Fetal Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Fails to Fully Regenerate the B-Lymphocyte Compartment.
Stem cell reports
2016; 6 (1): 137-149
B cells are key components of cellular and humoral immunity and, like all lymphocytes, are thought to originate and renew from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). However, our recent single-HSC transfer studies demonstrate that adult bone marrow HSCs do not regenerate B-1a, a subset of tissue B cells required for protection against pneumonia, influenza, and other infections. Since B-1a are regenerated by transfers of fetal liver, the question arises as to whether B-1a derive from fetal, but not adult, HSCs. Here we show that, similar to adult HSCs, fetal HSCs selectively fail to regenerate B-1a. We also show that, in humanized mice, human fetal liver regenerates tissue B cells that are phenotypically similar to murine B-1a, raising the question of whether human HSC transplantation, the mainstay of such models, is sufficient to regenerate human B-1a. Thus, our studies overtly challenge the current paradigm that HSCs give rise to all components of the immune system.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stemcr.2015.11.011
View details for PubMedID 26724903
- Gene Targeting Study Reveals Unexpected Expression of Brain-expressed X-linked 2 in Endocrine and Tissue Stem/Progenitor Cells in Mice JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY 2014; 289 (43): 29892-29911
Haploinsufficiency of Sf3b1 leads to compromised stem cell function but not to myelodysplasia
2014; 28 (9): 1844-1850
SF3B1 is a core component of the mRNA splicing machinery and frequently mutated in myeloid neoplasms with myelodysplasia, particularly in those characterized by the presence of increased ring sideroblasts. Deregulated RNA splicing is implicated in the pathogenesis of SF3B1-mutated neoplasms, but the exact mechanism by which the SF3B1 mutation is associated with myelodysplasia and the increased ring sideroblasts formation is still unknown. We investigated the functional role of SF3B1 in normal hematopoiesis utilizing Sf3b1 heterozygous-deficient mice. Sf3b1(+/-) mice had a significantly reduced number of hematopoietic stem cells (CD34(-)cKit(+)ScaI(+)Lin(-) cells or CD34(-)KSL cells) compared with Sf3b1(+/+) mice, but hematopoiesis was grossly normal in Sf3b1(+/-) mice. When transplanted competitively with Sf3b1(+/+) bone marrow cells, Sf3b1(+/-) stem cells showed compromised reconstitution capacity in lethally irradiated mice. There was no increase in the number of ring sideroblasts or evidence of myeloid dysplasia in Sf3b1(+/-) mice. These data suggest that SF3B1 plays an important role in the regulation of hematopoietic stem cells, whereas SF3B1 haploinsufficiency itself is not associated with the myelodysplastic syndrome phenotype with ring sideroblasts.
View details for DOI 10.1038/leu.2014.73
View details for Web of Science ID 000341783000011
View details for PubMedID 24535406
Recurrent mutations in multiple components of the cohesin complex in myeloid neoplasms
2013; 45 (10): 1232-U187
Cohesin is a multimeric protein complex that is involved in the cohesion of sister chromatids, post-replicative DNA repair and transcriptional regulation. Here we report recurrent mutations and deletions involving multiple components of the cohesin complex, including STAG2, RAD21, SMC1A and SMC3, in different myeloid neoplasms. These mutations and deletions were mostly mutually exclusive and occurred in 12.1% (19/157) of acute myeloid leukemia, 8.0% (18/224) of myelodysplastic syndromes, 10.2% (9/88) of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, 6.3% (4/64) of chronic myelogenous leukemia and 1.3% (1/77) of classical myeloproliferative neoplasms. Cohesin-mutated leukemic cells showed reduced amounts of chromatin-bound cohesin components, suggesting a substantial loss of cohesin binding sites on chromatin. The growth of leukemic cell lines harboring a mutation in RAD21 (Kasumi-1 cells) or having severely reduced expression of RAD21 and STAG2 (MOLM-13 cells) was suppressed by forced expression of wild-type RAD21 and wild-type RAD21 and STAG2, respectively. These findings suggest a role for compromised cohesin functions in myeloid leukemogenesis.
