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Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Current research centers on the use of human genetic haploid systems, e.g. the Y chromosome, to understand the prehistory of human migrations particularly since the Holocene. This work includes investigating correlations with human symbolic material culture, focusing on the visual artistic realm. Also being explored are the issues and ethical implications of the social construction of race and ethnicity vis a vis the enhanced capacity to differentiate populations using genotypes.

Teaching

2016-17 Courses


Publications

All Publications


  • Y-chromosome phylogeographic analysis of the Greek-Cypriot population reveals elements consistent with Neolithic and Bronze Age settlements. Investigative genetics Voskarides, K., Mazières, S., Hadjipanagi, D., Di Cristofaro, J., Ignatiou, A., Stefanou, C., King, R. J., Underhill, P. A., Chiaroni, J., Deltas, C. 2016; 7: 1-?

    Abstract

    The archeological record indicates that the permanent settlement of Cyprus began with pioneering agriculturalists circa 11,000 years before present, (ca. 11,000 y BP). Subsequent colonization events followed, some recognized regionally. Here, we assess the Y-chromosome structure of Cyprus in context to regional populations and correlate it to phases of prehistoric colonization.Analysis of haplotypes from 574 samples showed that island-wide substructure was barely significant in a spatial analysis of molecular variance (SAMOVA). However, analyses of molecular variance (AMOVA) of haplogroups using 92 binary markers genotyped in 629 Cypriots revealed that the proportion of variance among the districts was irregularly distributed. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed potential genetic associations of Greek-Cypriots with neighbor populations. Contrasting haplogroups in the PCA were used as surrogates of parental populations. Admixture analyses suggested that the majority of G2a-P15 and R1b-M269 components were contributed by Anatolia and Levant sources, respectively, while Greece Balkans supplied the majority of E-V13 and J2a-M67. Haplotype-based expansion times were at historical levels suggestive of recent demography.Analyses of Cypriot haplogroup data are consistent with two stages of prehistoric settlement. E-V13 and E-M34 are widespread, and PCA suggests sourcing them to the Balkans and Levant/Anatolia, respectively. The persistent pre-Greek component is represented by elements of G2-U5(xL30) haplogroups: U5*, PF3147, and L293. J2b-M205 may contribute also to the pre-Greek strata. The majority of R1b-Z2105 lineages occur in both the westernmost and easternmost districts. Distinctively, sub-haplogroup R1b- M589 occurs only in the east. The absence of R1b- M589 lineages in Crete and the Balkans and the presence in Asia Minor are compatible with Late Bronze Age influences from Anatolia rather than from Mycenaean Greeks.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s13323-016-0032-8

    View details for PubMedID 26870315

  • The phylogenetic and geographic structure of Y-chromosome haplogroup R1a EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS Underhill, P. A., Poznik, G. D., Rootsi, S., Jaerve, M., Lin, A. A., Wang, J., Passarelli, B., Kanbar, J., Myres, N. M., King, R. J., Di Cristofaro, J., Sahakyan, H., Behar, D. M., Kushniarevich, A., Sarac, J., Saric, T., Rudan, P., Pathak, A. K., Chaubey, G., Grugni, V., Semino, O., Yepiskoposyan, L., Bahmanimehr, A., Farjadian, S., Balanovsky, O., Khusnutdinova, E. K., Herrera, R. J., Chiaroni, J., Bustamante, C. D., Quake, S. R., Kivisild, T., Villems, R. 2015; 23 (1): 124-131

    Abstract

    R1a-M420 is one of the most widely spread Y-chromosome haplogroups; however, its substructure within Europe and Asia has remained poorly characterized. Using a panel of 16 244 male subjects from 126 populations sampled across Eurasia, we identified 2923 R1a-M420 Y-chromosomes and analyzed them to a highly granular phylogeographic resolution. Whole Y-chromosome sequence analysis of eight R1a and five R1b individuals suggests a divergence time of ∼25,000 (95% CI: 21,300-29,000) years ago and a coalescence time within R1a-M417 of ∼5800 (95% CI: 4800-6800) years. The spatial frequency distributions of R1a sub-haplogroups conclusively indicate two major groups, one found primarily in Europe and the other confined to Central and South Asia. Beyond the major European versus Asian dichotomy, we describe several younger sub-haplogroups. Based on spatial distributions and diversity patterns within the R1a-M420 clade, particularly rare basal branches detected primarily within Iran and eastern Turkey, we conclude that the initial episodes of haplogroup R1a diversification likely occurred in the vicinity of present-day Iran.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ejhg.2014.50

    View details for Web of Science ID 000346271500020

  • No Evidence from Genome-wide Data of a Khazar Origin for the Ashkenazi Jews. Human biology Behar, D. M., Metspalu, M., Baran, Y., Kopelman, N. M., Yunusbayev, B., Gladstein, A., Tzur, S., Sahakyan, H., Bahmanimehr, A., Yepiskoposyan, L., Tambets, K., Khusnutdinova, E. K., Kushniarevich, A., Balanovsky, O., Balanovsky, E., Kovacevic, L., Marjanovic, D., Mihailov, E., Kouvatsi, A., Triantaphyllidis, C., King, R. J., Semino, O., Torroni, A., Hammer, M. F., Metspalu, E., Skorecki, K., Rosset, S., Halperin, E., Villems, R., Rosenberg, N. A. 2013; 85 (6): 859-900

