Bio

Bio


Dr. Robin Kamal is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery. He completed his undergraduate and medical education at the University of Missouri, and graduated with Alpha Omega Alpha and Cum Laude honors. During his education he completed research fellowships at the National Institutes of Health and the University of Iowa. He went on to complete a residency in Orthopaedic Surgery at Brown University as well as a fellowship in Orthopaedic Trauma. During his training at Brown, he studied wrist injuries (fractures/ligament tears) as a research fellow at the University of Barcelona. Dr. Kamal then completed a second fellowship in Hand, Upper Extremity, and Microvascular Surgery at Duke University.

Dr. Kamal's research program focuses on the following (http://med.stanford.edu/s-voices.html):
1) Wrist fractures and Ligament Injuries: Studying the factors the influence wrist motion to inform patient-specific wrist reconstructions; defining high quality wrist care
2) Defining Quality in Orthopaedic Surgery
3. The Patient Perspective on Quality, Cost, and Value
4) Value-based Healthcare: Studying novel payment models, variation in quality, cost analyses, and high-value clinical care pathways

Dr. Kamal is an editor of the textbook Comprehensive Board Review in Orthopaedic Surgery. He has a wrist research grant from the American Society for Surgery of the Hand, a quality measure development grant from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, has served as a grant reviewer for the Department of Defense, and is an Emerging Leader for the American Orthopaedic Association. He serves as the Vice-Chair of the Quality Measures Committee for the American Society for Surgery of the Hand, Chair of the Carpal Tunnel Quality Measure Workgroup and Chair of the Distal Radius Fracture Quality Measure Workgroup. He is a consulting editor for the Journal of Hand Surgery.

His main surgical interests are in trauma and reconstructive surgery of the upper limb (hand, wrist, elbow, shoulder). He strives to provide his patients the highest quality care possible - a commitment he makes his foremost priority. His research and clinical practice are devoted to improving hand, wrist, and elbow function and he treats upper extremity instability/arthritis (finger, wrist, or elbow joint replacement), sports/athletic injuries and fracture care including nonunion/malunion, and minimally invasive arthroscopy.

Clinical Focus


  • Hand, Wrist, and Elbow Surgery
  • Upper Extremity Trauma
  • Hand Surgery

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Consulting Editor, American Family Physician (2016 - Present)
  • Consulting Editor, Journal of Oncology Practice (2016 - Present)
  • Consulting Editor, Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery (2016 - Present)
  • Consulting Editor, Journal of Hand Surgery (2015 - Present)
  • Member, Volunteer Services Committee, American Society for Surgery of the Hand (2014 - Present)
  • Member, Performance Measures Task Force of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand (2014 - Present)
  • Member, Hand Surgery Quality Consortium (2014 - Present)
  • Clinician Scholar Development Program, AAOS/OREF/ORS (2012 - Present)
  • Emerging Leader, American Orthopaedic Association (2011 - Present)
  • Information Services Advisory Committee, Rhode Island Hospital (2011 - 2012)
  • President, UMKC School of Medicine Student Body Member (2005 - 2006)
  • Alumni Board, UMKC School of Medicine (2004 - 2006)

Honors & Awards


  • Award for Community Service, UMKC School of Medicine Schaffer (2004)
  • Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA), UMKC School of Medicine (2006)
  • Award For Research, St. Louis Friends of UMKC School of Medicine (2007)
  • Alumni Association Award for Outstanding Research, UMKC School of Medicine (2007)
  • Award for Scientific presentation at Annual Meeting, “Best of the AAOS” (2012)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Candidate Member, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (2007 - Present)
  • Registered Disaster Responder, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (2013 - Present)
  • Candidate Member, American Society for Surgery of the Hand (2011 - Present)
  • Candidate Member, American Association for Hand Surgery (2011 - Present)
  • Emerging Leader, American Orthopaedic Association (2011 - Present)
  • Member, International Society of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology (SICOT) (2012 - Present)
  • Candidate Member, Orthopaedic Trauma Association (2013 - Present)

Professional Education


  • Board Certification: Hand Surgery, American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery (2017)
  • Board Certification: Orthopaedic Surgery, American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery (2016)
  • Fellowship:Hasbro Children's Hospital (2013) RI
  • Residency:Hasbro Children's Hospital (2012) RI
  • Internship:Hasbro Children's Hospital (2008) RI
  • Assistant Professor, Stanford University Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery Chase Hand and Upper Limb Center
  • Fellowship, Duke University Medical Center, Hand, Upper Extremity, and Microvascular
  • Fellowship, Brown University/Rhode Island Hospital, Orthopaedic Trauma
  • Residency, Brown University/Rhode Island Hospital, Orthopaedic Surgery
  • Internship, Brown University/Rhode Island Hospital, General Surgery
  • Doctor of Medicine, Cum Laude, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Doctor of Medicine

Community and International Work


  • Hand and Burn Surgery, La Paz, Bolivia

    Partnering Organization(s)

    ReSurge International and ASSH

    Location

    International

    Ongoing Project

    No

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    No

  • English Teacher, Santa Domingo, Dominican Republic

    Location

    International

    Ongoing Project

    No

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    No

  • Medical Mission, San Lucas, Guatemala

    Location

    International

    Ongoing Project

    No

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    No

  • Orthopaedic Trauma, Hospital Roberto Calderon, Managua, Nicaragua

    Topic

    Orthopaedic Trauma

    Partnering Organization(s)

    Orthopaedic Overseas

    Location

    International

    Ongoing Project

    No

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    No

  • Orthopaedic Trauma, Adventist Hospital, Port-Au-Prince, Haiti

    Topic

    Trauma and Hand Surgery

    Partnering Organization(s)

    Loma Linda University

    Ongoing Project

    No

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    No

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Wrist and Elbow Injuries and Quality Measures in Orthopaedic Surgery

Clinical Trials


  • Testing of a Tool to Elicit Patient Preferences for CTS Not Recruiting

    This study will complete a randomized controlled trial to quantitatively measure patient decisional conflict (Decisional Conflict Scale) in 150 patients treated for CTS with the tool compared to 150 patients treated with standard care. The investigators hypothesize patients treated for CTS will have lower decisional conflict with the tool.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Sara Eppler, MPH, (650) 724 - 6935.

