initially, even at the low-dose range. There were no differences with regard to secondary outcomes (i.e., hypotension, vasopressor use, nausea, and vomiting).Obese and nonobese patients undergoing cesarean delivery do not appear to respond differently to modest doses of intrathecal bupivacaine. This dose-response study suggests that doses of intrathecal bupivacaine less than 10 mg may not adequately ensure successful intraoperative anesthesia. Even when the initial block obtained with a low dose is satisfactory, it will not guarantee adequate anesthesia throughout surgery.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/ALN.0b013e318209a92d

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287660300012

    View details for PubMedID 21307769

  • Morphine and its metabolites after patient-controlled analgesia: considerations for respiratory depression JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ANESTHESIA Sam, W. J., Mackey, S. C., Loetsch, J., Drover, D. R. 2011; 23 (2): 102-106

    Abstract

    To assess concentrations of morphine and its metabolites after patient-controlled analgesia (PCA).Pilot pharmacokinetic study of morphine and pharmacokinetic simulation.Post-anesthesia care room and ward of an academic teaching hospital.10 ASA physical status I, II, and III postoperative surgical patients.Patients received morphine via PCA by routine hospital protocols.The population mean plasma and effect-site concentrations of morphine, morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G), and morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) was simulated in 4 patient group scenarios: morphine PCA used alone, morphine PCA used with continuous background morphine infusion of 0.5 mg/hr, morphine PCA used with continuous background morphine infusion of 1.0 mg/hr, and morphine PCA used with continuous background morphine infusion of 2.0 mg/hr.The 4 groups exhibited simulated peak morphine, M6G, and M3G effect-site concentrations at 8 to 24 hours post-infusion. The highest peak morphine, M6G, and M3G effect-site concentrations decreased in the following order by group: 2.0 mg/hr morphine infusion + PCA group, 1.0 mg/hr morphine infusion + PCA group, and 0.5. mg/hr morphine infusion + PCA group.Patients receiving morphine PCA should be monitored closely from 8 to 24 hours postoperatively. Morphine PCA given with background infusion rates up to 1.0 mg/hr does not offer distinct pharmacokinetic advantages over morphine PCA alone. Morphine PCA with background infusion rate of 2.0 mg/hr is associated with the greatest risk of respiratory depression.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jclinane.2010.08.002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288723100004

    View details for PubMedID 21377072

  • Efficacy, Safety, and Pharmacokinetics of Sugammadex for the Reversal of Rocuronium-induced Neuromuscular Blockade in Elderly Patients ANESTHESIOLOGY McDonagh, D. L., Benedict, P. E., Kovac, A. L., Drover, D. R., Brister, N. W., Morte, J. B., Monk, T. G. 2011; 114 (2): 318-329

    Abstract

    The management of elderly patients can be challenging for anesthesiologists for many reasons, including altered pharmacokinetics and dynamics. This study compared the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of sugammadex for moderate rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade reversal in adult (aged 18-64 yr) versus elderly adult (aged 65 yr or older) patients.This phase 3a, multicenter, parallel-group, comparative, open-label study enrolled 162 patients aged 18 yr and older, American Society of Anesthesiologists class 1-3, scheduled for surgery with general anesthesia and requiring neuromuscular blockade. After anesthesia induction, patients received rocuronium, 0.6 mg/kg, before tracheal intubation, with maintenance doses of 0.15 mg/kg as required. At the end of surgery, patients received sugammadex, 2.0 mg/kg, at reappearance of the second twitch of the train-of-four (TOF) for reversal. The primary efficacy variable was time from sugammadex administration to recovery of the TOF ratio to 0.9 or greater. Pharmacokinetics and safety were also evaluated.Overall, 150 patients were treated and had at least one postbaseline efficacy assessment; 48 were aged 18-64 yr (adult), 62 were aged 65-74 yr (elderly), and 40 were aged 75 yr or older (old-elderly). The geometric mean time (95% confidence interval) from sugammadex administration to recovery of the TOF ratio to 0.9 increased with age, from 2.3 (2.0-2.6) min (adults) to 2.9 (2.7-3.2) min (elderly/old-elderly groups combined). Recovery of the TOF ratio to 0.9 was estimated to be 0.7 min faster in adults compared with patients aged 65 yr or older (P = 0.022). Sugammadex was well tolerated by all patients.Sugammadex facilitates rapid reversal from moderate rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade in adults of all ages.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000286586200014

    View details for PubMedID 21239968

  • Opioid Pharmacogenomics Using a Twin Study Paradigm: Methods and Procedures for Determining Familial Aggregation and Heritability TWIN RESEARCH AND HUMAN GENETICS Angst, M. S., Phillips, N. G., Drover, D. R., Tingle, M., Galinkin, J. L., Christians, U., Swan, G. E., Lazzeroni, L. C., Clark, J. D. 2010; 13 (5): 412-425

    Abstract

    Opioids are the cornerstone medication for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. However, analgesic opioid requirements and the propensity to suffer from aversive opioid effects, including fatal respiratory depression and addiction, vary widely among patients. The factors underlying the substantial response variance remain largely unknown and need clarification for using opioids more effectively in appropriately selected patients. This ongoing study takes advantage of the twin paradigm to estimate the genetic and environmental contributions to inter-individual differences in opioid responses. Evidence of significant heritability will justify more detailed and extensive genomic studies. The enrollment target is 80 monozygotic and 45 dizygotic twin pairs who undergo a target-controlled infusion of the opioid alfentanil and saline placebo in sequential but randomized order. In a laboratory-type setting, well-defined pharmacodynamic endpoints are measured to quantify pain sensitivity, analgesic opioid effects, and aversive opioid effects including respiratory depression, sedation and reinforcing affective responses. First results obtained in 159 participants provide evidence for the feasibility and utility of this interventional study paradigm to estimate familial aggregation and heritability components of relevant drug effects. Areas highlighted in this report include recruitment strategies, required infrastructure and personnel, selection of relevant outcome measures, drug infusion algorithm minimizing pharmacokinetic variability, and considerations for optimizing data quality and quantity without hampering feasibility. Applying the twin paradigm to complex and potentially harmful studies comprehensively characterizing pharmacological response profiles is without much precedent. Methods and first results including heritability estimates for heat and cold pain sensitivity should be of interest to investigators considering similar studies.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000283001300002

    View details for PubMedID 20874462

  • Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of the hypotensive effect of remifentanil in infants undergoing cranioplasty PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA Standing, J. F., Hammer, G. B., Sam, W. J., Drover, D. R. 2010; 20 (1): 7-18

    Abstract

    Although remifentanil has been used to induce hypotension during surgery in infants, no pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) model exists for its quantitative analysis. Our aim was to determine the quantitative relationship between whole blood remifentanil concentration and its hypotensive effect during surgery in infants.We studied seven infants (age 0.3-1 year) who underwent cranioplasty surgery and received remifentanil delivered by a computer-controlled infusion pump during the maintenance of anesthesia. Arterial blood samples to determine remifentanil concentration and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) measurements were collected. A simultaneous PKPD mixed-effects model was built in NONMEM.A total of 77 remifentanil concentrations and 185 MAP measurements were collected. Remifentanil pharmacokinetics was described with a two-compartment model, parameter estimates were 2.99 l x min(-1) x 70 kg(-1) for clearance and 16.23 l x 70 kg(-1) for steady state volume of distribution. Mean baseline MAP was 69.7 mmHg and was decreased as per clinical requirements. A sigmoidal E(max) model driven by an effect compartment described the decrease in MAP, with an estimated concentration to decrease MAP by half (EC(50)) being 17.1 ng x ml(-1).Remifentanil is effective in causing hypotension. The final model predicts that a steady state remifentanil concentration of 14 ng.ml(-1) would typically achieve a 30% decrease in MAP.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1460-9592.2009.03174.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000273525800002

