Professional Education

  • Bachelor of Science, University of Western Ontario (2008)
  • Doctor of Philosophy, University of Western Ontario (2016)
  • Bachelor of Science, University of Toronto (2011)

Stanford Advisors


All Publications

  • Detection of Local Cancer Recurrence After Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer: Physician Performance Versus Radiomic Assessment INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS Mattonen, S. A., Palma, D. A., Johnson, C., Louie, A. V., Landis, M., Rodrigues, G., Chan, I., Etemad-Rezai, R., Yeung, T. C., Senan, S., Ward, A. D. 2016; 94 (5): 1121–28


    Stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) is a guideline-specified treatment option for early-stage lung cancer. However, significant posttreatment fibrosis can occur and obfuscate the detection of local recurrence. The goal of this study was to assess physician ability to detect timely local recurrence and to compare physician performance with a radiomics tool.Posttreatment computed tomography (CT) scans (n=182) from 45 patients treated with SABR (15 with local recurrence matched to 30 with no local recurrence) were used to measure physician and radiomic performance in assessing response. Scans were individually scored by 3 thoracic radiation oncologists and 3 thoracic radiologists, all of whom were blinded to clinical outcomes. Radiomic features were extracted from the same images. Performances of the physician assessors and the radiomics signature were compared.When taking into account all CT scans during the whole follow-up period, median sensitivity for physician assessment of local recurrence was 83% (range, 67%-100%), and specificity was 75% (range, 67%-87%), with only moderate interobserver agreement (κ = 0.54) and a median time to detection of recurrence of 15.5 months. When determining the early prediction of recurrence within <6 months after SABR, physicians assessed the majority of images as benign injury/no recurrence, with a mean error of 35%, false positive rate (FPR) of 1%, and false negative rate (FNR) of 99%. At the same time point, a radiomic signature consisting of 5 image-appearance features demonstrated excellent discrimination, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.85, classification error of 24%, FPR of 24%, and FNR of 23%.These results suggest that radiomics can detect early changes associated with local recurrence that are not typically considered by physicians. This decision support system could potentially allow for early salvage therapy of patients with local recurrence after SABR.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2015.12.369

    View details for Web of Science ID 000372564800018

    View details for PubMedID 26907916

  • Pulmonary imaging after stereotactic radiotherapy-does RECIST still apply? BRITISH JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY Mattonen, S. A., Ward, A. D., Palma, D. A. 2016; 89 (1065): 20160113


    The use of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for the treatment of primary lung cancer and metastatic disease is rapidly increasing. However, the presence of benign fibrotic changes on CT imaging makes response assessment following SABR a challenge, as these changes develop with an appearance similar to tumour recurrence. Misclassification of benign fibrosis as local recurrence has resulted in unnecessary interventions, including biopsy and surgical resection. Response evaluation criteria in solid tumours (RECIST) are widely used as a universal set of guidelines to assess tumour response following treatment. However, in the context of non-spherical and irregular post-SABR fibrotic changes, the RECIST criteria can have several limitations. Positron emission tomography can also play a role in response assessment following SABR; however, false-positive results in regions of inflammatory lung post-SABR can be a major clinical issue and optimal standardized uptake values to distinguish fibrosis and recurrence have not been determined. Although validated CT high-risk features show a high sensitivity and specificity for predicting recurrence, most recurrences are not detected until more than 1-year post-treatment. Advanced quantitative radiomic analysis on CT imaging has demonstrated promise in distinguishing benign fibrotic changes from local recurrence at earlier time points, and more accurately, than physician assessment. Overall, the use of RECIST alone may prove inferior to novel metrics of assessing response.

    View details for DOI 10.1259/bjr.20160113

    View details for Web of Science ID 000381710900002

    View details for PubMedID 27245137

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5124920

  • Imaging texture analysis for automated prediction of lung cancer recurrence after stereotactic radiotherapy JOURNAL OF MEDICAL IMAGING Mattonen, S. A., Tetar, S., Palma, D. A., Louie, A. V., Senan, S., Ward, A. D. 2015; 2 (4): 041010


    Benign radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is not uncommon following stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for lung cancer and can be difficult to differentiate from tumor recurrence on follow-up imaging. We previously showed the ability of computed tomography (CT) texture analysis to predict recurrence. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the accuracy of recurrence prediction using manual region-of-interest segmentation to that of a semiautomatic approach. We analyzed 22 patients treated for 24 lesions (11 recurrences, 13 RILI). Consolidative and ground-glass opacity (GGO) regions were manually delineated. The longest axial diameter of the consolidative region on each post-SABR CT image was measured. This line segment is routinely obtained as part of the clinical imaging workflow and was used as input to automatically delineate the consolidative region and subsequently derive a periconsolidative region to sample GGO tissue. Texture features were calculated, and at two to five months post-SABR, the entropy texture measure within the semiautomatic segmentations showed prediction accuracies [areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC): 0.70 to 0.73] similar to those of manual GGO segmentations (AUC: 0.64). After integration into the clinical workflow, this decision support system has the potential to support earlier salvage for patients with recurrence and fewer investigations of benign RILI.