    View full details

Projects


  • Does Ligament Elasticity Affect Carpal Kinematics?

    Location

    palo alto

  • Quality Measure Development in Hand Surgery

    Location

    palo alto

  • Patient-Centered Education Tools

    Location

    palo alto

Teaching

2017-18 Courses


Publications

All Publications


  • Patients Should Define Value in Health Care: A Conceptual Framework. The Journal of hand surgery Kamal, R. N., Lindsay, S. E., Eppler, S. L. 2018

    Abstract

    The main tenet of value-based health care is delivering high-quality care that is centered on the patient, improving health, and minimizing cost. Collaborative decision-making frameworks have been developed to help facilitate delivering care based on patient preferences (patient-centered care). The current value-based health care model, however, focuses on improving population health and overlooks the individuality of patients and their preferences for care. We highlight the importance of eliciting patient preferences in collaborative decision making and describe a conceptual framework that incorporates individual patients' preferences when defining value.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhsa.2018.03.036

    View details for PubMedID 29754755

  • The Affordable Care Act Decreased the Proportion of Uninsured Patients in a Safety Net Orthopaedic Clinic CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH Gil, J. A., Goodman, A. D., Kleiner, J., Kamal, R. N., Baker, L. C., Akelman, E. 2018; 476 (5): 925–31

    Abstract

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) was approved in 2010, substantially altering the economics of providing and receiving healthcare services in the United States. One of the primary goals of this legislation was to expand insurance coverage for under- and uninsured residents. Our objective was to examine the effect of the ACA on the insurance status of patients at a safety net clinic. Our institution houses a safety net clinic that provides the dominant majority of orthopaedic care for uninsured patients in our state. Therefore, our study allows us to accurately examine the magnitude of the effect on insurance status in safety net orthopaedic clinics.(1) Did the ACA result in a decrease in the number of uninsured patients at a safety net orthopaedic clinic that provides the dominant majority of orthopaedic care for the uninsured in the state? (2) Did the proportion of patients insured after passage of the ACA differ across age or demographic groups in one state?We retrospectively examined our longitudinally maintained adult orthopaedic surgery clinic database from January 2009 to March 2015 and collected visit and demographic data, including zip code income quartile. Based on the data published by the Rhode Island Department of Health, our clinic provides the dominant majority of orthopaedic care for uninsured patients in our state. Therefore, examination of the changes in the proportion of insurance status in our clinic allows us to assess the effect of the ACA on the state level. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to determine the relationship between demographic variables and insurance status. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% CIs were calculated for the proportion of uninsured visits. The proportion of uninsured visits before and after implementation of the ACA was evaluated with an interrupted time-series analysis. The reduction in the proportion of patients without insurance between demographic groups (ie, race, gender, language spoken, and income level) also was compared using an interrupted time-series design.There was a 36% absolute reduction (95% CI, 35%-38%; p < 0.001) in uninsured visits (73% relative reduction; 95% CI, 71%-75%; p < 0.001). There was an immediate 28% absolute reduction (95% CI, 21%-34%; p < 0.001) at the time of ACA implementation, which continued to decline thereafter. After controlling for potential confounding variables such as gender, race, age, and income level, we found that patients who were white, men, younger than 65 years, and seen after January 2014 were more likely to have insurance than patients of other races, women, older patients, and patients treated before January 2014.After the ACA was implemented, the proportion of patients with health insurance at our safety net adult orthopaedic surgery clinic increased substantially. The reduction in uninsured patients was not equal across genders, races, ages, and incomes. Future studies may benefit from identifying barriers to insurance acquisition in these subpopulations. The results of this study could affect orthopaedic practices in the United States by guiding policy decisions regarding health care.Level III, therapeutic study.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11999.0000000000000078

    View details for Web of Science ID 000431411000003

    View details for PubMedID 29672327

  • The Sigmoid Notch View for Distal Radius Fractures. The Journal of hand surgery Kamal, R. N., Leversedge, F., Ruch, D. S., Mithani, S. K., Cotterell, I. H., Richard, M. J. 2018

    Abstract

    PURPOSE: This study defines the sigmoid notch view of the distal radius. Specifically, we tested the null hypothesis that there is no relationship between the subchondral stripe of bone seen on a sigmoid notch view of the distal radius and the articular surface of the sigmoid notch.METHODS: We used 44 wrist specimens for anatomic and fluoroscopic analysis. We measured the articular depth of the sigmoid notch from its deepest point and classified the shape of the sigmoid notch. We then placed a radiopaque marker at the nadir of the articular surface and quantified the fluoroscopic depth of the sigmoid notch. A sigmoid notch view, which was a tangential fluoroscopic view of the volar and dorsal lips of the sigmoid notch, was obtained. The relationship of the articular surface to the stripe of subchondral bone seen on this view, called the sigmoid stripe, was determined.RESULTS: Anatomic analysis revealed sigmoid notch types with proportions similar to those in previous descriptions. The marker for the articular surface was superimposed or just ulnar to the sigmoid stripe in all specimens. In flat face and ski slope notches, this was coincident with the volar and dorsal lips of the sigmoid notch. In C- and S-type notches, there was a measurable distance from the articular surface marker to the edges of the bone of the volar and dorsal lips of the sigmoid.CONCLUSIONS: The articular surface marker at the nadir of the sigmoid notch is always coincident or ulnar to the sigmoid stripe in the sigmoid notch view.CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Surgeons can use the sigmoid notch view as a reliable method to (1) evaluate the integrity of the articular surface, (2) ensure hardware is not placed in the distal radioulnar joint, and (3) guide placement of volar locking plates in the coronal plane.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhsa.2018.03.016

    View details for PubMedID 29680335

  • Does Wrist Laxity Influence Three-Dimensional Carpal Bone Motion? JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICAL ENGINEERING-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME Best, G. M., Zec, M. L., Pichora, D. R., Kamal, R. N., Rainbow, M. J. 2018; 140 (4)

    View details for DOI 10.1115/1.4038897

    View details for Web of Science ID 000426560800007

  • What Is the State of Quality Measurement in Spine Surgery? CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH Bennett, C., Xiong, G., Hu, S., Wood, K., Kamal, R. N. 2018; 476 (4): 725–31