    View details for PubMedID 19825011

  • A POOR CORRELATION EXISTS BETWEEN OSCILLOMETRIC AND RADIAL ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE AS MEASURED BY THE PHILIPS MP90 MONITOR JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MONITORING AND COMPUTING Mireles, S. A., Jaffe, R. A., Drover, D. R., Brock-Utne, J. G. 2009; 23 (3): 169-174

    Abstract

    In anesthesia and critical care, invasive arterial blood pressure monitoring is the gold standard against which other methods of monitoring are compared. In this assessment of the Philips MP90 monitor, the objective was to determine whether or not oscillometric measurements were within the accuracy standards set by the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) and the British Hypertension Society (BHS). Three hundred and one invasive and noninvasive paired measurements were obtained from eleven adult patients on the neurosurgical service at Stanford University Medical Center. Bland-Altman plots were created to assess agreement between the two measurement systems. Paired correlation analysis, bias and precision calculations were performed. Oscillometric blood pressure measurements correlated with arterial measurements yielding Pearson r values of 0.68, 0.67 and 0.62 for systolic, diastolic and mean pressures, respectively (P < 0.01.) Mean differences with 95% confidence intervals were -3.8 mmHg +/- 13.6, -2.4 mmHg +/- 10.0, and 4.0 mmHg +/- 13.1 for systolic, diastolic and mean pressures, respectively. The mean difference for these measurements was

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10877-009-9178-8

    View details for Web of Science ID 000208150900006

    View details for PubMedID 19396553

  • No evidence for the development of acute tolerance to analgesic, respiratory depressant and sedative opioid effects in humans PAIN Angst, M. S., Chu, L. F., Tingle, M. S., Shafer, S. L., Clark, J. D., Drover, D. R. 2009; 142 (1-2): 17-26

    Abstract

    It is widely accepted that chronic opioid therapy is associated with the development of pharmacological tolerance. More controversial is the question as to whether acute opioid administration can result in "acute tolerance." The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study in thirty-six healthy human volunteers was to examine whether a 3-h intravenous infusion delivering two different but clinically relevant doses of the mu-opioid receptor agonist remifentanil would result in tolerance to analgesic, respiratory depressant and/or sedative opioid effects. The blood remifentanil concentration versus opioid effect relationship was determined before and after the 3-h infusion. Tolerance was inferred if the potency of remifentanil was significantly lower after the 3-h infusion. Opioid analgesia was assessed with the aid of the cold pressor test and models of electrical and heat pain. Respiratory depression was assessed by measuring arterial pCO2 and minute ventilation. Subjective sedation scores were assessed on a visual analogue scale. Mixed effects modeling was used to relate the steady-state blood remifentanil concentration to each pharmacodynamic assessment. Neither dose of remifentanil produced detectable tolerance to any of the measured opioid effects following a 3-h infusion. The study was adequately powered to detect a decrease in potency of 5-24% for analgesia, 20-48% for respiratory depression, and 32% for sedative effects. These results suggest that short-term administration of clinically useful doses of remifentanil is not associated with the development of significant tolerance to analgesic, respiratory depressant, or sedative opioid effects.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.pain.2008.11.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000264275800008

    View details for PubMedID 19135798

  • Determination of the pharmacodynamic interaction of propofol and dexmedetomidine during esophagogastroduodenoscopy in children PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA Hammer, G. B., Sam, W. J., Chen, M. I., Golianu, B., Drover, D. R. 2009; 19 (2): 138-144

    Abstract

    Propofol is a sedative-hypnotic drug commonly used to anesthetize children undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). Dexmedetomidine is a highly selective alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonist that has been utilized in combination with propofol to provide anesthesia. There is currently no information regarding the effect of intravenous dexmedetomidine on the propofol plasma concentration-response relationship during EGD in children. This study aimed to investigate the pharmacodynamic interaction of propofol and dexmedetomidine when used in combination for children undergoing EGD.A total of 24 children undergoing EGD, ages 3-10 years, were enrolled in this study. Twelve children received dexmedetomidine 1 microg x kg(-1) given over 10 min as well as a continuous infusion of propofol delivered by a computer-assisted target-controlled infusion (TCI) system with target plasma concentrations ranging from 2.8 to 4.0 microg x ml(-1) (DEX group). Another group of 12 children undergoing EGD also received propofol administered by TCI targeting comparable plasma concentrations without dexmedetomidine (control group). We used logistic regression to predict plasma propofol concentrations at which 50% of the patients exhibited minimal response to stimuli (EC50 for anesthesia).The EC50 +/- SE values in the control and DEX groups were 3.7 +/- 0.4 microg x ml(-1) and 3.5 +/- 0.2 microg x ml(-1), respectively. There was no significant shift in the propofol concentration-response curve in the presence of dexmedetomidine.The EC50 of propofol required to produce adequate anesthesia for EGD in children was unaffected by a concomitant infusion of dexmedetomidine 1 microg x kg(-1) given over 10 min.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1460-9592.2008.02823.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262689800008

    View details for PubMedID 19207899

  • Population pharmacokinetics of remifentanil in infants and children undergoing cardiac surgery. BMC anesthesiology Sam, W. J., Hammer, G. B., Drover, D. R. 2009; 9: 5-?

    Abstract

    The aim of this study was to provide a model-based analysis of the pharmacokinetics of remifentanil in infants and children undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).We studied nine patients aged 0.5 to 4 years who received a continuous remifentanil infusion via a computer-controlled infusion pump during cardiac surgery with mildly hypothermic CPB were studied. Arterial blood samples taken prior to, during and after CPB were analyzed for remifentanil concentrations using a validated gas-chromatographic mass-spectrophotometric assay. We used population mixed-effects modeling to characterize remifentanil pharmacokinetics. The final model was evaluated by its predictive performance.The pharmacokinetics of remifentanil was described by a 1-compartment model with adjustments for CPB. Population mean parameter estimates were 1.41 L for volume of distribution (V) and 0.244 L/min for clearance. V was increased during CPB and post-CPB to 2.41 times the pre-CPB value. The median prediction error and the median of individual median absolute prediction error were 2.44% and 21.6%, respectively.Remifentanil dosage adjustments are required during and after CPB due to marked changes in the V of the drug. Simulations indicate that a targeted blood concentration of 14 ng/mL is achieved and maintained in 50% of typical patients by administration of an initial dose of 18 mug remifentanil followed by an infusion of 3.7 mug/min before, during and post-CPB, supplemented with a bolus dose of 25 mug given at the start of CPB.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1471-2253-9-5