View details for DOI 10.1038/ng.2731
View details for Web of Science ID 000324989600021
View details for PubMedID 23955599
Clonal Analysis Unveils Self-Renewing Lineage-Restricted Progenitors Generated Directly from Hematopoietic Stem Cells
2013; 154 (5): 1112-1126
Consensus holds that hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) give rise to multipotent progenitors (MPPs) of reduced self-renewal potential and that MPPs eventually produce lineage-committed progenitor cells in a stepwise manner. Using a single-cell transplantation system and marker mice, we unexpectedly found myeloid-restricted progenitors with long-term repopulating activity (MyRPs), which are lineage-committed to megakaryocytes, megakaryocyte-erythroid cells, or common myeloid cells (MkRPs, MERPs, or CMRPs, respectively) in the phenotypically defined HSC compartment together with HSCs. Paired daughter cell assays combined with transplantation revealed that HSCs can give rise to HSCs via symmetric division or directly differentiate into MyRPs via asymmetric division (yielding HSC-MkRP or HSC-CMRP pairs). These myeloid bypass pathways could be essential for fast responses to ablation stress. Our results show that loss of self-renewal and stepwise progression through specific differentiation stages are not essential for lineage commitment of HSCs and suggest a revised model of hematopoietic differentiation.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2013.08.007
View details for Web of Science ID 000323767300023
View details for PubMedID 23993099
Distinct B-cell lineage commitment distinguishes adult bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells
PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
2012; 109 (14): 5394-5398
The question of whether a single hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gives rise to all of the B-cell subsets [B-1a, B-1b, B-2, and marginal zone (MZ) B cells] in the mouse has been discussed for many years without resolution. Studies here finally demonstrate that individual HSCs sorted from adult bone marrow and transferred to lethally irradiated recipients clearly give rise to B-2, MZ B, and B-1b, but does not detectably reconstitute B-1a cells. These findings place B-2, MZ, and B-1b in a single adult developmental lineage and place B-1a in a separate lineage derived from HSCs that are rare or missing in adults. We discuss these findings with respect to known developmental heterogeneity in other HSC-derived lymphoid, myeloid, and erythroid lineages, and how HSC developmental heterogeneity conforms to the layered model of the evolution of the immune system that we proposed some years ago. In addition, of importance to contemporary medicine, we consider the implications that HSC developmental heterogeneity may have for selecting HSC sources for human transplantation.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1121632109
View details for Web of Science ID 000302294700059
View details for PubMedID 22431624
Plasmin inhibitor reduces T-cell lymphoid tumor growth by suppressing matrix metalloproteinase-9-dependent CD11b(+)/F4/80(+) myeloid cell recruitment
2012; 26 (2): 332-339
Activation of the fibrinolytic system during lymphoma progression is a well-documented clinical phenomenon. But the mechanism by which the fibrinolytic system can modulate lymphoma progression has been elusive. The main fibrinolytic enzyme, plasminogen (Plg)/plasmin (Plm), can activate matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), such as MMP-9, which has been linked to various malignancies. Here we provide the evidence that blockade of Plg reduces T-cell lymphoma growth by inhibiting MMP-9-dependent recruitment of CD11b(+)F4/80(+) myeloid cells locally within the lymphoma tissue. Genetic Plg deficiency and drug-mediated Plm blockade delayed T-cell lymphoma growth and diminished MMP-9-dependent CD11b(+)F4/80(+) myeloid cell infiltration into lymphoma tissues. A neutralizing antibody against CD11b inhibited T-cell lymphoma growth in vivo, which indicates that CD11b(+) myeloid cells have a role in T-cell lymphoma growth. Plg deficiency in T-cell lymphoma-bearing mice resulted in reduced plasma levels of the growth factors vascular endothelial growth-A and Kit ligand, both of which are known to enhance myeloid cell proliferation. Collectively, the data presented in this study demonstrate a previously undescribed role of Plm in lymphoproliferative disorders and provide strong evidence that specific blockade of Plg represents a promising approach for the regulation of T-cell lymphoma growth.