    Abstract

    Value-based healthcare models rely on quality measures to evaluate the efficacy of healthcare delivery and to identify areas for improvement. Quality measure research in other areas of health care has generally shown that there is a limited number of available quality measures and that those that exist disproportionately focus on processes as opposed to outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess the current state of quality measures and candidate quality measures in spine surgery.(1) How many quality measures and candidate quality measures are currently available? (2) According to Donabedian domains and National Quality Strategy (NQS) priorities, what aspects or domains of care do the present quality measures and candidate quality measures represent?We systematically reviewed the National Quality Forum, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and the Physician Quality Reporting System for quality measures relevant to spine surgery. A systematic search for candidate quality measures was also performed using MEDLINE/PubMed and Embase as well as publications from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Congress of Neurological Surgeons, and the North American Spine Society. Clinical practice guidelines were included as candidate quality measures if their development was in accordance with Institute of Medicine criteria for the development of clinical practice guidelines, they were based on consistent clinical evidence including at least one Level I study, and they carried the strongest possible recommendation by the developing body. Quality measures and candidate quality measures were then pooled for analysis and categorized by clinical focus, NQS priority, and Donabedian domain. Our initial search yielded a total of 3940 articles, clinical practice guidelines, and quality measures, 74 of which met criteria for inclusion in this study.Of the 74 measures studied, 29 (39%) were quality measures and 45 (61%) were candidate quality measures. Fifty of 74 (68%) were specific to the care of the spine, and 24 of 74 (32%) were related to the general care of spine patients. The majority of the spine-specific measures were process measures (45 [90%]) and focused on the NQS priority of "Effective Clinical Care" (44 [88%]). The majority of the general care measures were also process measures (14 [58%]), the highest portion of which focused on the NQS priority of "Patient Safety" (10 [42%]).Given the large number of pathologies treated by spine surgeons, the limited number of available quality measures and candidate quality measures in spine surgery is inadequate to support the transition to a value-based care model. Additionally, current measures disproportionately focus on certain aspects or domains of care, which may hinder the ability to appropriately judge an episode of care, extract usable data, and improve quality. Physicians can steward the creation of meaningful quality measures by participating in clinical practice guideline development, assisting with the creation and submission of formal quality measures, and conducting the high-quality research on which effective guidelines and quality measures depend.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11999.0000000000000074

    View details for Web of Science ID 000431410600017

    View details for PubMedID 29480884

  • Tensile and Torsional Structural Properties of the Native Scapholunate Ligament. The Journal of hand surgery Pang, E. Q., Douglass, N., Behn, A., Winterton, M., Rainbow, M. J., Kamal, R. N. 2018

    Abstract

    PURPOSE: The ideal material for reconstruction of the scapholunate interosseous ligament (SLIL) should replicate the mechanical properties of the native SLIL to recreate normal kinematics and prevent posttraumatic arthritis. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the cyclic torsional and tensile properties of the native SLIL and load to failure tensile properties of the dorsal SLIL.METHODS: The SLIL bone complex was resected from 10 fresh-frozen cadavers. The scaphoid and lunate were secured in polymethylmethacrylate and mounted on a test machine that incorporated an x-y stage and universal joint, which permitted translations perpendicular to the rotation/pull axis as well as nonaxial angulations. After a 1 N preload, specimens underwent cyclic torsional testing (±0.45 N m flexion/extension at 0.5 Hz) and tensile testing (1-50 N at 1 Hz) for 500 cycles. Lastly, the dorsal 10 mm of the SLIL was isolated and displaced at 10 mm/min until failure.RESULTS: During intact SLIL cyclic torsional testing, the neutral zone was 29.7° ± 6.6° and the range of rotation 46.6° ± 7.1°. Stiffness in flexion and extension were 0.11 ± 0.02 and 0.12 ± 0.02 N m/deg, respectively. During cyclic tensile testing, the engagement length was 0.2 ± 0.1 mm, the mean stiffness was 276 ± 67 N/mm, and the range of displacement was 0.4 ± 0.1 mm. The dorsal SLIL displayed a 0.3 ± 0.2 mm engagement length, 240 ± 65 N/mm stiffness, peak load of 270 ± 91 N, and displacement at peak load of 1.8 ± 0.3 mm.CONCLUSIONS: We report the torsional properties of the SLIL. Our novel test setup allows for free rotation and translation, which reduces out-of-plane force application. This may explain our observation of greater dorsal SLIL load to failure than previous reports.CLINICAL RELEVANCE: By matching the natural ligament with respect to its tensile and torsional properties, we believe that reconstructions will better restore the natural kinematics of the wrist and lead to improved outcomes. Future clinical studies should aim to investigate this further.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhsa.2018.01.004

    View details for PubMedID 29459171

  • Effectiveness of Preoperative Antibiotics in Preventing Surgical Site Infection After Common Soft Tissue Procedures of the Hand. Clinical orthopaedics and related research Li, K., Sambare, T. D., Jiang, S. Y., Shearer, E. J., Douglass, N. P., Kamal, R. N. 2018