    View details for PubMedID 19635151

  • The effects of dexmedetomidine on cardiac electrophysiology in children ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA Hammer, G. B., Drover, D. R., Cao, H., Jackson, E., Williams, G. D., Ramamoorthy, C., Van Hare, G. F., Niksch, A., Dubin, A. M. 2008; 106 (1): 79-83

    Abstract

    Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is an alpha2-adrenergic agonist that is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for short-term (<24 h) sedation in adults. It is not approved for use in children. Nevertheless, the use of DEX for sedation and anesthesia in infants and children appears to be increasing. There are some concerns regarding the hemodynamic effects of the drug, including bradycardia, hypertension, and hypotension. No data regarding the effects of DEX on the cardiac conduction system are available. We therefore aimed to characterize the effects of DEX on cardiac conduction in pediatric patients.Twelve children between the ages of 5 and 17 yr undergoing electrophysiology study and ablation of supraventricular accessory pathways had hemodynamic and cardiac electrophysiologic variables measured before and during administration of DEX (1 microg/kg IV over 10 min followed by a 10-min continuous infusion of 0.7 microg x kg(-1) x h(-1)).Heart rate decreased while arterial blood pressure increased significantly after DEX administration. Sinus node function was significantly affected, as evidenced by an increase in sinus cycle length and sinus node recovery time. Atrioventricular nodal function was also depressed, as evidenced by Wenckeback cycle length prolongation and prolongation of PR interval.DEX significantly depressed sinus and atrioventricular nodal function in pediatric patients. Heart rate decreased and arterial blood pressure increased during administration of DEX. The use of DEX may not be desirable during electrophysiology study and may be associated with adverse effects in patients at risk for bradycardia or atrioventricular nodal block.

    View details for DOI 10.1213/01.ane.0000297421.92857.4e

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251824300015

    View details for PubMedID 18165557

  • Pharmacokinetics And Pharmacodynamics Of Fenoldopam Mesylate For Blood Pressure Control In Pediatric Patients. BMC anesthesiology Hammer, G. B., Verghese, S. T., Drover, D. R., Yaster, M., Tobin, J. R. 2008; 8: 6-?

    Abstract

    Fenoldopam mesylate, a selective dopamine1-receptor agonist, is used by intravenous infusion to treat hypertension in adults. Fenoldopam is not approved by the FDA for use in children; reports describing its use in pediatrics are limited. In a multi-institutional, placebo controlled, double-blind, multi-dose trial we determined the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) characteristics and side-effect profile of fenoldopam in children.Seventy seven (77) children from 3 weeks to 12 years of age scheduled for surgery in which deliberate hypotension would be induced were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to one of five, blinded treatment groups (placebo or fenoldopam 0.05, 0.2, 0.8, or 3.2 mcg/kg/min iv) for a 30-minute interval after stabilization of anesthesia and placement of vascular catheters. Following the 30-minute blinded interval, investigators adjusted the fenoldopam dose to achieve a target mean arterial pressure in the open-label period until deliberate hypotension was no longer indicated (e.g., muscle-layer closure). Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were continuously monitored and were the primary endpoints.Seventy-six children completed the trial. Fenoldopam at doses of 0.8 and 3.2 mcg/kg/min significantly reduced blood pressure (p < 0.05) during the blinded interval, and doses of 1.0-1.2 mcg/kg/min resulted in continued control of blood pressure during the open-label interval. Doses greater than 1.2 mcg/kg/min during the open-label period resulted in increasing heart rate without additional reduction in blood pressure. Fenoldopam was well-tolerated; side effects occurred in a minority of patients. The PK/PD relationship of fenoldopam in children was determined.Fenoldopam is a rapid-acting, effective agent for intravenous control of blood pressure in children. The effective dose range is significantly higher in children undergoing anesthesia and surgery (0.8-1.2 mcg/kg/min) than as labeled for adults (0.05-0.3 mcg/kg/min). The PK and side-effect profiles for children and adults are similar.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1471-2253-8-6

    View details for PubMedID 18837982

  • Randomized, dose-finding, Phase II study of the selective relaxant binding drug, sugammadex, capable of safely reversing profound rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA Groudine, S. B., Soto, R., Lien, C., Drover, D., Roberts, K. 2007; 104 (3): 555-562

    Abstract

    The reversal of a deep neuromuscular blockade remains a significant clinical problem. Sugammadex, a modified gamma-cyclodextrin, encapsulates steroidal neuromuscular blocking drugs, promoting their rapid dissociation from nicotinic receptors. Sugammadex is the first drug that acts as a selective relaxant binding agent.We enrolled 50 patients into a Phase II dose-finding study of the efficacy and safety of sugammadex. Subjects, anesthetized with nitrous oxide and propofol, were randomized to one of two doses of rocuronium (0.6 or 1.2 mg/kg) and to one of five doses of sugammadex (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, or 8.0 mg/kg). Neuromuscular monitoring was performed using the TOF Watch SX acceleromyograph. Recovery was defined as a train-of-four ratio > or =0.9. Sugammadex was administered during profound block when neuromuscular monitoring demonstrated a posttetanic count of one or two.Reversal of neuromuscular block was obtained after administration of sugammadex in all but the lowest dose groups (0.5-1.0 mg/kg) where several subjects could not be adequately reversed. At the 2 mg/kg dose all patients were reversed with sugammadex, but there was significant variability (1.8-15.2 min). Patient variability decreased and speed of recovery increased in a dose-dependent manner. At the highest dose (8 mg/kg), mean recovery time was 1.2 min (range 0.8-2.1 min). No serious adverse events were reported during this trial.Sugammadex was well tolerated and effective in rapidly reversing profound rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block. The mean time to recovery decreased with increasing doses. Profound rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block can be reversed successfully with sugammadex at doses >/=2 mg/kg.

    View details for DOI 10.1213/01.ane.00002601358.46070.c3

    View details for Web of Science ID 000244431500022

    View details for PubMedID 17312208

  • Patient state index. Best practice & research. Clinical anaesthesiology Drover, D., ORTEGA, H. R. 2006; 20 (1): 121-128

    Abstract

    The patient state index (PSI) is a clinically validated measure of the effect of anaesthesia and sedation. The PSI is calculated via a proprietary algorithm by a high-resolution 4-channel electroencephalograph (EEG) monitor after advanced artifact rejection. The PSI has been designed specifically for intra-operative and intensive care use to monitor patient sedation and drug effect. The algorithm relies on EEG power, frequency and phase information from anterior-posterior relationships of the brain as well as coherence between bilateral brain regions. The EEG monitor, initially called the PSA4000, is also the SEDLine monitor, the newest generation of the device. The SEDLine system provides the clinician the option of storing and downloading patient data for future use as well as monitoring bilateral brain function and symmetry with a density spectral array (DSA) display.