    Abstract

    The origin and history of the Ashkenazi Jewish population have long been of great interest, and advances in high-throughput genetic analysis have recently provided a new approach for investigating these topics. We and others have argued on the basis of genome-wide data that the Ashkenazi Jewish population derives its ancestry from a combination of sources tracing to both Europe and the Middle East. It has been claimed, however, through a reanalysis of some of our data, that a large part of the ancestry of the Ashkenazi population originates with the Khazars, a Turkic-speaking group that lived to the north of the Caucasus region ~1,000 years ago. Because the Khazar population has left no obvious modern descendants that could enable a clear test for a contribution to Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry, the Khazar hypothesis has been difficult to examine using genetics. Furthermore, because only limited genetic data have been available from the Caucasus region, and because these data have been concentrated in populations that are genetically close to populations from the Middle East, the attribution of any signal of Ashkenazi-Caucasus genetic similarity to Khazar ancestry rather than shared ancestral Middle Eastern ancestry has been problematic. Here, through integration of genotypes from newly collected samples with data from several of our past studies, we have assembled the largest data set available to date for assessment of Ashkenazi Jewish genetic origins. This data set contains genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 1,774 samples from 106 Jewish and non-Jewish populations that span the possible regions of potential Ashkenazi ancestry: Europe, the Middle East, and the region historically associated with the Khazar Khaganate. The data set includes 261 samples from 15 populations from the Caucasus region and the region directly to its north, samples that have not previously been included alongside Ashkenazi Jewish samples in genomic studies. Employing a variety of standard techniques for the analysis of population-genetic structure, we found that Ashkenazi Jews share the greatest genetic ancestry with other Jewish populations and, among non-Jewish populations, with groups from Europe and the Middle East. No particular similarity of Ashkenazi Jews to populations from the Caucasus is evident, particularly populations that most closely represent the Khazar region. Thus, analysis of Ashkenazi Jews together with a large sample from the region of the Khazar Khaganate corroborates the earlier results that Ashkenazi Jews derive their ancestry primarily from populations of the Middle East and Europe, that they possess considerable shared ancestry with other Jewish populations, and that there is no indication of a significant genetic contribution either from within or from north of the Caucasus region.

    View details for PubMedID 25079123

  • No Evidence from Genome-wide Data of a Khazar Origin for the Ashkenazi Jews HUMAN BIOLOGY Behar, D. M., Metspalu, M., Baran, Y., Kopelman, N. M., Yunusbayev, B., Gladstein, A., Tzur, S., Sahakyan, H., Bahmanimehr, A., Yepiskoposyan, L., Tambets, K., Khusnutdinova, E. K., Kushniarevich, A., Balanovsky, O., Balanovsky, E., Kovacevic, L., Marjanovic, D., Mihailov, E., Kouvatsi, A., Triantaphyllidis, C., King, R. J., Semino, O., Torroni, A., Hammer, M. F., Metspalu, E., Skorecki, K., Rosset, S., Halperin, E., Villems, R., Rosenberg, N. A. 2013; 85 (6): 859-900
  • Afghan Hindu Kush: Where Eurasian Sub-Continent Gene Flows Converge PLOS ONE Di Cristofaro, J., Pennarun, E., Mazieres, S., Myres, N. M., Lin, A. A., Temori, S. A., Metspalu, M., Metspalu, E., Witzel, M., King, R. J., Underhill, P. A., Villems, R., Chiaroni, J. 2013; 8 (10)

    Abstract

    Despite being located at the crossroads of Asia, genetics of the Afghanistan populations have been largely overlooked. It is currently inhabited by five major ethnic populations: Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek and Turkmen. Here we present autosomal from a subset of our samples, mitochondrial and Y- chromosome data from over 500 Afghan samples among these 5 ethnic groups. This Afghan data was supplemented with the same Y-chromosome analyses of samples from Iran, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia and updated Pakistani samples (HGDP-CEPH). The data presented here was integrated into existing knowledge of pan-Eurasian genetic diversity. The pattern of genetic variation, revealed by structure-like and Principal Component analyses and Analysis of Molecular Variance indicates that the people of Afghanistan are made up of a mosaic of components representing various geographic regions of Eurasian ancestry. The absence of a major Central Asian-specific component indicates that the Hindu Kush, like the gene pool of Central Asian populations in general, is a confluence of gene flows rather than a source of distinctly autochthonous populations that have arisen in situ: a conclusion that is reinforced by the phylogeography of both haploid loci.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0076748

    View details for Web of Science ID 000326029300050

    View details for PubMedID 24204668

  • Distinguishing the co-ancestries of haplogroup G Y-chromosomes in the populations of Europe and the Caucasus EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS Rootsi, S., Myres, N. M., Lin, A. A., Jaerve, M., King, R. J., Kutuev, I., Cabrera, V. M., Khusnutdinova, E. K., Varendi, K., Sahakyan, H., Behar, D. M., Khusainova, R., Balanovsky, O., Balanovska, E., Rudan, P., Yepiskoposyan, L., Bahmanimehr, A., Farjadian, S., Kushniarevich, A., Herrera, R. J., Grugni, V., Battaglia, V., Nici, C., Crobu, F., Karachanak, S., Kashani, B. H., Houshmand, M., Sanati, M. H., Toncheva, D., Lisa, A., Semino, O., Chiaroni, J., Di Cristofaro, J., Villems, R., Kivisild, T., Underhill, P. A. 2012; 20 (12): 1275-1282