    Abstract

    Antibiotic prophylaxis is a common but controversial practice for clean soft tissue procedures of the hand, such as carpal tunnel release or trigger finger release. Previous studies report no substantial reduction in the risk of surgical site infection (SSI) after antibiotic prophylaxis, yet are limited in power by low sample sizes and low overall rates of postoperative infection.Is there evidence that antibiotic prophylaxis decreases the risk of SSI after soft tissue hand surgery when using propensity score matching to control for potential confounding variables such as demographics, procedure type, medication use, existing comorbidities, and postoperative events?This retrospective analysis used the Truven Health MarketScan databases, large, multistate commercial insurance claims databases corresponding to inpatient and outpatient services and outpatient drug claims made between January 2007 and December 2014. The database includes records for patients enrolled in health insurance plans from self-insured employers and other private payers. Current Procedural Terminology codes were used to identify patients who underwent carpal tunnel release, trigger finger release, ganglion and retinacular cyst excision, de Quervain's release, or soft tissue mass excision, and to assign patients to one of two cohorts based on whether they had received preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis. We identified 943,741 patients, of whom 426,755 (45%) were excluded after meeting one or more exclusion criteria: 357,500 (38%) did not have 12 months of consecutive insurance enrollment before surgery or 1 month of enrollment after surgery; 60,693 (6%) had concomitant bony, implant, or incision and drainage or débridement procedures; and 94,141 (10%) did not have complete data. In all, our initial cohort consisted of 516,986 patients, among whom 58,201 (11%) received antibiotic prophylaxis. Propensity scores were calculated and used to create cohorts matched on potential risk factors for SSI, including age, procedure type, recent use of steroids and immunosuppressive agents, diabetes, HIV/AIDs, tobacco use, obesity, rheumatoid arthritis, alcohol abuse, malnutrition, history of prior SSI, and local procedure volume. Multivariable logistic regression before and after propensity score matching was used to test whether antibiotic prophylaxis was associated with a decrease in the risk of SSI within 30 days after surgery.After controlling for patient demographics, hand procedure type, medication use, existing comorbidities (eg, diabetes, HIV/AIDs, tobacco use, obesity), and postoperative events through propensity score matching, we found that the risk of postoperative SSI was no different between patients who had received antibiotic prophylaxis and those who had not (odds ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.93-1.13; p = 0.585).Antibiotic prophylaxis for common soft tissue procedures of the hand is not associated with reduction in postoperative infection risk. While our analysis cannot account for factors that are not captured in the billing process, this study nevertheless provides strong evidence against unnecessary use of antibiotics before these procedures, especially given the difficulty of conducting a randomized prospective study with a sample size large enough to detect the effect of prophylaxis on the low baseline risk of infection.Level III, therapeutic study.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11999.0000000000000073

    View details for PubMedID 29432267

  • Volar Capsular Release After Distal RadiusFractures. The Journal of hand surgery Kamal, R. N., Ruch, D. S. 2017

    Abstract

    PURPOSE: Loss of full wrist range of motion is common after treatment of distal radius fractures. Loss of wrist extension limiting functional activities, although uncommon, can occur after volar plating of distal radius fractures. Unlike other joints in which capsular release is a common form of treatment for stiffness, this has been approached with caution in the wrist owing to concerns for carpal instability. We tested the null hypothesis that hardware removal and open volar capsular release would not lead to improved upper extremity-specific patient-reported outcome (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand [DASH] questionnaire).METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent a tenolysis of the flexor carpi radialis tendon, removal of hardware, and subperiosteal release of the volar capsule (extrinsic ligaments). The primary outcome measure was patient-reported outcome on the DASH. Secondary outcomes included wrist flexion, extension, pronation, and supination, visual analog scale for pain, and radiographs/fluoroscopy for ulnocarpal translocation.RESULTS: Eleven patients were treated with a mean follow-up of 4.5 years. Mean DASH scores improved after surgery. Mean wrist flexion, wrist extension, pronation, and supination improved after surgery. Mean visual analog scale scores did not change. The radiocarpal relationship on radiographs/fluoroscopy was normal.CONCLUSIONS: Open volar capsular release to regain wrist extension after treatment of distal radius fractures with volar locking plates is safe and effective. Patients regain wrist extension in addition to improved DASH scores. There were no radiographic/fluoroscopic or clinical signs of ulnocarpal translocation after release of the volar extrinsic ligaments.TYPE OF STUDY/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic IV.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhsa.2017.08.002

    View details for PubMedID 28917548

  • Cost-minimization Analysis of the Management of Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture. journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Truntzer, J. N., Triana, B., Harris, A. H., Baker, L., Chou, L., Kamal, R. N. 2017; 25 (6): 449-457

    Abstract

    Outcomes of nonsurgical management of acute Achilles tendon rupture have been demonstrated to be noninferior to those of surgical management. We performed a cost-minimization analysis of surgical and nonsurgical management of acute Achilles tendon rupture.We used a claims database to identify patients who underwent surgical (n = 1,979) and nonsurgical (n = 3,065) management of acute Achilles tendon rupture and compared overall costs of treatment (surgical procedure, follow-up care, physical therapy, and management of complications). Complication rates were also calculated. Patients were followed for 1 year after injury.Average treatment costs in the year after initial diagnosis were higher for patients who underwent initial surgical treatment than for patients who underwent nonsurgical treatment ($4,292 for surgical treatment versus $2,432 for nonsurgical treatment; P < 0.001). However, surgical treatment required fewer office visits (4.52 versus 10.98; P < 0.001) and less spending on physical therapy ($595 versus $928; P < 0.001). Rates of rerupture requiring subsequent treatment (2.1% versus 2.4%; P = 0.34) and additional costs ($2,950 versus $2,515; P = 0.34) were not significantly different regardless whether initial treatment was surgical or nonsurgical. In both cohorts, management of complications contributed to approximately 5% of the total cost.From the payer's perspective, the overall costs of nonsurgical management of acute Achilles tendon rupture were significantly lower than the overall costs of surgical management.III, Economic Decision Analysis.

    View details for DOI 10.5435/JAAOS-D-16-00553

    View details for PubMedID 28459710

  • Quality Measures in Breast Reconstruction: A Systematic Review. Annals of plastic surgery Nazerali, R. N., Finnegan, M. A., Divi, V., Lee, G. K., Kamal, R. N. 2017

    Abstract

    The importance of providing quality care over quantity of care, and its positive effects on health care expenditure and health, has motivated a transition toward value-based payments. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and private payers are establishing programs linking financial incentives and penalties to adherence to quality measures. As payment models based on quality measures are transitioned into practice, it is beneficial to identify current quality measures that address breast reconstruction surgery as well as understand gaps to inform future quality measure development.We performed a systematic review of quality measures for breast reconstruction surgery by searching quality measure databases, professional society clinical practice guidelines, and the literature. Measures were categorized as structure, process, or outcome according to the Donabedian domains of quality.We identified a total of 27 measures applicable to breast reconstruction: 5 candidate quality measures specifically for breast reconstruction surgery and 22 quality measures that relate broadly to surgery. Of the breast reconstruction candidate measures, 3 addressed processes and 2 addressed outcomes. Seventeen of the general quality measures were process measures and 5 were outcome measures. We did not identify any structural measures.Currently, an overrepresentation of process measures exists, which addresses breast reconstruction surgery. There is a limited number of candidate measures that specifically address breast reconstruction. Quality measure development efforts on underrepresented domains, such as structure and outcome, and stewarding the measure development process for candidate quality measures can ensure breast reconstruction surgery is appropriately evaluated in value-based payment models.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SAP.0000000000001088

    View details for PubMedID 28570449

  • Association of Lunate Morphology With Carpal Instability in Scapholunate Ligament Injury. Hand (New York, N.Y.) Pang, E. Q., Douglass, N., Kamal, R. N. 2017: 1558944717709073-?