    View details for PubMedID 16634419

  • Pharmacology of drugs formulated with DepoFoaM (TM) - A sustained release drug delivery system for parenteral administration using multivesicular liposome technology CLINICAL PHARMACOKINETICS Angst, M. S., Drover, D. R. 2006; 45 (12): 1153-1176

    Abstract

    Lamellar liposome technology has been used for several decades to produce sustained-release drug formulations for parenteral administration. Multivesicular liposomes are structurally distinct from lamellar liposomes and consist of an aggregation of hundreds of water-filled polyhedral compartments separated by bi-layered lipid septa. The unique architecture of multivesicular liposomes allows encapsulating drug with greater efficiency, provides robust structural stability and ensures reliable, steady and prolonged drug release. The favourable characteristics of multivesicular liposomes have resulted in many drug formulations exploiting this technology, which is proprietary and referred to as DepoFoam. Currently, two formulations using multivesicular liposome technology are approved by the US FDA for clinical use, and many more formulations are at an experimental developmental stage. The first clinically available formulation contains the antineoplastic agent cytarabine (DepoCyt) for its intrathecal injection in the treatment of malignant lymphomatous meningitis. Intrathecal injection of DepoCyt reliably results in the sustained release of cytarabine and produces cytotoxic concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that are maintained for at least 2 weeks. Early efficacy data suggest that DepoCyt is fairly well tolerated, and its use allows reduced dosing frequency from twice a week to once every other week and may improve the outcome compared with frequent intrathecal injections of unencapsulated cytarabine. The second available formulation contains morphine (DepoDur) for its single epidural injection in the treatment of postoperative pain. While animal studies confirm that epidural injection of DepoDur results in the sustained release of morphine into CSF, the CSF pharmacokinetics have not been determined in humans. Clinical studies suggest that the use of DepoDur decreases the amount of systemically administered analgesics needed for adequate postoperative pain control. It may also provide superior pain control during the first 1-2 postoperative days compared with epidural administration of unencapsulated morphine or intravenous administration of an opioid. However, at this timepoint the overall clinical utility of DepoDur has yet to be defined and some safety concerns remain because of the unknown CSF pharmacokinetics of DepoDur in humans. The versatility of multivesicular liposome technology is reflected by the many agents including small inorganic and organic molecules and macromolecules including proteins that have successfully been encapsulated. Data concerning many experimental formulations containing antineoplastic, antibacterial and antiviral agents underscore the sustained, steady and reliable release of these compounds from multivesicular liposomes after injection by the intrathecal, subcutaneous, intramuscular, intraperitoneal and intraocular routes. Contingent on the specific formulation and manufacturing process, agents were released over a period of hours to weeks as reflected by a 2- to 400-fold increase in elimination half life. Published data further suggest that the encapsulation process preserves bioactivity of agents as delicate as proteins and supports the view that examined multivesicular liposomes were non-toxic at studied doses. The task ahead will be to examine whether the beneficial structural and pharmacokinetic properties of multivesicular liposome formulations will translate into improved clinical outcomes, either because of decreased drug toxicity or increased drug efficacy.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242842400001

    View details for PubMedID 17112293

  • The ED50 and ED95 of intrathecal isobaric bupivacaine with opioids for cesarean delivery ANESTHESIOLOGY Carvalho, B., Durbin, M., Drover, D. R., Cohen, S. E., Ginosar, Y., Riley, E. T. 2005; 103 (3): 606-612

    Abstract

    The ideal intrathecal isobaric bupivacaine dose for cesarean delivery anesthesia is uncertain. While small doses (5-9 mg) of bupivacaine may reduce side effects such as hypotension, they potentially increase spinal anesthetic failures. This study determined the ED50 and ED95 of intrathecal isobaric bupivacaine (with adjuvant opioids) for cesarean delivery.After institutional review board approval and written informed consent were obtained, 48 parturients undergoing elective cesarean delivery under combined spinal-epidural anesthesia were enrolled in this double-blind, randomized, dose-ranging study. Patients received a 5-, 6-, 7-, 8-, 9-, 10-, 11-, or 12-mg intrathecal isobaric bupivacaine dose with 10 microg fentanyl and 200 microg morphine. Overall anesthetic success was recorded when no intraoperative epidural supplement was required during the cesarean delivery. ED50 and ED95 values for overall anesthetic success were determined using a logistic regression model.ED50 and ED95 values for overall anesthetic success were 7.25 and 13.0 mg, respectively. No advantages for low doses could be demonstrated with regard to hypotension, nausea, vomiting, pruritus, or maternal satisfaction, although this study was underpowered to detect significant differences in secondary outcome variables.The ED50 and ED95 values (7.25 and 13.0 mg, respectively) for intrathecal isobaric bupivacaine in this circumstance are similar to values the authors determined recently for hyperbaric bupivacaine using similar methodology. These ED50 and ED95 values are significantly higher than those advocated in previous reports in which success was claimed using lower intrathecal bupivacaine doses. The current study used stricter criteria to define "successful" anesthesia and support the use of larger bupivacaine doses to ensure adequate patient comfort.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000231574300023

    View details for PubMedID 16129987

  • The use of a sum of inverse Gaussian functions to describe the absorption profile of drugs exhibiting complex absorption PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH Csajka, C., Drover, D., Verotta, D. 2005; 22 (8): 1227-1235

    Abstract

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of a parametric deconvolution method using a sum of inverse Gaussian functions (IG) to characterize the absorption and concentrations vs. time profile of drugs exhibiting complex absorption.For a linear time-invariant system the response, Y(t), following an arbitrary input function I(t), is the convolution of I(t) with the disposition function, H(t), of the system: [Formula: see text]. The method proposed uses a sum of n inverse Gaussian functions to characterize I(t). The approach was compared with a standard nonparametric method using linear splines. Data were provided from previously published studies on two drugs (hydromorphone and veralipride) showing complex absorption and analyzed with NONMEM.A satisfactory fit for hydromorphone and veralipride data following oral administration was achieved by fitting a sum of two or three IG functions. The predictions of the input functions were very similar to those using linear splines.The use of a sum of IG as opposed to nonparametric functions, such as splines, offers a simpler implementation, a more intuitive interpretation of the results, a built-in extrapolation, and an easier implementation in a population context. Disadvantages are an apparent greater sensitivity to initial value estimates (when used with NONMEM).

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11095-005-5266-8

    View details for Web of Science ID 000230990900003

    View details for PubMedID 16078132

  • Postoperative analgesia after spinal blockade in infants and children undergoing cardiac surgery ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA Hammer, G. B., Ramamoorthy, C., Cao, H., Williams, G. D., Boltz, M. G., Kamra, K., Drover, D. R. 2005; 100 (5): 1283-1288

    Abstract

    The aim of this prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial was to define the opioid analgesic requirement after a remifentanil (REMI)-based anesthetic with spinal anesthetic blockade (SAB+REMI) or without (REMI) spinal blockade for open-heart surgery in children. We enrolled 45 patients who were candidates for tracheal extubation in the operating room after cardiac surgery. Exclusion criteria included age <3 mo and >6 yr, pulmonary hypertension, congestive heart failure, contraindication to SAB, and failure to obtain informed consent. All patients had an inhaled induction with sevoflurane and maintenance of anesthesia with REMI and isoflurane (0.3% end-tidal). In addition, patients assigned to the SAB+REMI group received SAB with tetracaine (0.5-2.0 mg/kg) and morphine (7 mug/kg). After tracheal extubation in the operating room, patients received fentanyl 0.3 mug/kg IV every 10 min by patient-controlled analgesia for pain score = 4. Pain scores and fentanyl doses were recorded every hour for 24 h or until the patient was ready for discharge from the intensive care unit. Patients in the SAB+REMI group had significantly lower pain scores (P = 0.046 for the first 8 h; P =0.05 for 24 h) and received less IV fentanyl (P = 0.003 for the first 8 h; P = 0.004 for 24 h) than those in the REMI group. There were no intergroup differences in adverse effects, including hypotension, bradycardia, highest PaCO(2), lowest pH, episodes of oxygen desaturation, pruritus, and vomiting.