    Abstract

    Haplogroup G, together with J2 clades, has been associated with the spread of agriculture, especially in the European context. However, interpretations based on simple haplogroup frequency clines do not recognize underlying patterns of genetic diversification. Although progress has been recently made in resolving the haplogroup G phylogeny, a comprehensive survey of the geographic distribution patterns of the significant sub-clades of this haplogroup has not been conducted yet. Here we present the haplogroup frequency distribution and STR variation of 16 informative G sub-clades by evaluating 1472 haplogroup G chromosomes belonging to 98 populations ranging from Europe to Pakistan. Although no basal G-M201* chromosomes were detected in our data set, the homeland of this haplogroup has been estimated to be somewhere nearby eastern Anatolia, Armenia or western Iran, the only areas characterized by the co-presence of deep basal branches as well as the occurrence of high sub-haplogroup diversity. The P303 SNP defines the most frequent and widespread G sub-haplogroup. However, its sub-clades have more localized distribution with the U1-defined branch largely restricted to Near/Middle Eastern and the Caucasus, whereas L497 lineages essentially occur in Europe where they likely originated. In contrast, the only U1 representative in Europe is the G-M527 lineage whose distribution pattern is consistent with regions of Greek colonization. No clinal patterns were detected suggesting that the distributions are rather indicative of isolation by distance and demographic complexities.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ejhg.2012.86

    View details for Web of Science ID 000311163900011

    View details for PubMedID 22588667

  • The coming of the Greeks to Provence and Corsica: Y-chromosome models of archaic Greek colonization of the western Mediterranean BMC EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY King, R. J., DiCristofaro, J., Kouvatsi, A., Triantaphyllidis, C., Scheidel, W., Myres, N. M., Lin, A. A., Eissautier, A., Mitchell, M., Binder, D., Semino, O., Novelletto, A., Underhill, P. A., Chiaroni, J. 2011; 11

    Abstract

    The process of Greek colonization of the central and western Mediterranean during the Archaic and Classical Eras has been understudied from the perspective of population genetics. To investigate the Y chromosomal demography of Greek colonization in the western Mediterranean, Y-chromosome data consisting of 29 YSNPs and 37 YSTRs were compared from 51 subjects from Provence, 58 subjects from Smyrna and 31 subjects whose paternal ancestry derives from Asia Minor Phokaia, the ancestral embarkation port to the 6th century BCE Greek colonies of Massalia (Marseilles) and Alalie (Aleria, Corsica).19% of the Phokaian and 12% of the Smyrnian representatives were derived for haplogroup E-V13, characteristic of the Greek and Balkan mainland, while 4% of the Provencal, 4.6% of East Corsican and 1.6% of West Corsican samples were derived for E-V13. An admixture analysis estimated that 17% of the Y-chromosomes of Provence may be attributed to Greek colonization. Using the following putative Neolithic Anatolian lineages: J2a-DYS445 = 6, G2a-M406 and J2a1b1-M92, the data predict a 0% Neolithic contribution to Provence from Anatolia. Estimates of colonial Greek vs. indigenous Celto-Ligurian demography predict a maximum of a 10% Greek contribution, suggesting a Greek male elite-dominant input into the Iron Age Provence population.Given the origin of viniculture in Provence is ascribed to Massalia, these results suggest that E-V13 may trace the demographic and socio-cultural impact of Greek colonization in Mediterranean Europe, a contribution that appears to be considerably larger than that of a Neolithic pioneer colonization.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1471-2148-11-69

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289414700002

    View details for PubMedID 21401952

  • A major Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b Holocene era founder effect in Central and Western Europe EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS Myres, N. M., Rootsi, S., Lin, A. A., Jaerve, M., King, R. J., Kutuev, I., Cabrera, V. M., Khusnutdinova, E. K., Pshenichnov, A., Yunusbayev, B., Balanovsky, O., Balanovska, E., Rudan, P., Baldovic, M., Herrera, R. J., Chiaroni, J., Di Cristofaro, J., Villems, R., Kivisild, T., Underhill, P. A. 2011; 19 (1): 95-101

    Abstract

    The phylogenetic relationships of numerous branches within the core Y-chromosome haplogroup R-M207 support a West Asian origin of haplogroup R1b, its initial differentiation there followed by a rapid spread of one of its sub-clades carrying the M269 mutation to Europe. Here, we present phylogeographically resolved data for 2043 M269-derived Y-chromosomes from 118 West Asian and European populations assessed for the M412 SNP that largely separates the majority of Central and West European R1b lineages from those observed in Eastern Europe, the Circum-Uralic region, the Near East, the Caucasus and Pakistan. Within the M412 dichotomy, the major S116 sub-clade shows a frequency peak in the upper Danube basin and Paris area with declining frequency toward Italy, Iberia, Southern France and British Isles. Although this frequency pattern closely approximates the spread of the Linearbandkeramik (LBK), Neolithic culture, an advent leading to a number of pre-historic cultural developments during the past ?10 thousand years, more complex pre-Neolithic scenarios remain possible for the L23(xM412) components in Southeast Europe and elsewhere.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ejhg.2010.146