    Abstract

    We examined the relationship between lunate morphology (type 1 without a medial facet; type II with a medial facet) and dorsal intercalated segmental instability (DISI) in patients with scapholunate ligament injuries. We tested the primary null hypothesis that there is no relationship between lunate morphology and development of DISI. Secondary analysis compared the agreement of classifying lunate morphology based on the presence of a medial lunate facet, capitate-to-triquetrum (CT) distance, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with known scapholunate ligament injuries from 2001 to 2016. Posterior-anterior radiographs and MRI, when available, were evaluated. CT distances were measured as a secondary classification method. DISI and scapholunate instability were determined as radiolunate angle >15° and scapholunate angle >60°, respectively. Differences between groups were determined using chi-square analysis with significance set at P < .05. Agreement between plain radiographs, MRI, and CT distance was calculated using the kappa statistic.Our search found 58 of 417 patients who met inclusion criteria; 41 of 58 had type II and 17 of 58 had type I lunates. There was no significant difference between groups in regard to DISI or scapholunate instability. Subanalysis using MRI alone or correcting any discrepancy between plain film and MRI classification, using MRI as the standard, found no difference between groups in regard to DISI or scapholunate instability.In patients with scapholunate ligament injuries, there are no differences in the development of DISI or scapholunate instability between patients with type I and type II lunates.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1558944717709073

    View details for PubMedID 28525962

  • Impact of Health Literacy on Time Spent Seeking Hand Care. Hand (New York, N.Y.) Alokozai, A., Bernstein, D. N., Sheikholeslami, N., Uhler, L., Ring, D., Kamal, R. N. 2017: 1558944717708027-?

    Abstract

    Patients with limited health literacy may have less knowledge and fewer resources for efficient access and navigation of the health care system. We tested the null hypothesis that there is no correlation between health literacy and total time spent seeking hand surgery care.New patients visiting a hand surgery clinic at a suburban academic medical center were asked to complete a questionnaire to determine demographics, total time spent seeking hand surgery care, and outcomes. A total of 112 patients were included in this study.We found health literacy levels did not correlate with total time seeking hand surgery care or from booking an appointment to being evaluated in clinic.In this suburban academic medical center, patients with low health literacy do not spend more time seeking hand surgery care and do have longer delays between seeking and receiving care. The finding that-at least in this setting-health literacy does not impact patient time seeking hand care suggests that resources to improve health disparities can be focused elsewhere in the care continuum.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1558944717708027

    View details for PubMedID 28513193

  • Simple Assessment of Global Bone Density and Osteoporosis Screening Using Standard Radiographs of the Hand. journal of hand surgery Schreiber, J. J., Kamal, R. N., Yao, J. 2017

    Abstract

    Osteoporosis and fragility fractures have consequences both at the individual level and to the overall health care system. Although dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the reference standard for assessing bone mineral density (BMD), other, simpler tools may be able to screen bone quality provisionally and signal the need for intervention. We hypothesized that the second metacarpal cortical percentage (2MCP) calculated from standard radiographs of the hand or wrist would correlate with hip BMD derived from DXA and could provide a simple screening tool for osteoporosis.Two hundred patients who had hand or wrist radiographs and hip DXA scans within 1 year of each other were included in this series. Mid-diaphyseal 2MCP was calculated as the ratio of the cortical diameter to the total diameter. We assessed the correlation between 2MCP and total hip BMD. Subjects were stratified into normal, osteopenic, and osteoporotic cohorts based on hip t scores, and thresholds were identified to optimize screening sensitivity and specificity.Second metacarpal cortical percentage correlated significantly with BMD and t scores from the hip. A 2MCP threshold of less than 60% optimized sensitivity (88%) and specificity (60%) for discerning osteopenic subjects from normal subjects, whereas a threshold of less than 50% optimized sensitivity (100%) and specificity (91%) for differentiating osteoporotic from normal subjects.By demonstrating that global BMD may be assessed from 2MCP, these data suggest that radiographs of the hand and wrist may have a role in accurately screening for osteopenia and osteoporosis. This simple investigation, which is already used ubiquitously for patients with hand or wrist problems, may identify patients at risk for fragility fractures and allow for appropriate referral or treatment.Diagnostic II.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhsa.2017.01.012

    View details for PubMedID 28242242

  • Cost-Minimization Analysis of Open and Endoscopic Carpal Tunnel Release. journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume Zhang, S., Vora, M., Harris, A. H., Baker, L., Curtin, C., Kamal, R. N. 2016; 98 (23): 1970-1977

    Abstract

    Carpal tunnel release is the most common upper-limb surgical procedure performed annually in the U.S. There are 2 surgical methods of carpal tunnel release: open or endoscopic. Currently, there is no clear clinical or economic evidence supporting the use of one procedure over the other. We completed a cost-minimization analysis of open and endoscopic carpal tunnel release, testing the null hypothesis that there is no difference between the procedures in terms of cost.We conducted a retrospective review using a private-payer and Medicare Advantage database composed of 16 million patient records from 2007 to 2014. The cohort consisted of records with an ICD-9 (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision) diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome and a CPT (Current Procedural Terminology) code for carpal tunnel release. Payer fees were used to define cost. We also assessed other associated costs of care, including those of electrodiagnostic studies and occupational therapy. Bivariate comparisons were performed using the chi-square test and the Student t test.Data showed that 86% of the patients underwent open carpal tunnel release. Reimbursement fees for endoscopic release were significantly higher than for open release. Facility fees were responsible for most of the difference between the procedures in reimbursement: facility fees averaged $1,884 for endoscopic release compared with $1,080 for open release (p < 0.0001). Endoscopic release also demonstrated significantly higher physician fees than open release (an average of $555 compared with $428; p < 0.0001). Occupational therapy fees associated with endoscopic release were less than those associated with open release (an average of $237 per session compared with $272; p = 0.07). The total average annual reimbursement per patient for endoscopic release (facility, surgeon, and occupational therapy fees) was significantly higher than for open release ($2,602 compared with $1,751; p < 0.0001).Our data showed that the total average fees per patient for endoscopic release were significantly higher than those for open release, although there currently is no strong evidence supporting better clinical outcomes of either technique.Value-based health-care models that favor delivering high-quality care and improving patient health, while also minimizing costs, may favor open carpal tunnel release.