    View details for DOI 10.1213/01.ANE.0000148698.84881.10

    View details for Web of Science ID 000228755400013

    View details for PubMedID 15845670

  • Determination of the pharmacodynamic interaction of propofol and remifentanil during esophagogastroduodenoscopy in children ANESTHESIOLOGY Drover, D. R., Litalien, C., Wellis, V., Shafer, S. L., Hammer, G. B. 2004; 100 (6): 1382-1386

    Abstract

    Propofol is commonly used to anesthetize children undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Opioids are often used in combination with propofol to provide total intravenous anesthesia. Because both propofol and remifentanil are associated with rapid onset and offset, the combination of these two drugs may be particularly useful for procedures of short duration, including esophagogastroduodenoscopy. The authors previously demonstrated that the median effective concentration (C50) of propofol during esophagogastroduodenoscopy in children is 3.55 microg/ml. The purpose of this study was to describe the pharmacodynamic interaction of remifentanil and propofol when used in combination for esophagogastroduodenoscopy in pediatric patients.The authors studied 32 children aged between 3 and 10 yr who were scheduled to undergo esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Propofol was administered via a target-controlled infusion system using the STANPUMP software based on a pediatric pharmacokinetic model. Remifentanil was administered as a constant rate infusion of 25, 50, and 100 ng.kg(-1).min(-1) to each of three study groups, respectively. A sigmoid Emax model was developed to describe the interaction of remifentanil and propofol.There was a positive interaction between remifentanil and propofol when used in combination. The concentration of propofol alone associated with 50% probability of no response was 3.7 microg/ml (SE, 0.4 microg/ml), and this was decreased to 2.8 microg/ml (SE, 0.1 microg/ml) when used in combination with remifentanil.A remifentanil infusion of 25 ng.kg(-1).min(-1) reduces the concentration of propofol required for adequate anesthesia for esophagogastroduodenoscopy from 3.7 to 2.8 microg/ml. Increasing the remifentanil infusion yields minimal additional decrease in propofol concentration and may increase the risk of side effects.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221551300007

    View details for PubMedID 15166555

  • ED50 and ED95 of intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine coadministered with opioids for cesarean delivery ANESTHESIOLOGY Ginosar, Y., Mirikatani, E., Drover, D. R., Cohen, S. E., Riley, E. T. 2004; 100 (3): 676-682

    Abstract

    Successful cesarean delivery anesthesia has been reported with use of small doses (5-9 mg) of intrathecal bupivacaine coadministered with opioids. This double-blind, randomized, dose-ranging study determined the ED50 and ED95 of intrathecal bupivacaine (with adjuvant opioids) for cesarean delivery anesthesia.Forty-two parturients undergoing elective cesarean delivery with use of combined spinal-epidural anesthesia received intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine in doses of 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, or 12 mg in equal volumes with an added 10 microg intrathecal fentanyl and 200 microg intrathecal morphine. Sensory levels (pinprick) were evaluated every 2 min until a T6 level was achieved. The dose was a success(induction) if a bilateral T6 block occurred in 10 min; otherwise, it was a failure(induction). In addition to being a success(induction), the dose was a success(operation) if no intraoperative epidural supplement was required; otherwise, it was a failure(operation). ED50 and ED95 for both success(induction) and success(operation) were determined with use of a logistic regression model.ED50 for success(induction) and success(operation) were 6.7 and 7.6 mg, respectively, whereas the ED95 for success(induction) and success(operation) were 11.0 and 11.2 mg. Speed of onset correlated inversely with dose. Although no clear advantage for low doses could be demonstrated (hypotension, nausea, vomiting, pruritus, or maternal satisfaction), this study was underpowered to detect significance in these variables.The ED95 of intrathecal bupivacaine under the conditions of this study is considerably in excess of the low doses proposed for cesarean delivery in some recent publications. When doses of intrathecal bupivacaine less than the ED95, particularly near the ED50, are used, the doses should be administered as part of a catheter-based technique.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000189251700030

    View details for PubMedID 15108985

  • Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema and venous air embolus as complications of operative hysteroscopy JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ANESTHESIA Grove, J. J., Shinaman, R. C., Drover, D. R. 2004; 16 (1): 48-50

    Abstract

    A 37-year-old patient undergoing operative hysteroscopy developed noncardiogenic pulmonary edema after fluid absorption of 6 L of Ringer's lactate distension solution. No electrolyte or neurologic sequelae were associated with this fluid absorption. A subsequent 35-year-old patient having similar surgery in which a device was used to control intrauterine pressure and fluid absorption, developed a venous air embolus. The use of Ringer's lactate solution reduces the consequences associated with fluid absorption but it is not without risks. A device to limit intrauterine pressure and fluid absorption does not eliminate other risks.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jclinane.2003.03.010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000220049700010

    View details for PubMedID 14984860

  • Comparative pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of short-acting hypnosedatives - Zaleplon, zolpidem and zopiclone CLINICAL PHARMACOKINETICS Drover, D. R. 2004; 43 (4): 227-238

    Abstract

    Benzodiazepines have historically been the mainstay of treatment for sleeping disorders, yet they have many shortcomings. A new group of sedative hypnotic agents has been developed for this purpose. Similar to the benzodiazepines, zaleplon, zolpidem and zopiclone have activity at the GABA receptor complex, yet they appear to have more selectivity for certain subunits of the GABA receptor. This produces a clinical profile that is more efficacious with fewer side effects. Zaleplon, zolpidem and zopiclone are structurally distinct. Due to variation in binding to the GABA receptor subunits, these three compounds show subtle differences in their effect on sleep stages, and as antiepileptics, anxiolytics and amnestics. The duration of action of zaleplon, zolpidem and zopiclone can be related to their individual pharmacokinetic profile, which subsequently determines the time course of drug effect. Each of these compounds has a unique pharmacokinetic profile with different bioavailability, volume of distribution and elimination half-lives. Zaleplon has a rapid elimination so there are fewer residual side effects after taking a single dose at bedtime. By comparison, zolpidem and zopiclone have a more delayed elimination so there may be a prolonged drug effect. This can result in residual sedation and side effects but may be useful for sustained treatment of insomnia with less waking during the night. There are also differences in potency based on plasma concentrations suggesting that there are differences in binding to the GABA receptor complex. Although zaleplon has a much lower bioavailability (30%), the treatment dose is similar to zolpidem and zopiclone (bioavilaibility of 70%) because of the increased potency of zaleplon. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of zaleplon, zolpidem and zopiclone are significantly different from benzodiazepines. The new drugs are sufficiently unique from each other to allow customisation of treatment for various types of insomnia. While zaleplon may be best indicated for the delayed onset of sleep, zolpidem and zopiclone may be better indicated for maintaining a complete night's sleep. Only the patient's symptoms and response to treatment will dictate the best course of treatment.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000220639400002