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285139600016

    View details for PubMedID 20736979

  • Separating the post-Glacial coancestry of European and Asian Y chromosomes within haplogroup R1a EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS Underhill, P. A., Myres, N. M., Rootsi, S., Metspalu, M., Zhivotovsky, L. A., King, R. J., Lin, A. A., Chow, C. T., Semino, O., Battaglia, V., Kutuev, I., Jaerve, M., Chaubey, G., Ayub, Q., Mohyuddin, A., Mehdi, S. Q., Sengupta, S., Rogaev, E. I., Khusnutdinova, E. K., Pshenichnov, A., Balanovsky, O., Balanovska, E., Jeran, N., Augustin, D. H., Baldovic, M., Herrera, R. J., Thangaraj, K., Singh, V., Singh, L., Majumder, P., Rudan, P., Primorac, D., Villems, R., Kivisild, T. 2010; 18 (4): 479-484

    Abstract

    Human Y-chromosome haplogroup structure is largely circumscribed by continental boundaries. One notable exception to this general pattern is the young haplogroup R1a that exhibits post-Glacial coalescent times and relates the paternal ancestry of more than 10% of men in a wide geographic area extending from South Asia to Central East Europe and South Siberia. Its origin and dispersal patterns are poorly understood as no marker has yet been described that would distinguish European R1a chromosomes from Asian. Here we present frequency and haplotype diversity estimates for more than 2000 R1a chromosomes assessed for several newly discovered SNP markers that introduce the onset of informative R1a subdivisions by geography. Marker M434 has a low frequency and a late origin in West Asia bearing witness to recent gene flow over the Arabian Sea. Conversely, marker M458 has a significant frequency in Europe, exceeding 30% in its core area in Eastern Europe and comprising up to 70% of all M17 chromosomes present there. The diversity and frequency profiles of M458 suggest its origin during the early Holocene and a subsequent expansion likely related to a number of prehistoric cultural developments in the region. Its primary frequency and diversity distribution correlates well with some of the major Central and East European river basins where settled farming was established before its spread further eastward. Importantly, the virtual absence of M458 chromosomes outside Europe speaks against substantial patrilineal gene flow from East Europe to Asia, including to India, at least since the mid-Holocene.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ejhg.2009.194

    View details for Web of Science ID 000275726900017

    View details for PubMedID 19888303

  • The emergence of Y-chromosome haplogroup J1e among Arabic-speaking populations EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS Chiaroni, J., King, R. J., Myres, N. M., Henn, B. M., Ducourneau, A., Mitchell, M. J., Boetsch, G., Sheikha, I., Lin, A. A., Nik-Ahd, M., Ahmad, J., Lattanzi, F., Herrera, R. J., Ibrahim, M. E., Brody, A., Semino, O., Kivisild, T., Underhill, P. A. 2010; 18 (3): 348-353

    Abstract

    Haplogroup J1 is a prevalent Y-chromosome lineage within the Near East. We report the frequency and YSTR diversity data for its major sub-clade (J1e). The overall expansion time estimated from 453 chromosomes is 10,000 years. Moreover, the previously described J1 (DYS388=13) chromosomes, frequently found in the Caucasus and eastern Anatolian populations, were ancestral to J1e and displayed an expansion time of 9000 years. For J1e, the Zagros/Taurus mountain region displays the highest haplotype diversity, although the J1e frequency increases toward the peripheral Arabian Peninsula. The southerly pattern of decreasing expansion time estimates is consistent with the serial drift and founder effect processes. The first such migration is predicted to have occurred at the onset of the Neolithic, and accordingly J1e parallels the establishment of rain-fed agriculture and semi-nomadic herders throughout the Fertile Crescent. Subsequently, J1e lineages might have been involved in episodes of the expansion of pastoralists into arid habitats coinciding with the spread of Arabic and other Semitic-speaking populations.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ejhg.2009.166

    View details for Web of Science ID 000274601800014

    View details for PubMedID 19826455

  • Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS Battaglia, V., Fornarino, S., Al-Zahery, N., Olivieri, A., Pala, M., Myres, N. M., King, R. J., Rootsi, S., Marjanovic, D., Primorac, D., Hadziselimovic, R., Vidovic, S., Drobnic, K., Durmishi, N., Torroni, A., Santachiara-Benerecetti, A. S., Underhill, P. A., Semino, O. 2009; 17 (6): 820-830

    Abstract

    The debate concerning the mechanisms underlying the prehistoric spread of farming to Southeast Europe is framed around the opposing roles of population movement and cultural diffusion. To investigate the possible involvement of local people during the transition of agriculture in the Balkans, we analysed patterns of Y-chromosome diversity in 1206 subjects from 17 population samples, mainly from Southeast Europe. Evidence from three Y-chromosome lineages, I-M423, E-V13 and J-M241, make it possible to distinguish between Holocene Mesolithic forager and subsequent Neolithic range expansions from the eastern Sahara and the Near East, respectively. In particular, whereas the Balkan microsatellite variation associated to J-M241 correlates with the Neolithic period, those related to E-V13 and I-M423 Balkan Y chromosomes are consistent with a late Mesolithic time frame. In addition, the low frequency and variance associated to I-M423 and E-V13 in Anatolia and the Middle East, support an European Mesolithic origin of these two clades. Thus, these Balkan Mesolithic foragers with their own autochthonous genetic signatures, were destined to become the earliest to adopt farming, when it was subsequently introduced by a cadre of migrating farmers from the Near East. These initial local converted farmers became the principal agents spreading this economy using maritime leapfrog colonization strategies in the Adriatic and transmitting the Neolithic cultural package to other adjacent Mesolithic populations. The ensuing range expansions of E-V13 and I-M423 parallel in space and time the diffusion of Neolithic Impressed Ware, thereby supporting a case of cultural diffusion using genetic evidence.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ejhg.2008.249