    View details for PubMedID 27926678

  • Quality Measures That Address the Upper Limb JOURNAL OF HAND SURGERY-AMERICAN VOLUME Kamal, R. N., Ring, D., Akelman, E., Ruch, D. S., Richard, M. J., Ladd, A., Got, C., Blazar, P., Yao, J., Kakar, S. 2016; 41 (11): 1041-1048

    Abstract

    Physicians, health care systems, and payers use quality measures to judge performance and monitor the outcomes of interventions. Practicing upper-limb surgeons desire quality measures that are important to patients and feasible to use, and for which it is fair to hold them accountable.Nine academic upper-limb surgeons completed a RAND/University of California-Los Angeles Delphi Appropriateness process to evaluate the importance, feasibility, and accountability of 134 quality measures identified from systematic review. Panelists rated measures on an ordinal scale between 1 (definitely not valid) and 9 (definitely valid) in 2 rounds (preliminary round and final round) with an intervening face-to-face discussion. Ratings from 1 to 3 were considered not valid, 4 to 6 were equivocal or uncertain, and 7 to 9 were valid. If no more than 2 of the 9 ratings were outside the 3-point range that included the median (1-3, 4-6, or 7-9), panelists were considered to be in agreement. If 3 or more ratings of a measure were within the 1 to 3 range whereas 3 or more ratings were in the 7 to 9 range, panelists were considered to be in disagreement.There was agreement that 58 of the measures are important (43%), 74 are feasible (55%), and surgeons can be held accountable for 39 (29%). All 3 thresholds were met for 33 measures (25%). A total of 36 reached agreement for being unimportant (48%) and 57 were not suited for surgeon accountability (43%).A minority of upper-limb quality measures were rated as important for care, feasible to complete, and suitable for upper-limb surgeon accountability.Before health systems and payers implement quality measures, we recommend ensuring their importance and feasibility to safeguard against measures that may not improve care and might misappropriate attention and resources.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhsa.2016.07.107

    View details for Web of Science ID 000387632600001

    View details for PubMedID 27577525

  • Carpal Kinematics and Kinetics JOURNAL OF HAND SURGERY-AMERICAN VOLUME Kamal, R. N., Starr, A., Akelman, E. 2016; 41 (10): 1011-1018

    Abstract

    The complex interaction of the carpal bones, their intrinsic and extrinsic ligaments, and the forces in the normal wrist continue to be studied. Factors that influence kinematics, such as carpal bone morphology and clinical laxity, continue to be identified. As imaging technology improves, so does our ability to better understand and identify these factors. In this review, we describe advances in our understanding of carpal kinematics and kinetics. We use scapholunate ligament tears as an example of the disconnect that exists between our knowledge of carpal instability and limitations in current reconstruction techniques.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhsa.2016.07.105

    View details for Web of Science ID 000385340300008

    View details for PubMedID 27569785

  • Quality and Value in an Evolving Health Care Landscape. journal of hand surgery Kamal, R. N. 2016; 41 (7): 794-799

    Abstract

    Demonstrating and improving value of care continues to be increasingly important in hand surgery. To prepare for emerging models that transition payment from volume to value, hand surgeons will benefit from a clear understanding of quality, cost, and value. National organizations and both public and private payers increasingly advocate for patient-reported outcome measures for pay for reporting and pay for performance initiatives. These are intended to incentivize providers and health systems to improve patient-centered care while minimizing costs. Appreciating the limitations to using patient-reported outcomes in hand surgery can ensure hand surgery is appropriately assessed in novel payment models.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhsa.2016.05.016

    View details for PubMedID 27374791

  • High Disparity Between Orthopedic Resident Interest and Participation in International Health Electives ORTHOPEDICS Zhang, S., Shultz, P., Daniels, A., Akelman, E., Kamal, R. N. 2016; 39 (4): E680-E686

    Abstract

    Few orthopedic surgical residency programs offer international health electives (IHEs). Efforts to expand these programs have been increasing across medical disciplines. Whether orthopedic residents will participate remains unknown. This study quantified and characterized orthopedic resident interest and barriers to IHEs in US residency programs. A web-based survey was administered to residents from 154 US orthopedic residency programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education 2014 to 2015. Questions assessed demographics and program background, previous medical experience abroad, barriers to participation, and level of interest in participating in an international health elective during their training and beyond. Twenty-seven (17.5%) residency programs responded. Chi-square analysis showed that residents who expressed interest in participating were significantly more likely to have experience abroad compared with those who expressed no interest (P<.004). Analysis using Mann-Whitney U test suggested that those who expressed interest were more likely to believe IHEs are important to resident training (P<.0011; mean Likert scale score of 3.7 vs 2.6), provide valuable experience (P<.001; mean Likert scale score of 4.2 vs 3.2), and should be required for orthopedic residencies (P<.001; mean Likert scale score of 2.8 vs 1.9). Residents are strongly interested in participating in IHEs during their training, and many may integrate global health into future practices. Residents perceive lack of funding and scheduling flexibility as barriers preventing them from participating. Prior experience abroad influences level of interest, and international clinical experience may enhance future perception of its value. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(4):e680-e686.].

