Casein Kinase 1 delta Stabilizes Mature Axons by Inhibiting Transcription Termination of Ankyrin
2020; 52 (1): 88-+
After axon outgrowth and synapse formation, the nervous system transitions to a stable architecture. In C. elegans, this transition is marked by the appearance of casein kinase 1δ (CK1δ) in the nucleus. In CK1δ mutants, neurons continue to sprout growth cones into adulthood, leading to a highly ramified nervous system. Nervous system architecture in these mutants is completely restored by suppressor mutations in ten genes involved in transcription termination. CK1δ prevents termination by phosphorylating and inhibiting SSUP-72. SSUP-72 would normally remodel the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase in anticipation of termination. The antitermination activity of CK1δ establishes the mature state of a neuron by promoting the expression of the long isoform of a single gene, the cytoskeleton protein Ankyrin.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.devcel.2019.12.005
View details for Web of Science ID 000505773000010
View details for PubMedID 31910362
Neuroligin-4 Regulates Excitatory Synaptic Transmission in Human Neurons.
The autism-associated synaptic-adhesion gene Neuroligin-4 (NLGN4) is poorly conserved evolutionarily, limiting conclusions from Nlgn4 mouse models for human cells. Here, we show that the cellular and subcellular expression of human and murine Neuroligin-4 differ, with human Neuroligin-4 primarily expressed in cerebral cortex and localized to excitatory synapses. Overexpression of NLGN4 in human embryonic stem cell-derived neurons resulted in an increase in excitatory synapse numbers but a remarkable decrease in synaptic strength. Human neurons carrying the syndromic autism mutation NLGN4-R704C also formed more excitatory synapses but with increased functional synaptic transmission due to a postsynaptic mechanism, while genetic loss of NLGN4 did not significantly affect synapses in the human neurons analyzed. Thus, the NLGN4-R704C mutation represents a change-of-function mutation. Our work reveals contrasting roles of NLGN4 in human and mouse neurons, suggesting that human evolution has impacted even fundamental cell biological processes generally assumed to be highly conserved.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.neuron.2019.05.043
View details for PubMedID 31257103
gamma-Neurexin and Frizzled Mediate Parallel Synapse Assembly Pathways Antagonized by Receptor Endocytosis.
Synapse formation defines neuronal connectivity and is thus essential for neuronal circuit assembly. Trans-synaptic interactions of cell adhesion molecules are thought to induce synapse assembly. Here we demonstrate that a recently discovered and conserved short form of neurexin, gamma-neurexin, which lacks canonical extracellular domains, is nonetheless sufficient to promote presynaptic assembly in the nematode C.elegans. gamma- but not alpha-neurexin is required for assembling active zone components, recruiting synaptic vesicles, and clustering calcium channels at release sites to promote evoked synaptic transmission. Furthermore, we find that neurexin functions in parallel with the transmembrane receptor Frizzled, as the absence of both proteins leads to an enhanced phenotype-the loss of most synapses. Frizzled's pro-synaptogenic function is independent of its ligand, Wnt. Wnt binding instead eliminates synapses by inducing Frizzled's endocytosis and the downregulation of neurexin. These results reveal how pro- and anti-synaptogenic factors converge to precisely sculpt circuit formation invivo.
View details for PubMedID 30269993
Two Clathrin Adaptor Protein Complexes Instruct Axon-Dendrite Polarity
2016; 90 (3): 564-580
The cardinal feature of neuronal polarization is the establishment and maintenance of axons and dendrites. How axonal and dendritic proteins are sorted and targeted to different compartments is poorly understood. Here, we identified distinct dileucine motifs that are necessary and sufficient to target transmembrane proteins to either the axon or the dendrite through direct interactions with the clathrin-associated adaptor protein complexes (APs) in C. elegans. Axonal targeting requires AP-3, while dendritic targeting is mediated by AP-1. The axonal dileucine motif binds to AP-3 with higher efficiency than to AP-1. Both AP-3 and AP-1 are localized to the Golgi but occupy adjacent domains. We propose that AP-3 and AP-1 directly select transmembrane proteins and target them to axon and dendrite, respectively, by sorting them into distinct vesicle pools.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.neuron.2016.04.020
View details for Web of Science ID 000376254500016
View details for PubMedID 27151641