    View details for Web of Science ID 000266289100018

    View details for PubMedID 19107149

  • Differential Greek and northern African migrations to Sicily are supported by genetic evidence from the Y chromosome EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS Di Gaetano, C., Cerutti, N., Crobu, F., Robino, C., Inturri, S., Gino, S., Guarrera, S., Underhill, P. A., King, R. J., Romano, V., Cali, F., Gasparini, M., Matullo, G., Salerno, A., Torre, C., Piazza, A. 2009; 17 (1): 91-99

    Abstract

    The presence or absence of genetic heterogeneity in Sicily has long been debated. Through the analysis of the variation of Y-chromosome lineages, using the combination of haplogroups and short tandem repeats from several areas of Sicily, we show that traces of genetic flows occurred in the island, due to ancient Greek colonization and to northern African contributions, are still visible on the basis of the distribution of some lineages. The genetic contribution of Greek chromosomes to the Sicilian gene pool is estimated to be about 37% whereas the contribution of North African populations is estimated to be around 6%.In particular, the presence of a modal haplotype coming from the southern Balkan Peninsula and of its one-step derivates associated to E3b1a2-V13, supports a common genetic heritage between Sicilians and Greeks. The estimate of Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor is about 2380 years before present, which broadly agrees with the archaeological traces of the Greek classic era. The Eastern and Western part of Sicily appear to be significantly different by the chi(2)-analysis, although the extent of such differentiation is not very high according to an analysis of molecular variance. The presence of a high number of different haplogroups in the island makes its gene diversity to reach about 0.9. The general heterogeneous composition of haplogroups in our Sicilian data is similar to the patterns observed in other major islands of the Mediterranean, reflecting the complex histories of settlements in Sicily.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ejhg.2008.120

    View details for Web of Science ID 000261588800013

    View details for PubMedID 18685561

  • Correlation of annual precipitation with human Y-chromosome diversity and the emergence of Neolithic agricultural and pastoral economies in the Fertile Crescent ANTIQUITY Chiaroni, J., King, R. J., Underhill, P. A. 2008; 82 (316): 281-289
  • Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic ANNALS OF HUMAN GENETICS KING, R. J., Ozcan, S. S., Carter, T., Kalfoglu, E., Atasoy, S., Triantaphyllidis, C., Kouvatsi, A., Lin, A. A., Chow, C. T., Zhivotovsky, L. A., Michalodimitrakis, M., Underhill, P. A. 2008; 72: 205-214

    Abstract

    The earliest Neolithic sites of Europe are located in Crete and mainland Greece. A debate persists concerning whether these farmers originated in neighboring Anatolia and the role of maritime colonization. To address these issues 171 samples were collected from areas near three known early Neolithic settlements in Greece together with 193 samples from Crete. An analysis of Y-chromosome haplogroups determined that the samples from the Greek Neolithic sites showed strong affinity to Balkan data, while Crete shows affinity with central/Mediterranean Anatolia. Haplogroup J2b-M12 was frequent in Thessaly and Greek Macedonia while haplogroup J2a-M410 was scarce. Alternatively, Crete, like Anatolia showed a high frequency of J2a-M410 and a low frequency of J2b-M12. This dichotomy parallels archaeobotanical evidence, specifically that while bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is known from Neolithic Anatolia, Crete and southern Italy; it is absent from earliest Neolithic Greece. The expansion time of YSTR variation for haplogroup E3b1a2-V13, in the Peloponnese was consistent with an indigenous Mesolithic presence. In turn, two distinctive haplogroups, J2a1h-M319 and J2a1b1-M92, have demographic properties consistent with Bronze Age expansions in Crete, arguably from NW/W Anatolia and Syro-Palestine, while a later mainland (Mycenaean) contribution to Crete is indicated by relative frequencies of V13.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1469-1809.2007.00414.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000252928000007

    View details for PubMedID 18269686

  • The ethics of characterizing difference: guiding principles on using racial categories in human genetics GENOME BIOLOGY Lee, S. S., Mountain, J., Koenig, B., Altman, R., Brown, M., Camarillo, A., Cavalli-Sforza, L., Cho, M., Eberhardt, J., Feldman, M., Ford, R., Greely, H., King, R., Markus, H., Satz, D., Snipp, M., Steele, C., Underhill, P. 2008; 9 (7)

    Abstract

    We are a multidisciplinary group of Stanford faculty who propose ten principles to guide the use of racial and ethnic categories when characterizing group differences in research into human genetic variation.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/gb-2008-9-7-404

    View details for Web of Science ID 000258773600005

    View details for PubMedID 18638359

  • Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia HUMAN GENETICS Cinnioglu, C., King, R., Kivisild, T., Kalfoglu, E., Atasoy, S., Cavalleri, G. L., Lillie, A. S., Roseman, C. C., Lin, A. A., Prince, K., Oefner, P. J., Shen, P. D., Semino, O., Cavalli-Sforza, L. L., Underhill, P. A. 2004; 114 (2): 127-148