    View details for DOI 10.1117/1.JMI.2.4.041010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000374235100010

    View details for PubMedID 26835492

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4718517

  • New techniques for assessing response after hypofractionated radiotherapy for lung cancer JOURNAL OF THORACIC DISEASE Mattonen, S. A., Huang, K., Ward, A. D., Senan, S., Palma, D. A. 2014; 6 (4): 375–86


    Hypofractionated radiotherapy (HFRT) is an effective and increasingly-used treatment for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) is a form of HFRT and delivers biologically effective doses (BEDs) in excess of 100 Gy10 in 3-8 fractions. Excellent long-term outcomes have been reported; however, response assessment following SABR is complicated as radiation induced lung injury can appear similar to a recurring tumor on CT. Current approaches to scoring treatment responses include Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) and positron emission tomography (PET), both of which appear to have a limited role in detecting recurrences following SABR. Novel approaches to assess response are required, but new techniques should be easily standardized across centers, cost effective, with sensitivity and specificity that improves on current CT and PET approaches. This review examines potential novel approaches, focusing on the emerging field of quantitative image feature analysis, to distinguish recurrence from fibrosis after SABR.

    View details for DOI 10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2013.11.09

    View details for Web of Science ID 000335647000011

    View details for PubMedID 24688782

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3968559

  • Early prediction of tumor recurrence based on CT texture changes after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for lung cancer MEDICAL PHYSICS Mattonen, S. A., Palma, D. A., Haasbeek, C. A., Senan, S., Ward, A. D. 2014; 41 (3): 033502


    Benign computed tomography (CT) changes due to radiation induced lung injury (RILI) are common following stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) and can be difficult to differentiate from tumor recurrence. The authors measured the ability of CT image texture analysis, compared to more traditional measures of response, to predict eventual cancer recurrence based on CT images acquired within 5 months of treatment.A total of 24 lesions from 22 patients treated with SABR were selected for this study: 13 with moderate to severe benign RILI, and 11 with recurrence. Three-dimensional (3D) consolidative and ground-glass opacity (GGO) changes were manually delineated on all follow-up CT scans. Two size measures of the consolidation regions (longest axial diameter and 3D volume) and nine appearance features of the GGO were calculated: 2 first-order features [mean density and standard deviation of density (first-order texture)], and 7 second-order texture features [energy, entropy, correlation, inverse difference moment (IDM), inertia, cluster shade, and cluster prominence]. For comparison, the corresponding response evaluation criteria in solid tumors measures were also taken for the consolidation regions. Prediction accuracy was determined using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and two-fold cross validation (CV).For this analysis, 46 diagnostic CT scans scheduled for approximately 3 and 6 months post-treatment were binned based on their recorded scan dates into 2-5 month and 5-8 month follow-up time ranges. At 2-5 months post-treatment, first-order texture, energy, and entropy provided AUCs of 0.79-0.81 using a linear classifier. On two-fold CV, first-order texture yielded 73% accuracy versus 76%-77% with the second-order features. The size measures of the consolidative region, longest axial diameter and 3D volume, gave two-fold CV accuracies of 60% and 57%, and AUCs of 0.72 and 0.65, respectively.Texture measures of the GGO appearance following SABR demonstrated the ability to predict recurrence in individual patients within 5 months of SABR treatment. Appearance changes were also shown to be more accurately predictive of recurrence, as compared to size measures within the same time period. With further validation, these results could form the substrate for a clinically useful computer-aided diagnosis tool which could provide earlier salvage of patients with recurrence.

    View details for DOI 10.1118/1.4866219

    View details for Web of Science ID 000332485600042

    View details for PubMedID 24593744

  • Distinguishing radiation fibrosis from tumour recurrence after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for lung cancer: A quantitative analysis of CT density changes ACTA ONCOLOGICA Mattonen, S. A., Palma, D. A., Haasbeek, C. A., Senan, S., Ward, A. D. 2013; 52 (5): 910–18


    For patients treated with stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer, benign computed tomography (CT) changes due to radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) can be difficult to differentiate from recurrence. We measured the utility of CT image feature analysis in differentiating RILI from recurrence, compared to Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumours (RECIST).Twenty-two patients with 24 lesions treated with SABR were selected (11 with recurrence, 13 with substantial RILI). On each follow-up CT, consolidative changes and ground glass opacities (GGO) were contoured. For each lesion, contoured regions were analysed for mean and variation in Hounsfield units (HU), 3D volume, and RECIST size during follow-up.One hundred and thirty-six CT scans were reviewed, with a median imaging follow-up of 26 months. The 3D volume and RECIST measures of consolidative changes could significantly distinguish recurrence from RILI, but not until 15 months post-SABR; mean volume at 15 months [all values ± 95% confidence interval (CI)] of 30.1 ± 19.3 cm(3) vs. 5.1 ± 3.6 cm(3) (p = 0.030) and mean RECIST size at 15 months of 4.34 ± 1.13 cm vs. 2.63 ± 0.84 cm (p = 0.028) respectively for recurrence vs. RILI. At nine months post-SABR, patients with recurrence had significantly higher-density consolidative changes (mean at nine months of -96.4 ± 32.7 HU vs. -143.2 ± 28.4 HU for RILI; p = 0.046). They also had increased variability of HU, an image texture metric, measured as the standard deviation (SD) of HU, in the GGO areas (SD at nine months of 210.6 ± 14.5 HU vs. 175.1 ± 18.7 HU for RILI; p = 0.0078).Quantitative changes in mean HU and GGO textural analysis have the potential to distinguish RILI from recurrence as early as nine months post-SABR, compared to 15 months with RECIST and 3D volume. If validated, this approach could allow for earlier detection and salvage of recurrence, and result in fewer unnecessary investigations of benign RILI.

    View details for DOI 10.3109/0284186X.2012.731525

    View details for Web of Science ID 000318655300005

    View details for PubMedID 23106174