    View details for DOI 10.3928/01477447-20160419-02

    View details for Web of Science ID 000393105500014

    View details for PubMedID 27111074

  • Quality Measurement: A Primer for Hand Surgeons JOURNAL OF HAND SURGERY-AMERICAN VOLUME Kamal, R. N., Kakar, S., Ruch, D., Richard, M. J., Akelman, E., Got, C., Blazar, P., Ladd, A., Yao, J., Ring, D. 2016; 41 (5): 645-651

    Abstract

    As the government and payers place increasing emphasis on measuring and reporting quality and meeting-specific benchmarks, physicians and health care systems will continue to adapt to meet regulatory requirements. Hand surgeons' involvement in quality measure development will help ensure that our services are appropriately assessed. Moreover, by embracing a culture of quality assessment and improvement, we will improve patient care while demonstrating the importance of our services in a health care system that is transitioning from a fee-for-service model to a fee-for-value model. Understanding quality and the tools for its measurement, and the application of quality assessment and improvement methods can help hand surgeons continue to deliver high-quality care that aligns with national priorities.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhsa.2015.10.002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000375509500008

    View details for PubMedID 26576831

  • Orthopaedic Surgeon Burnout: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ORTHOPAEDIC SURGEONS Daniels, A. H., Depasse, J. M., Kamal, R. N. 2016; 24 (4): 213-219

    Abstract

    Burnout is a syndrome marked by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and low job satisfaction. Rates of burnout in orthopaedic surgeons are higher than those in the general population and many other medical subspecialties. Half of all orthopaedic surgeons show symptoms of burnout, with the highest rates reported in residents and orthopaedic department chairpersons. This syndrome is associated with poor outcomes for surgeons, institutions, and patients. Validated instruments exist to objectively diagnose burnout, although family members and colleagues should be aware of early warning signs and risk factors, such as irritability, withdrawal, and failing relationships at work and home. Emerging evidence indicates that mindfulness-based interventions or educational programs combined with meditation may be effective treatment options. Orthopaedic residency programs, departments, and practices should focus on identifying the signs of burnout and implementing prevention and treatment programs that have been shown to mitigate symptoms.

    View details for DOI 10.5435/JAAOS-D-15-00148

    View details for Web of Science ID 000372851200001

    View details for PubMedID 26885712

  • Quality Measures in Upper Limb Surgery. journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume Kamal, R. N., Ring, D., Akelman, E., Yao, J., Ruch, D. S., Richard, M., Ladd, A., Got, C., Blazar, P., Kakar, S. 2016; 98 (6): 505-510

    Abstract

    Quality measures are now commonplace and are increasingly tied to financial incentives. We reviewed the existing quality measures that address the upper limb and tested the null hypothesis that structure (capacity to deliver care), process (appropriate care), and outcome (the result of care) measures are equally represented.We systematically reviewed MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Clinical Practice Guidelines, the National Quality Forum, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and the Physician Quality Reporting System for quality measures addressing upper limb surgery. Measures were characterized as structure, process, or outcome measures and were categorized according to their developer and their National Strategy for Quality Improvement in Health Care (National Quality Strategy) priority as articulated by the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services.We identified 134 quality measures addressing the upper limb: 131 (98%) process and three (2%) outcome measures. The majority of the process measures address the National Quality Strategy priority of effective clinical care (90%), with the remainder addressing communication and care coordination (5%), person and caregiver-centered experience and outcomes (4%), and community/population health (1%).Our review identified opportunities to develop more measures in the structure and outcome domains as well as measures addressing patient and family engagement, public health, safety, care coordination, and efficient use of resources. The most common existing measures-process measures addressing care-might not be the best measures of upper limb surgery quality given the relative lack of evidence for their use in care improvement.

    View details for DOI 10.2106/JBJS.15.00651

    View details for PubMedID 26984919

  • Subject-Specific Carpal Ligament Elongation in Extreme Positions, Grip, and the Dart Thrower's Motion JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICAL ENGINEERING-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME Rainbow, M. J., Kamal, R. N., Moore, D. C., Akelman, E., Wolfe, S. W., Crisco, J. J. 2015; 137 (11)

    View details for DOI 10.1115/1.4031580

    View details for Web of Science ID 000362842900006

    View details for PubMedID 26367853

  • Management of Intercarpal Ligament Injuries Associated with Distal Radius Fractures. Hand clinics Desai, M. J., Kamal, R. N., Richard, M. J. 2015; 31 (3): 409-416

    Abstract

    The prevalence of ligamentous injury associated with fractures of the distal radius is reported to be as high as 69% with injury to the scapholunate interosseous ligament and lunotriquetral interosseous ligament occurring in 16% to 40% and 8.5% to 15%, respectively. There is a lack of consensus on which patients should undergo advanced imaging, arthroscopy, and treatment and whether this changes their natural history. Overall, patients with high-grade intercarpal ligament injuries are shown to have longer-term disability and sequelae compared with those with lower-grade injuries. This article reviews the diagnosis and treatment options for these injuries.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hcl.2015.04.009

    View details for PubMedID 26205702

  • Management of Intercarpal Ligament Injuries Associated with Distal Radius Fractures. Hand clinics Desai, M. J., Kamal, R. N., Richard, M. J. 2015; 31 (3): 409-416

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hcl.2015.04.009

    View details for PubMedID 26205702

  • Ulnar shortening osteotomy for distal radius malunion. Journal of wrist surgery Kamal, R. N., Leversedge, F. J. 2014; 3 (3): 181-186

    Abstract

    Background Malunion is a common complication of distal radius fractures. Ulnar shortening osteotomy (USO) may be an effective treatment for distal radius malunion when appropriate indications are observed. Methods The use of USO for treatment of distal radius fracture malunion is described for older patients (typically patients >50 years) with dorsal or volar tilt less than 20 degrees and no carpal malalignment or intercarpal or distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) arthritis. Description of Technique Preoperative radiographs are examined to ensure there are no contraindications to ulnar shortening osteotomy. The neutral posteroanterior (PA) radiograph is used to measure ulnar variance and to estimate the amount of ulnar shortening required. An ulnar, mid-sagittal incision is used and the dorsal sensory branch of the ulnar nerve is preserved. An USO-specific plating system with cutting jig is used to create parallel oblique osteotomies to facilitate shortening. Intraoperative fluoroscopy and clinical range of motion are checked to ensure adequate shortening and congruous reduction of the ulnar head within the sigmoid notch. Results Previous outcomes evaluation of USO has demonstrated improvement in functional activities, including average flexion-extension and pronosupination motions, and patient reported outcomes. Conclusion The concept and technique of USO are reviewed for the treatment of distal radius malunion when specific indications are observed. Careful attention to detail related to surgical indications and to surgical technique typically will improve range of motion, pain scores, and patient-reported outcomes and will reduce the inherent risks of the procedure, such as ulnar nonunion or the symptoms related to unrecognized joint arthritis. Level IV.