    View details for PubMedID 15005637

  • Input characteristics and bioavailability after administration of immediate and a new extended-release formulation of hydromorphone in healthy volunteers ANESTHESIOLOGY Drover, D. R., Angst, M. S., Valle, M., Ramaswamy, B., Naidu, S., Stanski, D. R., Verotta, D. 2002; 97 (4): 827-836

    Abstract

    To compare the pharmacokinetics of intravenous, oral immediate-release (IR), and oral extended-release (OROS ) formulations of hydromorphone.In this randomized, six-session, crossover-design study, 12 subjects received hydromorphone 8-mg intravenous, 8-mg IR oral, and 8-, 16-, and 32-mg OROS formulations or placebo orally followed by plasma sampling for hydromorphone determination. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using NONMEM. Using the disposition of hydromorphone from the intravenous administration, deconvolution was used to estimate the input rate function (release rate from the gut to the blood) for the IR and OROS formulations. A linear spline was used to describe the drug input rate function.The deconvolution using linear splines described the release characteristics of both the IR and OROS formulations. The mean absolute bioavailability for the 8-mg OROS formulation was significantly larger ( = 0.025) than for the 8-mg IR formulation: 0.24 (SD 0.059) versus 0.19 (SD 0.054), respectively. The bioavailability was the same for the three doses of the OROS formulation. Predicted degree of fluctuation of plasma concentrations would be expected to be 130% and 39% for the IR and OROS 8-mg doses, respectively.The OROS formulation of hydromorphone produced continued release of medication over 24 h, which should allow for once-daily oral dosing. The extended release of hydromorphone will produce less fluctuation of plasma concentrations compared with IR formulations, which should provide for more constant pain control. The in vivo release of hydromorphone from both IR and OROS formulations were adequately described using a linear spline deconvolution approach. The increased bioavailability from the OROS formulation may be related to decreased metabolism by a first-pass effect or enterohepatic recycling of hydromorphone.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000178409800012

    View details for PubMedID 12357147

  • Patient state index - Titration of delivery and recovery from propofol, alfentanil, and nitrous oxide anesthesia ANESTHESIOLOGY Drover, D. R., Lemmens, H. J., Pierce, E. T., Plourde, G., Loyd, G., Ornstein, E., Prichep, L. S., Chabot, R. J., Gugino, L. 2002; 97 (1): 82-89

    Abstract

    The Patient State Index (PSI) uses derived quantitative electroencephalogram features in a multivariate algorithm that varies as a function of hypnotic state. Data are recorded from two anterior, one midline central, and one midline posterior scalp locations. PSI has been demonstrated to have a significant relation to level of hypnosis during intravenous propofol, inhalation, and nitrous oxide-narcotic anesthesia. This multisite study evaluated the utility of PSI monitoring as an adjunct to standard anesthetic practice for guiding the delivery of propofol and alfentanil to accelerate emergence from anesthesia.Three hundred six patients were enrolled in this multicenter prospective randomized clinical study. Using continuous monitoring throughout the period of propofol-alfentanil-nitrous oxide anesthesia delivery, PSI guidance was compared with use of standard practice guidelines (both before [historic controls] and after exposure to the PSA 4000 monitor [Physiometrix, Inc., N. Billerica, MA; standard practice controls]). Anesthesia was always administered with the aim of providing hemodynamic stability, with rapid recovery.No significant differences were found for demographic variables or for site. The PSI group received significantly less propofol than the standard practice control group (11.9 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1); P < 0.01) and historic control group (18.2 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1); P < 0.001). Verbal response time, emergence time, extubation time, and eligibility for operating room discharge time were all significantly shorter for the PSI group compared with the historic control (3.3-3.8 min; P < 0.001) and standard practice control (1.4-1.5 min; P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) groups. No significant differences in the number of unwanted somatic events or hemodynamic instability and no incidences of reported awareness were found.Patient State Index-directed titration of propofol delivery resulted in faster emergence and recovery from propofol-alfentanil-nitrous oxide anesthesia, with modest decrease in the amount of propofol delivered, without increasing the number of unwanted events.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000176590800011

    View details for PubMedID 12131107

  • Determination of the median effective concentration (EC50) of propofol during oesophagogastroduodenoscopy in children PAEDIATRIC ANAESTHESIA Hammer, G. B., Litalien, C., Wellis, V., Drover, D. R. 2001; 11 (5): 549-553

    Abstract

    Propofol is commonly used to provide anaesthesia for children undergoing oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD). Despite this, the plasma concentration-response relationships for propofol used in this setting have not been established.In order to determine the EC50 of propofol during OGD, we studied 12 children aged 3-10 years. No premedication was given. Propofol was administered via a target-controlled infusion system using the STANPUMP software based on a paediatric pharmacokinetic model. The 'up-and-down' method described by Dixon was used to determine the EC50. Accordingly, the target plasma propofol concentration for each patient, beginning with the second subject, was determined by the response of the previous patient. A patient was considered a 'responder' if there was minimal movement and the heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) remained < or = 120% of baseline during the procedure. Patients who moved excessively, i.e. requiring more than gentle restraint, or who manifest HR and BP >120% of baseline, were considered 'nonresponders'.The EC50 of propofol during OGD was 3.55 microg.ml(-1) in this study.The plasma propofol concentration associated with adequate anaesthesia for OGD in 50% of unpremedicated children is 3.55 microg.ml(-1). This concentration is higher than that required for OGD in adult patients.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000171023200005

    View details for PubMedID 11696118

  • Pharmacodynamics of orally administered sustained-release hydromorphone in humans ANESTHESIOLOGY Angst, M. S., Drover, D. R., Lotsch, J., Ramaswamy, B., Naidu, S., Wada, D. R., Stanski, D. R. 2001; 94 (1): 63-73

    Abstract

    The disposition kinetics of hydromorphone generally necessitates oral administration every 4 h of the conventional immediate-release tablet to provide sustained pain relief. This trial examined time course and magnitude of analgesia to experimental pain after administration of sustained-release hydromorphone as compared with that after immediate-release hydromorphone or placebo.Using a 4 x 4 Latin square double-blind design, 12 subjects were randomized to receive a single dose of 8, 16, and 32 mg sustained-release hydromorphone and placebo. The same subjects had received 8 mg immediate-release hydromorphone before this study. Using an electrical experimental pain paradigm, analgesic effects were assessed for up to 30 h after administration, and venous hydromorphone plasma concentrations were measured at corresponding times.The hydromorphone plasma concentration peaked significantly later (12.0 h [12.0--18.0] vs. 0.8 h [0.8--1.0]; median and interquartile range) but was maintained significantly longer at greater than 50% of peak concentration (22.7 +/- 8.2 h vs. 1.1 +/- 0.7 h; mean +/- SD) after sustained-release than after immediate-release hydromorphone. Similarly, sustained-release hydromorphone produced analgesic effects that peaked significantly later (9.0 h [9.0--12.0] vs. 1.5 h [1.0--2.0]) but were maintained significantly longer at greater than 50% of peak analgesic effect (13.3 +/- 6.3 h vs. 3.6 +/- 1.7 h). A statistically significant linear relation between the hydromorphone plasma concentration and the analgesic effect on painful stimuli existed.A single oral dose of a new sustained-release formulation of hydromorphone provided analgesia to experimental pain beyond 24 h of its administration.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000166262300010

