Licenciado, Universidad De Buenos Aires (2007)
Doctor of Philosophy, Universidad De Buenos Aires (2013)
Reliance on rodents for understanding pancreatic genetics, development and islet function could limit progress in developing interventions for human diseases like diabetes mellitus. Similarities of pancreas morphology and function suggest that porcine and human pancreas developmental biology may have useful homologies. However, little is known about pig pancreas development. To fill this knowledge gap, we investigated fetal and neonatal pig pancreas at multiple, crucial developmental stages using modern experimental approaches. Purification of islet β-, α- and δ-cells followed by transcriptome analysis (RNA-Seq) and immunohistology identified cell- and stage-specific regulation, and revealed that pig and human islet cells share characteristic features not observed in mice. Morphometric analysis also revealed endocrine cell allocation and architectural similarities between pig and human islets. Our analysis unveiled scores of signaling pathways linked to native islet β-cell functional maturation, including evidence of fetal α-cell GLP-1 production and signaling to β-cells. Thus, the findings and resources detailed here show how pig pancreatic islet studies complement other systems for understanding the developmental programs that generate functional islet cells, and that are relevant to human pancreatic diseases.
View details for DOI 10.1242/dev.186213
View details for PubMedID 32108026
CRISPR-mediated transcriptional activation, also known as CRISPR-on, has proven efficient for activation of individual or multiple endogenous gene expression in cultured cells from several species. However, the potential of CRISPR-on technology in preimplantation mammalian embryos remains to be explored. Here, we report for the first time the successful modulation of endogenous gene expression in bovine embryos by using the CRISPR-on system. As a proof of principle, we targeted the promoter region of either SMARCA4 or TFAP2C genes, transcription factors implicated in trophoblast lineage commitment during embryo development. We demonstrate that CRISPR-on provides temporal control of endogenous gene expression in bovine embryos, by simple cytoplasmic injection of CRISPR RNA components into one cell embryos. dCas9VP160 activator was efficiently delivered and accurately translated into protein, being detected in the nucleus of all microinjected blastomeres. Our approach resulted in the activation of SMARCA expression shortly after microinjection, with a consequent effect on downstream differentiation promoting factors, such as TFAP2C and CDX2. Although targeting of TFAP2C gene did not result in a significant increase in TFAP2C expression, there was a profound induction in CDX2 expression on day 2 of development. Finally, we demonstrate that CRISPR-on system is suitable for gene expression modulation during the preimplantation period, since no detrimental effect was observed on microinjected embryo development. This study constitutes a first step toward the application of the CRISPR-on system for the study of early embryo cell fate decisions in cattle and other mammalian embryos, as well as to design novel strategies that may lead to an improved trophectoderm development.
View details for DOI 10.1530/REP-19-0517
View details for PubMedID 32240977
In contrast to other species, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in bovine remains inefficient, resulting in low embryo developmental rates. It is unclear whether such inefficiency is due to the poor response of bovine ooplasms to the injection stimulus, or to the inability of bull sperm to induce oocyte activation. In order to facilitate these events, two strategies were assessed: the use of high concentration of cysteamine [Cys] during IVM; and the selection of sperm attached to cumulus cells after incubation with COCs for ICSI. First, COCs were IVM with increasing [Cys] and subjected to IVF. Zygotes from all groups were cultured under different O2 tensions and development to blastocyst was evaluated. In a second experiment, sperm were co-cultured for 3 h with COCs and acrosome reaction was studied. Afterwards, the best IVM and IVC conditions determined on Experiment 1 were used for ICSI assay. COCs were matured for 21 h with 1 (Cys 1) or 0.1 mM Cys (Cys 0.1 groups, standard condition). In addition, COCs were incubated for ≥3 h with 16 × 106 sperm/ml and only sperm attached to cumulus cells were selected for ICSI (ICSI + Co-cult groups). After chemical activation, embryos were cultured in SOF medium under low O2 tension. Cleavage and blastocyst rates were evaluated at days 2 and 7 of IVC, respectively. Finally, the relative expression of eight genes indicators of embryo quality was compared between ICSI and IVF control blastocysts by qPCR. Cleavage rates were higher for Cys 0.1 ICSI + Co-cult and Cys 1 ICSI + Co-cult groups (n = 117, 92% and n = 116, 79%, respectively) compared to their controls (n = 132, 60% for Cys 0.1 ICSI and n = 108, 52% for Cys 1 ICSI) (p ≤ 0.05). Interestingly, the combined treatment (Cys 1 ICSI + Co-cult) showed higher blastocyst rates than all other ICSI groups (23 vs. 11, 18 and 14% for Cys 0.1 ICSI + Co-cult, Cys 1 ICSI, and Cys 0.1 ICSI, respectively) (p ≤ 0.05). Moreover, incubation with COCs increased the rates of live acrosome reacted sperm (p ≤ 0.05). The relative abundance of mRNAs coding for INFτ, CAT, DNMT1, OCT4, and HDAC3 did not differ between treatments (p ≤ 0.05). SOD2, HADC1 and HADC2 expression was higher for Cys 0.1 ICSI than for IVF embryos (p ≤ 0.05). Group Cys 1 ICSI did not differ from IVF for those three genes, neither did Cys 1 ICSI + Co-cult, except for HDAC1 (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, the use of 1 mM Cys during IVM and of sperm incubated with mature COCs might be a good strategy to improve ICSI outcomes in cattle.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2018.05.017
View details for Web of Science ID 000436055900004
View details for PubMedID 29807255
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