View details for DOI 10.1038/leu.2011.203
View details for Web of Science ID 000300419100016
View details for PubMedID 21931322
Frequent pathway mutations of splicing machinery in myelodysplasia
2011; 478 (7367): 64-69
Myelodysplastic syndromes and related disorders (myelodysplasia) are a heterogeneous group of myeloid neoplasms showing deregulated blood cell production with evidence of myeloid dysplasia and a predisposition to acute myeloid leukaemia, whose pathogenesis is only incompletely understood. Here we report whole-exome sequencing of 29 myelodysplasia specimens, which unexpectedly revealed novel pathway mutations involving multiple components of the RNA splicing machinery, including U2AF35, ZRSR2, SRSF2 and SF3B1. In a large series analysis, these splicing pathway mutations were frequent (∼45 to ∼85%) in, and highly specific to, myeloid neoplasms showing features of myelodysplasia. Conspicuously, most of the mutations, which occurred in a mutually exclusive manner, affected genes involved in the 3'-splice site recognition during pre-mRNA processing, inducing abnormal RNA splicing and compromised haematopoiesis. Our results provide the first evidence indicating that genetic alterations of the major splicing components could be involved in human pathogenesis, also implicating a novel therapeutic possibility for myelodysplasia.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nature10496
View details for Web of Science ID 000295575400035
View details for PubMedID 21909114
Distinctive cell properties of B cells carrying the BCL2 translocation and their potential roles in the development of lymphoma of germinal center type
2009; 100 (12): 2361-2367
The BCL2/IGH translocation is a hallmark of follicular lymphoma and germinal center B-cell type diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Although a strong determinant of these histological subtypes, this translocation is insufficient by itself for lymphomagenesis, so that other genetic alterations are required. To clarify how the BCL2 translocation contributes to the development of specific lymphoma subtypes, we used chimeric mouse models and a bone marrow transplantation system to examine the biological features of BCL2-overexpressing B cells. These cells showed a cell-autonomous differentiation preference for follicular B cells. Their cell cycle progression was enhanced in wild-type but not in Emu-BCL2 transgenic mice, indicating that the low proliferative activity of B cells in Emu-BCL2 transgenic mice is partly due to their specific microenvironment, which is caused by the abnormal B cells themselves. Moreover, in vitro experiments demonstrated that Emu-BCL2(+) B cells have reduced responsiveness to terminal differentiation stimulation. According to these results, we hypothesize that B cells that have undergone BCL2/IGH translocation might possibly be forced to localize in follicles, and accumulate genetic abnormalities by being subjected to recurrent stimulation. Our findings lead us to propose that B cells carrying the BCL2/IGH translocation comprise a distinctive cell population that leads to the development of germinal center B-cell type lymphoma.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1349-7006.2009.01344.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000271709300019
View details for PubMedID 19780757
B7-H1 expression is regulated by MEK/ERK signaling pathway in anaplastic large cell lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma
2009; 100 (11): 2093-2100
B7-H1 is a member of the B7 family that inhibits the function of T-cells through its receptor programmed death-1 (PD-1). We examined B7-H1 expression in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and found that it was constitutively expressed in both clinical samples and cell lines. In anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive (ALK(+)) ALCL cells, B7-H1 expression was suppressed by the blocking of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling and upregulated by the augmentation of ERK activity by phorbol 13-myristate 12-acetate stimulation, suggesting that B7-H1 expression is regulated by ERK signaling pathway in ALCL. ERK is one of the downstream mediators of nucleophosmin (NPM)/ALK signaling in ALK(+)ALCL, and pharmacological inhibition of ALK was shown to dephosphorylate ERK and down-regulate B7-H1. The involvement of NPM/ALK in B7-H1 expression was also demonstrated by introducing the construct into human non-ALCL lymphoid cell lines, which resulted in B7-H1 expression. In the case of HL, B7-H1 expression was shown to be dependent on the ERK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. These results suggest that B7-H1 expression is controlled by common ERK signaling pathways in ALCL and HL cells. Our findings provide a potentially effective immunotherapeutic strategy for these B7-H1-expressing tumors.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1349-7006.2009.01302.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000270728200014
View details for PubMedID 19703193
PD-1-PD-1 ligand interaction contributes to immunosuppressive microenvironment of Hodgkin lymphoma
2008; 111 (6): 3220-3224
Programmed death-1 (PD-1)-PD-1 ligand (PD-L) signaling system is involved in the functional impairment of T cells such as in chronic viral infection or tumor immune evasion. We examined PD-L expression in lymphoid cell lines and found that they were up-regulated on Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and several T-cell lymphomas but not on B-cell lymphomas. PD-L expression was also demonstrated in primary Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg (H/RS) cells. On the other hand, PD-1 was elevated markedly in tumor-infiltrating T cells of HL, and was high in the peripheral T cells of HL patients as well. Blockade of the PD-1 signaling pathway inhibited SHP-2 phosphorylation and restored the IFN-gamma-producing function of HL-infiltrating T cells. According to these results, deficient cellular immunity observed in HL patients can be explained by "T-cell exhaustion," which is led by the activation of PD-1-PD-L signaling pathway. Our finding provides a potentially effective immunologic strategy for the treatment of HL.
View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2007-05-085159
View details for Web of Science ID 000254009600037
View details for PubMedID 18203952
- Durable remission of large B-cell lymphoma transformed from lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma/Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia successfully treated with sequential immunochemotherapy followed by reduced-intensity allogeneic stem cell transplantation BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION 2008; 41 (6): 591-593