Doctor of Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (2005)
Bachelor of Arts, Johns Hopkins University (1997)
Master of Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (2003)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:2D gradient-echo imaging is sensitive to T2* lesions (hemorrhages, mineralization, and vascular lesions), and susceptibility-weighted imaging is even more sensitive, but at the cost of additional scan time (SWI: 5-10 minutes; 2D gradient-echo: 2 minutes). The long acquisition time of SWI may pose challenges in motion-prone patients. We hypothesized that 2D SWI/phase unwrapped images processed from 2D gradient-echo imaging could improve T2* lesion detection.MATERIALS AND METHODS:2D gradient-echo brain images of 50 consecutive pediatric patients (mean age, 8 years) acquired at 3T were retrospectively processed to generate 2D SWI/phase unwrapped images. The 2D gradient-echo and 2D SWI/phase unwrapped images were compared for various imaging parameters and were scored in a blinded fashion.RESULTS:Of 50 patients, 2D gradient-echo imaging detected T2* lesions in 29 patients and had normal findings in 21 patients. 2D SWI was more sensitive than standard 2D gradient-echo imaging in detecting T2* lesions (P < .0001). 2D SWI/phase unwrapped imaging also improved delineation of normal venous structures and nonpathologic calcifications and helped distinguish calcifications from hemorrhage. A few pitfalls of 2D SWI/phase unwrapped imaging were noted, including worsened motion and dental artifacts and challenges in detecting T2* lesions adjacent to calvaria or robust deoxygenated veins.CONCLUSIONS:2D SWI and associated phase unwrapped images processed from standard 2D gradient-echo images were more sensitive in detecting T2* lesions and delineating normal venous structures and nonpathologic mineralization, and they also helped distinguish calcification at no additional scan time. SWI processing of 2D gradient-echo images may be a useful adjunct in cases in which longer scan times of 3D SWI are difficult to implement.
View details for DOI 10.3174/ajnr.A3595
View details for PubMedID 23744690
Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast has emerged as an adjunct imaging tool to conventional X-ray mammography due to its high detection sensitivity. Despite the increasing use of breast DCE-MRI, specificity in distinguishing malignant from benign breast lesions is low, and interobserver variability in lesion classification is high. The novel contribution of this paper is in the definition of a new DCE-MRI descriptor that we call textural kinetics, which attempts to capture spatiotemporal changes in breast lesion texture in order to distinguish malignant from benign lesions. We qualitatively and quantitatively demonstrated on 41 breast DCE-MRI studies that textural kinetic features outperform signal intensity kinetics and lesion morphology features in distinguishing benign from malignant lesions. A probabilistic boosting tree (PBT) classifier in conjunction with textural kinetic descriptors yielded an accuracy of 90%, sensitivity of 95%, specificity of 82%, and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.92. Graph embedding, used for qualitative visualization of a low-dimensional representation of the data, showed the best separation between benign and malignant lesions when using textural kinetic features. The PBT classifier results and trends were also corroborated via a support vector machine classifier which showed that textural kinetic features outperformed the morphological, static texture, and signal intensity kinetics descriptors. When textural kinetic attributes were combined with morphologic descriptors, the resulting PBT classifier yielded 89% accuracy, 99% sensitivity, 76% specificity, and an AUC of 0.91.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s10278-010-9298-1
View details for Web of Science ID 000290520200009
View details for PubMedID 20508965
The Socratic method has long been a traditional teaching method in medicine and law. It is currently accepted as the standard of teaching in clinical wards, while the didactic teaching method is widely used during the first 2 years of medical school. There are arguments in support of both styles of teaching.After attending a radiology conference demonstrating different teaching methods, third-year and fourth-year medical students were invited to participate in an online anonymous survey.Of the 74 students who responded, 72% preferred to learn radiology in an active context. They preferred being given adequate time to find abnormalities on images, with feedback afterward from instructors, and they thought the best approach was a volunteer-based system of answering questions using the Socratic method in the small group. They desired to be asked questions in a way that was constructive and not belittling, to realize their knowledge deficits and to have daily pressure to come prepared. The respondents thought that pimping was an effective teaching tool, supporting previous studies.When teaching radiology, instructors should use the Socratic method to a greater extent. Combining Socratic teaching with gentle questioning by an instructor through the use of PowerPoint is a preferred method among medical students. This information is useful to improve medical education in the future, especially in radiology education.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.acra.2010.09.005
View details for Web of Science ID 000286699200018
View details for PubMedID 21075021
With studies regularly containing hundreds of images, the authors believe that the ability to efficiently review numerous images and identify findings is an important skill to teach medical students. Using the StudentPACS Adobe Flash extension, created within their department, the authors created StudentPACS modules that provide users with a virtual picture archiving and communication system environment, in which findings can be selected by mouse, triggering questions with referenced answers. The aim was to assess medical students' impressions of how learning from these modules compared to their personal experiences learning radiology from textbooks or static images.StudentPACS modules were created by medical students on elective under the supervision of resident and attending radiologists. MS I to IV students were then asked to complete StudentPACS modules that tied in with their current coursework, followed by an anonymous survey. Approximately 293 students participated.The majority of students reported that StudentPACS modules were either equivalent to or better than learning from static images or textbooks (90 +/- 3% [257 of 285], P < .00002), were not difficult to use (85 +/- 4% [248 of 293], P < .00002), presented them with clinical content that tied in well with the depicted imaging (90 +/- 3% [263 of 293], P < .00002), and taught them new information (69 +/- 5% [202 of 293], P < .00002). Most respondents felt the StudentPACS modules presented information they would find useful in clinical practice (91 +/- 3% [266 of 293], P < .00002), reported satisfactory experiences using StudentPACS modules as a source of self-directed learning material (79 +/- 5% [232 of 293], P < .00002), and stated that they would use StudentPACS modules for learning different topics in the future (85.6 +/- 4% [244 of 285], P < .00002).Medical students found using StudentPACS modules at least equivalent to, if not better than, using static books or annotated images.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.acra.2010.01.016
View details for Web of Science ID 000277945700018
View details for PubMedID 20303802
This paper proposes The Dynamic Aviation Data System (DADS), which integrates a variety of existing information sources regarding flight to serve as a tool to pilots in dealing with the challenges of flight. The system is composed of three main parts: a pilot's history on disk; a system that can read proposed flight plans and make suggestions based upon Geographical Information Systems, weather, aircraft, and case report databases that exist throughout North America; and a small hand-held computer that interfaces with the aircraft's instruments and that can be brought into the cockpit to aid the pilot before and during flight. The system is based upon technology that currently exists and information that is already regularly collected. While many issues regarding implementation and cost efficiency of the system need to be addressed, the system shows promise in its ability to make useful flight safety information available to all pilots in order to save lives.
View details for Web of Science ID A1997XQ26700011
View details for PubMedID 9262818