    Abstract

    Analysis of 89 biallelic polymorphisms in 523 Turkish Y chromosomes revealed 52 distinct haplotypes with considerable haplogroup substructure, as exemplified by their respective levels of accumulated diversity at ten short tandem repeat (STR) loci. The major components (haplogroups E3b, G, J, I, L, N, K2, and R1; 94.1%) are shared with European and neighboring Near Eastern populations and contrast with only a minor share of haplogroups related to Central Asian (C, Q and O; 3.4%), Indian (H, R2; 1.5%) and African (A, E3*, E3a; 1%) affinity. The expansion times for 20 haplogroup assemblages was estimated from associated STR diversity. This comprehensive characterization of Y-chromosome heritage addresses many multifaceted aspects of Anatolian prehistory, including: (1) the most frequent haplogroup, J, splits into two sub-clades, one of which (J2) shows decreasing variances with increasing latitude, compatible with a northward expansion; (2) haplogroups G1 and L show affinities with south Caucasus populations in their geographic distribution as well as STR motifs; (3) frequency of haplogroup I, which originated in Europe, declines with increasing longitude, indicating gene flow arriving from Europe; (4) conversely, haplogroup G2 radiates towards Europe; (5) haplogroup E3b3 displays a latitudinal correlation with decreasing frequency northward; (6) haplogroup R1b3 emanates from Turkey towards Southeast Europe and Caucasia and; (7) high resolution SNP analysis provides evidence of a detectable yet weak signal (<9%) of recent paternal gene flow from Central Asia. The variety of Turkish haplotypes is witness to Turkey being both an important source and recipient of gene flow.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00439-003-1031-4

    View details for Web of Science ID 000186954300001

    View details for PubMedID 14586639

  • Somatization in young versus older female panic disorder patients INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY Sheikh, J. I., Swales, P. J., KING, R. J., Sazima, G. C., Bail, G. 1998; 13 (8): 564-567

    Abstract

    Studies in younger patients with panic disorder suggest greater somatization compared to similarly aged normal controls. Thus, we compared the degree of somatization in young versus older female patients with panic disorder to ascertain whether similarly high levels of somatization exist in older panic disorder patients.Community-dwelling subjects were recruited for clinical trials for panic disorder and met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III-R) criteria for panic disorder as a primary diagnosis. Our sample (N = 64) contained 42 younger females (< 55 years of age; age range 21-54, mean age 34.6) who were compared to 22 older females (> or = 55 years of age; age range 55-73, mean age 60.8). Subjects were evaluated at baseline using the Self-Report Inventory for Somatic Symptoms (SISS). Statistical analysis of total somatization disorder scores (TSDS) was accomplished by t-tests for independent groups.Older patients showed statistically significantly higher total somatization disorder scores (TSDS) (X = 11.54, SD = 7.45) than did younger patients (X = 8.07, SD = 4.77; t(62) = 2.27, p = < 0.05).Our results are suggestive of a higher degree of somatization in older compared to younger female panic disorder patients.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000075551900009

    View details for PubMedID 9733338

  • Neurochemical predictors and correlates of vulnerability to cocaine use. NIDA research monograph King, R. J., Flowers, C. 1996; 159: 228-263

    View details for PubMedID 8784861

  • INCREASED CSF HVA WITH CRAVING IN LONG-TERM ABSTINENT COCAINE ABUSERS BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY Knoblich, G., Curtis, D., Faustman, W. O., Zarcone, V., Stewart, S., MEFFORD, I., King, R. 1992; 32 (1): 96-100

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JR33000010

    View details for PubMedID 1391298

  • HYPNOTIZABILITY AND CSF HVA LEVELS AMONG PSYCHIATRIC-PATIENTS BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY Spiegel, D., King, R. 1992; 31 (1): 95-98

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992GX47400008

    View details for PubMedID 1543801

  • BIOLOGICAL FACTORS IN SOCIOPATHY - RELATIONSHIPS TO DRUG-ABUSE BEHAVIORS King, R., Curtis, D., Knoblich, G. AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC. 1992: 115–135
  • COMPARATIVE PHENOMENOLOGY OF EARLY-ONSET VERSUS LATE-ONSET PANIC ATTACKS - A PILOT SURVEY AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY Sheikh, J. I., KING, R. J., Taylor, C. B. 1991; 148 (9): 1231-1233

    Abstract

    Studies of panic attacks in older adults are virtually nonexistent. The authors surveyed 520 adults with panic attacks; 445 were younger than age 55, 57 were 55 years old or older but had their first panic attack before age 55, and 18 were 55 years old or older and had their first panic attack at age 55 or later. The respondents with late-onset panic attacks reported fewer symptoms during their attacks and were less avoidant than both groups of respondents with early-onset panic attacks.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GD55200018

    View details for PubMedID 1883003

  • MMPI MEASURES OF IMPULSIVITY AND DEPRESSION CORRELATE WITH CSF 5-HIAA AND HVA IN DEPRESSION BUT NOT SCHIZOPHRENIA JOURNAL OF AFFECTIVE DISORDERS Faustman, W. O., KING, R. J., Faull, K. F., Moses, J. A., Benson, K. L., Zarcone, V. P., Csernansky, J. G. 1991; 22 (4): 235-239