    View details for PubMedID 11135723

  • Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and relative pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profiles of zaleplon and zolpidem CLINICAL THERAPEUTICS Drover, D., Lemmens, H., Naidu, S., Cevallos, W., Darwish, M., Stanski, D. 2000; 22 (12): 1443-1461

    Abstract

    This study compared the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) profile of zaleplon, a new pyrazolopyrimidine hypnotic, with those of zolpidem and placebo.This was a double-blind, 5-period crossover study in which healthy volunteers with no history of sleeping disorder were randomized to 10- or 20-mg oral doses of zaleplon, 10- or 20-mg oral doses of zolpidem, or placebo. The pharmacokinetic characteristics of the active drugs were estimated using a noncompartmental method and NONMEM. Pharmacodynamic characteristics were determined using psychophysical tests, including measures of sedation, mood, mental and motor speed, and recent and remote recall. Results of these tests were used to compare the drugs' relative PK/PD profiles.Ten healthy male and female volunteers, aged 23 to 31 years, took part in the study. The apparent elimination half-life of zaleplon (60.1+/-8.9 min) was significantly shorter than that of zolpidem (124.5+/-37.9 min) (P < 0.001). Zaleplon produced less sedation than zolpidem at the 2 doses studied (P < 0.001). The sedation scores of the zaleplon groups returned to baseline in less time than those of the zolpidem groups (4 vs 8 hours; P < 0.05). Zaleplon had no effect on recent or remote recall, whereas zolpidem had a significant effect on both measures (P < 0.05).In this study in 10 young, healthy volunteers, zaleplon was eliminated more rapidly, produced no memory loss, and caused less sedation than zolpidem at the same doses.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000166362600007

    View details for PubMedID 11192136

  • Rapacuronium recovery characteristics and infusion requirements during inhalation versus propofol-based anaesthesia BRITISH JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIA Fu, W., Klein, K. W., White, P. F., Chiu, J. W., Lemmens, H. J., Whalley, D. G., Drover, D. R., Greenberg, C. P. 2000; 85 (2): 302-305

    Abstract

    We examined the effect of four maintenance anaesthetics on the neuromuscular blocking activity and spontaneous recovery characteristics after a short-term infusion of rapacuronium. Eighty ASA I-III adult patients undergoing elective surgery were studied at four centres. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol 1.5-2.5 mg kg-1 and fentanyl 1-2 micrograms kg-1, followed by a bolus of rapacuronium 1.5 mg kg-1. The patients were randomized to receive either desflurane (2-4% end-tidal, ET), sevoflurane (0.75-1.5% ET), isoflurane (0.4-0.8% ET), or a propofol infusion (75-150 micrograms kg-1 min-1) for maintenance of anaesthesia in combination with nitrous oxide (60-70%) in oxygen. When the first twitch (T1) of a train-of-four stimulus (using the TOF Guard accelerometer) returned to 5%, an infusion of rapacuronium was started at 3 mg kg-1 h-1 and adjusted to maintain T1/T0 at 10%. The duration of infusion lasted between 45 and 60 min, and the average infusion rates of rapacuronium were similar in all groups, ranging from 1.6 to 2.5 mg kg-1 h-1. There were no significant differences among the groups in the times for T1/T0 to return to 25%, 75% or 90%, or for T4/T1 to return to 70% and 80% upon discontinuation of the infusion. When potent inhalation anaesthetics are used in clinically relevant concentrations for maintenance of anaesthesia, the neuromuscular recovery profile of rapacuronium administered as a variable-rate infusion for up to 1 h is similar to that found with a propofol-based anaesthetic technique.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000088594600023

    View details for PubMedID 10992842

  • Orthotopic liver transplantation for carcinoid tumour metastatic to the liver: anesthetic management CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIA-JOURNAL CANADIEN D ANESTHESIE Claure, R. E., Drover, D. D., Haddow, G. R., Esquivel, C. O., Angst, M. S. 2000; 47 (4): 334-337

    Abstract

    To report the anesthetic management of a patient with carcinoid tumour metastatic to the liver who presented for orthotopic liver transplantation. Anesthetic implications of metastatic carcinoid tumour on liver transplantation and the use of octreotide are discussed.A 51-yr-old woman with intestinal carcinoid tumour metastatic to the liver presented for orthotopic liver transplantation, a recent treatment option for patients with extensive hepatic carcinoid metastases and disabling symptoms unresponsive to conventional therapy. Despite continuous administration of the somatostatin analogue octreotide via a hepatic artery infusate pump, the patient suffered from daily break through symptoms, which included flushing, palpitations, paroxysmal hypertension, and dyspnea. The patient presented to the operating room with sinus tachycardia and severe arterial hypertension. Octreotide and phentolamine were used to prevent further mediator release and to control the paroxysmal hypertension. Midazolam, fentanyl, thiopental, succinylcholine, vecuronium, and isoflurane were used to induce and maintain anesthesia safely. An intravenous octreotide infusion was initiated after induction and continued throughout the case. Infrequent and non-threatening peaks in arterial blood pressure were readily treated with small intravenous doses of vasoactive drugs and octreotide. No other manifestations of the carcinoid syndrome occurred. The patient had an uneventful recovery and was discharged on postoperative day #6.The patient safely underwent orthotopic liver transplantation for treatment of symptomatic carcinoid tumour metastatic to the liver. The anesthetic management followed recent recommendations favouring the use of octreotide to prevent patients from becoming symptomatic. Outlined dosing regimen for octreotide provided satisfactory hemodynamic stability.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000089776300009

    View details for PubMedID 10764178

  • Population pharmacokinetics of fast release oral diclofenac in healthy volunteers: Relation to pharmacodynamics in an experimental pain model PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH Lotsch, J., Kettenmann, B., Renner, B., Drover, D., Brune, K., Geisslinger, G., Kobal, G. 2000; 17 (1): 77-84

    Abstract

    Population pharmacokinetics of a fast release diclofenac were assessed with special focus on pharmacodynamic implications.In a double blind four-way crossover study, 20 healthy volunteers received orally 50 and 100 mg diclofenac-Na effervescent ("fast-release NSAID"), 50 mg diclofenac tablets ("control"), or placebo. Population pharmacokinetics of the fast release diclofenac were assessed using a nonlinear mixed effects modeling approach (NON-MEM). Analgesic effects were investigated by means of an experimental pain model based on both pain-ratings and cortical evoked potentials after specific stimulation of nasal nociceptors with short pulses of gaseous CO2.Pharmacokinetics of fast release diclofenac were best described by a two-compartment population model, with an estimated terminal half-life of 1.2 hours. Pharmacokinetics of diclofenac tablets were highly variable and a population pharmacokinetic model could not be obtained. As an indication of an early onset of analgesic effects, 100 mg fast release diclofenac but not the tablets significantly reduced the amplitudes of pain-related evoked potentials at 30 min after administration.Earlier drug absorption and lower pharmacokinetic variability of the fast-release formulation are likely to be preserved in a population.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000085543800013

    View details for PubMedID 10714612

  • Population pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of remifentanil as a supplement to nitrous oxide anesthesia for elective abdominal surgery ANESTHESIOLOGY Drover, D. R., Lemmens, H. J. 1998; 89 (4): 869-877