    Abstract

    Recent studies have linked impulsivity with CSF concentrations of both 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and homovanillic acid (HVA). One work found a negative correlation between the MMPI psychopathic deviate (Pd) scale and 5-HIAA in personality disordered men (Brown et al., 1982). We found that the 5-HIAA/Pd correlation extends (P less than 0.05) to unmedicated depressed patients (n = 21). A trend was found between HVA and Pd in depression. There was no relationship between either metabolite and the Pd scale in unmedicated schizophrenics (n = 24). A significant inverse correlation was found between the MMPI depression scale and CSF HVA but not 5-HIAA in the depressed patients.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GD38100007

    View details for PubMedID 1939932

  • COMPLEXITY PREFERENCE IN SUBSTANCE-ABUSERS AND CONTROLS - RELATIONSHIPS TO DIAGNOSIS AND PERSONALITY-VARIABLES PERCEPTUAL AND MOTOR SKILLS King, R., Curtis, D., Knoblich, G. 1991; 72 (1): 35-39

    Abstract

    To assess the relationship between complexity preference as measured by the Barron-Welsh Revised Art Scale and models of arousal and personality, 36 male substance abusers and 24 community controls were given this tool as well as a battery of personality tests. Some support was found for the notion that emotionality, as measured by the Test of Emotional Styles, was associated with preference for complexity. Relevant neurobiological models of affective expression and hemispheric asymmetry are discussed in light of these findings.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FD07200008

    View details for PubMedID 2038532

  • NEUROCHEMICAL STUDIES OF IMPULSIVE-AGGRESSIVE PERSONALITY-TRAITS King, R., Clark, D., MEFFORD, I. RAVEN PRESS. 1991: 169–181
  • 5-HIAA IN CEREBROSPINAL-FLUID AND DEFICIT SCHIZOPHRENIC CHARACTERISTICS BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY Csernansky, J. G., KING, R. J., Faustman, W. O., Moses, J. A., POSCHER, M. E., Faull, K. F. 1990; 156: 501-507

    Abstract

    Higher CSF 5-HIAA concentrations and lower CSF HVA concentrations have been associated with various measures of slowed motor behaviour and communication in schizophrenic patients. To derive a single, reliable measure of deficit characteristics in schizophrenic patients, we entered four items of the BPRS reflecting negative symptoms, a work history measure derived from the Strauss-Carpenter scale, and three subscale scores of the WAIS-R into a principal-components analysis to derive a single factor score. The CSF 5-HIAA concentrations were within the normal range of values, and correlated directly with this factor score, but CSF HVA concentrations were not associated with the deficit factor score. These findings add support to the hypothesis that brain serotonin function is associated with deficit schizophrenic characteristics.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990CY31800009

    View details for PubMedID 1696842

  • CARDIOVASCULAR AND SYMPTOMATIC REDUCTION EFFECTS OF ALPRAZOLAM AND IMIPRAMINE IN PATIENTS WITH PANIC DISORDER - RESULTS OF A DOUBLE-BLIND, PLACEBO-CONTROLLED TRIAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY Taylor, C. B., Hayward, C., King, R., Ehlers, A., MARGRAF, J., Maddock, R., Clark, D., Roth, W. T., Agras, W. S. 1990; 10 (2): 112-118

    Abstract

    Seventy-nine patients with panic disorder were randomized to an 8-week double-blind treatment with alprazolam, imipramine, or placebo. Patients kept daily records of panic attacks, activity, anxiety, sleep, and medication use. Weekly measures of anxiety, depression, somatic symptoms, fears, avoidance, disability, and improvement were obtained. All patients underwent a symptom-limited exercise treadmill and other cardiovascular measures. By physician and patient global assessment, patients receiving alprazolam or imipramine were significantly better than patients on placebo. The alprazolam effects were apparent by week 1; the imipramine effects by week 4. All groups showed significant reductions in anxiety, depression, somatic measures, and panic attack frequency. At 8 weeks, patients in the alprazolam group reported significantly less fear than patients in the other two groups. Subjects in the imipramine group showed a significant increase in heart rate and blood pressure.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990CX84900006

    View details for PubMedID 2187912

  • CSF PHENYLACETIC ACID AND HOSTILITY IN PARANOID SCHIZOPHRENIA PSYCHIATRY RESEARCH Faull, K. F., KING, R. J., BARCHAS, J. D., Csernansky, J. G. 1989; 30 (2): 111-118

    Abstract

    Lumbar cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of phenylacetic acid were significantly elevated in paranoid vs. nonparanoid schizophrenics. Further, phenylacetic acid concentrations were correlated with hostility. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that phenylethylamine, the proposed precursor of phenylacetic acid, plays a role in schizophrenia.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989CF03100001

    View details for PubMedID 2616681

  • USE OF MEDICATION AND INVIVO EXPOSURE IN VOLUNTEERS FOR PANIC DISORDER RESEARCH AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY Taylor, C. B., King, R., MARGRAF, J., Ehlers, A., Telch, M., Roth, W. T., Agras, W. S. 1989; 146 (11): 1423-1426

    Abstract

    A survey of 794 subjects volunteering for studies of panic disorder with or without phobic avoidance revealed that fewer than 15% had received imipramine and fewer than 15% had undergone in vivo exposure, although the majority had engaged in some form of counseling and had used benzodiazepines. Subjects with spontaneous panic attacks reported more avoidance than subjects with situational attacks. One-half of the subjects were unemployed. The authors recommend wider use of the available effective treatments for panic disorder and phobic avoidance.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989AX18500005

    View details for PubMedID 2817112

  • PLASMA-LIPID LEVELS IN PATIENTS WITH PANIC DISORDER OR AGORAPHOBIA AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY Hayward, C., Taylor, C. B., Roth, W. T., King, R., Agras, W. S. 1989; 146 (7): 917-919

    Abstract

    Plasma lipids were measured in 102 subjects with panic disorder or agoraphobia. In women, but not men, a significantly higher than expected number of subjects had cholesterol values that exceeded the 75th percentile of national reference values for their sex and age.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989AD14300020

    View details for PubMedID 2742017

  • MEASUREMENT OF PHENYLACETIC ACID IN CEREBROSPINAL-FLUID AND PLASMA USING COMBINED GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHY ELECTRON-CAPTURE CHEMICAL IONIZATION MASS-SPECTROMETRY BIOMEDICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MASS SPECTROMETRY Faull, K. F., Pascoe, N., Greene, K. A., Maddaluno, J. F., Lunde, J., KING, R. J. 1988; 17 (3): 213-219

    Abstract

    Details are presented of an ultra-sensitive gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric assay for phenylacetic acid in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid based on measurements of the relative intensities of the carboxylate anions, derived from the penta- and tetrafluorobenzyl esters under electron capture chemical ionization conditions, of unlabeled and a (13C2)-labeled internal standard. The limits of detection for the penta- and tetrafluorobenzyl esters are 0.85 and 4.0 pg respectively, and the assay is capable of measuring phenylacetic acid concentrations in samples as small as 20 microliter of CSF and plasma. The penta- and tetrafluorobenzyl esters are chromatographically separated on the gas chromatograph column, which allows for their co-injection and independent measurement from the same chromatogram.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988P968500009

    View details for PubMedID 3214675

  • TONIC AROUSAL AND ACTIVITY - RELATIONSHIPS TO PERSONALITY AND PERSONALITY-DISORDER TRAITS IN PANIC PATIENTS PSYCHIATRY RESEARCH KING, R. J., BAYON, E. P., Clark, D. B., Taylor, C. B. 1988; 25 (1): 65-72

    Abstract

    Personality theorists have long predicted a relationship between personality traits and autonomic activation. In this study, 48 patients with panic disorder underwent personality assessment by questionnaire (Eysenck Personality Inventory: 48 patients) and by interview (Personality Disorders Examination: 35 patients). Ambulatory heart rate and activity were measured by the Vitalog method and were used as measures of activation and autonomic arousal. There was a significant positive correlation between histrionic traits and activity level and a significant negative correlation between sociability and heart rate. The findings are consistent with previous studies showing a negative relationship between sensation-seeking personality traits and cerebrospinal fluid levels of norepinephrine and a positive relationship between extroversion and cerebrospinal fluid levels of dopamine.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988P894700008

    View details for PubMedID 3217468

  • Treadmill exercise test and ambulatory measures in panic attacks. American journal of cardiology Taylor, C. B., King, R., Ehlers, A., MARGRAF, J., Clark, D., Hayward, C., Roth, W. T., Agras, S. 1987; 60 (18): 48J-52J

    Abstract

    Treadmill exercise test performance and ambulatory heart rate and activity patterns of 40 patients with panic attacks were compared with 20 age-matched controls (control group 1) and 20 nonexercising controls (control group 2). All patients underwent a symptom-limited exercise stress test. Panic attack patients and control group 1 wore an ambulatory heart rate/activity monitor for up to 3 days. Panic patients had a significantly higher heart rate at 4 and 6 METS than either control group. The max METS were 11.2 +/- 2.3, 13.5 +/- 2.3 and 11.2 +/- 1.8 for the panic attack patients and control groups 1 and 2, respectively. One panic patient had ischemia on the treadmill at 12 METS. Panic patients had a significantly higher standing heart rate than controls. Furthermore, 11 of 39 panic patients had tachycardia on standing compared with 3 of 40 controls. Panic attack patients had higher wake and sleep heart rates than control group 1, but the differences were not significant. These results are consistent with autonomic dysfunction in panic patients but may also be due to differences in physical conditioning. The treadmill can be useful for reassuring patients and for identifying the rare patient with ischemia on exercise.

    View details for PubMedID 3425557

  • MATHEMATICAL-ANALYSIS OF SEPARATION-INDUCED VOCALIZATIONS IN SQUIRREL-MONKEYS JOURNAL OF THEORETICAL BIOLOGY Snyder, R., King, R. 1987; 125 (3): 361-366

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987G970300012

    View details for PubMedID 3657216

  • SOLITON THEORY OF PROTEIN DYNAMICS CIBA FOUNDATION SYMPOSIA Jardetzky, O., King, R. 1983; 93: 291-306

    View details for Web of Science ID A1983QD98000030

    View details for PubMedID 6551230

  • THE STUDY OF MACROMOLECULAR DYNAMICS BY HIGH-RESOLUTION NMR APPLIED SPECTROSCOPY RIBEIRO, A., WADEJARDETZKY, N. G., King, R., Jardetzky, O. 1980; 34 (3): 299-305