    Abstract

    Remifentanil blood concentrations necessary for adequate intraoperative anesthesia have not been defined. The goal of this study was to determine the blood concentrations of remifentanil needed for anesthesia with 66% nitrous oxide during intraabdominal surgery. In addition, the pharmacokinetics of remifentanil and the effects of covariates on both the pharmacodynamics and the pharmacokinetics were determined.Anesthesia was induced and maintained with 66% nitrous oxide in oxygen and remifentanil. Remifentanil was administered by a computer-controlled infusion pump that rapidly attained, and then maintained, constant remifentanil blood concentrations. If the patient showed signs of inadequate anesthesia (autonomic or somatic response), the target concentration was increased by 1 or 2 ng/ml. If no response occurred during a 15-min period, the concentration was decreased by 1 or 2 ng/ml. Remifentanil pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics were estimated using NONMEM.The remifentanil blood concentration for which there is a 50% probability of adequate anesthesia during abdominal surgery (Cb50) with 66% nitrous oxide was 4.1 ng/ml in men and 7.5 ng/ml in women. The Cb50 values for prostatectomy, nephrectomy, and other abdominal procedures were 3.8, 5.6, and 7.5 ng/ml, respectively. Remifentanil pharmacokinetics were best described by a two-compartment model with lean body mass as a significant covariate, where V1 = 0.129(lean body mass-50) + 3.79 l, V2 = 6.87 l, CL1 = 0.0389(lean body mass-50) + 2.34 l/min and CL2 = 1.14 l/min.The Cb50 differed according to patient gender. However, because surgery type was not specified for each man or woman, this may reflect a difference in surgical procedure.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000076340300010

    View details for PubMedID 9778004

  • Determination of the distribution volume that can be used to calculate the intravenous loading dose CLINICAL PHARMACOKINETICS Wada, D. R., Drover, D. R., Lemmens, H. J. 1998; 35 (1): 1-7

    Abstract

    An intravenous loading dose is given to rapidly achieve a desired drug concentration in the blood. A loading dose calculated with the volume of distribution (Vd) at steady state will result in high peak concentrations and possibly serious adverse effects. A loading dose based on the central compartment Vd (Vc) followed by a maintenance infusion may also miss the target drug concentration and cause serious adverse effects. The Vd can be viewed as a time-dependent variable that expands from the Vc immediately after injection, to eventually include the steady-state Vd. If the loading dose is calculated from a Vd determined after the time of peak effect (tmax), then the actual concentration will exceed the target concentration at the tmax. If a loading dose is calculated from a Vd before the peak effect occurs, the actual concentration will be insufficient to achieve the target concentration at tmax. A loading dose based on the Vd at the tmax will accurately achieve the concentration at the tmax without unexpected adverse effects. To determine the Vd at peak effect, it is necessary that an effect can be measured, the peak effect can be detected and the plasma concentrations are sampled frequently enough to quantify the plasma concentrations at the tmax. For drugs that attain an ultra-fast effect (1 to 2 minutes), arterial samples need to be measured. If the onset of effect is intermediate or slow, venous blood can be sampled as the arterial and venous concentrations may be similar at the tmax.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000074754200001

    View details for PubMedID 9673831

  • DRUG ALLERGIES IN THE SURGICAL POPULATION CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIA-JOURNAL CANADIEN D ANESTHESIE Hung, O. R., Bands, C., LANEY, G., Drover, D., Stevens, S., MacSween, M. 1994; 41 (12): 1149-1155

    Abstract

    Many patients claim to have drug allergies. However, the signs and symptoms of "allergic reactions" are seldom documented and the drug allergies are rarely properly assessed. The goal of this study was to determine the incidence of claimed "drug allergies" in a surgical population. After obtaining institutional approval, the study was carried out at five hospitals affiliated with Dalhousie University. Patients were interviewed by the investigators during the preoperative anaesthetic evaluation over six months and all signs and symptoms of drug reactions were recorded. The validity of the claimed allergy was based on the history. The allergies were assigned to one of three groups: (1) High probability of an allergic reaction: one or more of the signs and symptoms typical of an immunological reaction, with or without a family history, or a history of atopy; (ii) Low probability of an allergic reaction: signs and symptoms of the reaction were predictable reactions or side effects of the drug, without the occurrence of reactions mentioned above; or (iii) Unknown status: no information concerning the reaction of history was available. Of 1818 adult and paediatric patients (914 female/904 male) interviewed, 511 (28.1%) claimed to have one or more drug allergies (a total of 671 allergies). More women than men claimed to have drug allergies (60.3% vs 39.7%) and there was a positive correlation between age, number of medications and reported drug allergies. Antibiotics (50%), opioids (27%), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (10%), and sedatives (5%) accounted for 92% of all claimed drug allergies. Overall, 50% of claimed allergies had a high probability of true allergic reactions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994PW26900004

    View details for PubMedID 7867107

  • Analysis of trichothecene mycotoxins in human blood by capillary column gas chromatography-ammonia chemical ionization mass spectrometr J Chromatogr D'Agostino, P. A., Provost, L. R., Drover, D. R. 1986; 367 (1): 77-86

Conference Proceedings


  • The effectiveness of preemptive sphenopalatine ganglion block on postoperative pain and functional outcomes after functional endoscopic sinus surgery Cho, D., Drover, D. R., Nekhendzy, V., Butwick, A. J., Collins, J., Hwang, P. H. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 2011: 212-218

    Abstract

    The sphenopalatine ganglion block (SPGB) with local anesthetic is used to treat facial pain and headache of various etiologies; it has been widely used during functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether preemptive SPGB may positively impact postoperative pain and functional outcomes after FESS.A prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was performed. A total of 60 patients (18-70 years), undergoing general anesthesia for bilateral FESS, were randomly assigned to receive SPGB with either 2 mL 0.25% bupivacaine with epinephrine 1:100,000 (BP, treatment group) or normal saline (NS, control group). SPGB was performed preemptively 10 minutes before the start of surgery. Preoperative and postoperative (day 0, day 7, and day 30) visual analog pain scale, Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-20), computed tomography (CT) and endoscopic scores were compared between the 2 groups.A total of 29 patients were enrolled in BP, and 27 were enrolled in NS. Three patients withdrew from the study, and 1 was withdrawn by the investigator due to severe hypertension after induction of anesthesia. There were no differences in patient demographic characteristics between the study groups. On day 7, the mean visual analog pain scales were 1.12 ± 0.3 in NS and 0.48 ± 0.23 in BP (p = 0.053). There were no statistical differences in other outcome measures (SNOT-20, CT and endoscopic scores) between the 2 groups.A limited trend toward reduced postoperative pain after FESS was noted with bupivacaine compared to saline, but statistical significance was not achieved. Preemptive SPGB may offer sinonasal symptomatic benefits for patients undergoing FESS, but larger studies are warranted.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/alr.20040

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308912700014

    View details for PubMedID 22287376

  • Determination of the median effective concentration (EC50) of propofol during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) in children Hammer, G. B., Litalien, C., Wellis, V., Drover, D., Garcia, M. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 1999: U493-U493
  • Determination of the EC50 of propofol combined with remifentanil during EGD in children Hammer, G. B., Litalien, C., Wellis, V., Drover, D., Garcia, M. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 1999: U492-U492

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