    View details for DOI 10.1055/s-0034-1384747

    View details for PubMedID 25097811

  • Salvage of Distal Radius Nonunion With a Dorsal Spanning Distraction Plate JOURNAL OF HAND SURGERY-AMERICAN VOLUME Mithani, S. K., Srinivasan, R. C., Kamal, R., Richard, M. J., Leversedge, F. J., Ruch, D. S. 2014; 39 (5): 981-984

    Abstract

    Treatment of nonunion after previous instrumentation of distal radius fractures represents a reconstructive challenge. Resultant osteopenia provides a poor substrate for fixation, often necessitating wrist fusion for salvage. A spanning dorsal distraction plate (bridge plate) can be a useful adjunct to neutralize forces across the wrist, alone or in combination with nonspanning plates to achieve union, salvage wrist function, and avoid wrist arthrodesis in distal radius nonunion.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhsa.2014.02.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000335422200025

    View details for PubMedID 24679491

  • Post-traumatic Raynaud's phenomenon following volar plate injury. Rhode Island medical journal (2013) Chodakiewitz, Y. G., Daniels, A. H., Kamal, R. N., Weiss, A. C. 2014; 97 (4): 24-26

    Abstract

    Post-traumatic Raynaud's phenomenon following non-penetrating or non-repetitive injury is rare. We report a case of Raynaud's phenomenon occurring in a single digit 3 months following volar plate avulsion injury. Daily episodes of painless pallor of the digit occurred for 1 month upon any exposure to cold, resolving with warm water therapy. Symptoms resolved after the initiation of hand therapy, splinting, and range-of- motion exercises.

    View details for PubMedID 24660212

  • Quality of internet health information on thumb carpometacarpal joint arthritis. Rhode Island medical journal (2013) Kamal, R. N., Paci, G. M., Daniels, A. H., Gosselin, M., Rainbow, M. J., Weiss, A. C. 2014; 97 (4): 31-35

    Abstract

    The Internet has become a heavily used source of health information. No data currently exists on the quality and characteristics of Internet information regarding carpometacarpal (CMC) arthritis.The search terms "cmc arthritis," "basal joint arthritis," and "thumb arthritis" were searched using Google and Bing. Search results were evaluated independently by four reviewers. Classification and content specific review was performed utilizing a weighted 100-point information quality scale.Of the 60 websites reviewed, 27 were unique pages with 6 categorized as academic and 21 as non- academic. Average score on content specific review of academic websites was 56.8 and for non-academic was 42.7 (p=0.054). Average Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level for academic websites was 12.4, and for non-academic was 9.9 (p=0.015).Internet health information regarding thumb CMC arthritis is primarily non-academic in nature, of generally poor quality, and at a reading level far above the U.S. average reading level of 6th grade. Higher-quality websites with more complete content and appropriate readability are needed.The quality of Internet health information regarding thumb CMC arthritis is suboptimal.

    View details for PubMedID 24660214

  • Extensive Subcutaneous Emphysema Resembling Necrotizing Fasciitis ORTHOPEDICS Kamal, R. N., Paci, G. M., Born, C. T. 2013; 36 (5): 671-675

    Abstract

    Necrotizing fasciitis is an aggressive, invasive soft tissue infection. Because it can rapidly progress to patient instability, prompt diagnosis followed by urgent debridement is critical to decreasing mortality. Despite the importance of early diagnosis, necrotizing fasciitis remains a clinical diagnosis, with little evidence in the literature regarding the effectiveness of diagnostic tools or criteria. Common clinical findings are nonspecific, including pain, blistering, crepitus, and swelling with or without fever and a known infection source.This article describes a patient who was transferred to the authors' institution from another hospital, where she had been taken following seizure activity and was treated with antibiotics for suspected cellulitis at the intravenous catheter placement site on her left dorsal hand. On admission to the current authors' institution, she presented with pain and swelling in the setting of significant left upper-extremity emphysema. She had undergone a left shoulder arthroscopy 4 weeks previously. Vital signs were within normal limits, and a preoperative chest radiograph was read as normal. The patient underwent an emergent fasciotomy, irrigation and debridement of the left upper extremity, and intravenous antibiotics for suspected necrotizing fasciitis. Intraoperative findings indicative of infection were absent, and a left apical pneumothorax was later found on postoperative chest imaging.In a stable patient with a normal chest radiograph on presentation who demonstrates upper-extremity crepitus suspicious for necrotizing fasciitis, a chest computed tomography scan may be indicated to rule out an intrathoracic source.

    View details for DOI 10.3928/01477447-20130426-34

    View details for Web of Science ID 000319811900037

    View details for PubMedID 23672900

  • Nerve compression syndromes of the upper extremity: diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation. Rhode Island medical journal (2013) Mansuripur, P. K., Deren, M. E., Kamal, R. 2013; 96 (5): 37-39

    Abstract

    Nerve compression syndromes of the upper extremity, including carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, posterior interosseous syndrome and radial tunnel syndrome, are common in the general population. Diagnosis is made based on patient complaint and history as well as specific exam and study findings. Treatment options include various operative and nonoperative modalities, both of which include aspects of hand therapy and rehabilitation.

    View details for PubMedID 23641462

  • Total Wrist Arthroplasty JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ORTHOPAEDIC SURGEONS Weiss, A. C., Kamal, R. N., Shultz, P. 2013; 21 (3): 140-148

    Abstract

    Over the past 40 years, total wrist arthroplasty (TWA) has emerged as a cost-effective treatment option for wrist arthritis. First-generation implant designs have changed tremendously; current devices are designed to enhance wrist stability, provide greater implant longevity, and minimize surgical and postoperative complications. Although arthrodesis remains the standard for surgical management, TWA outcomes demonstrate that the procedure has excellent clinical promise. Additional prospective studies are needed to compare outcomes of wrist arthrodesis with those of TWA with current implants.

    View details for DOI 10.5435/JAAOS-21-03-140

    View details for Web of Science ID 000317444900003

    View details for PubMedID 23457064

  • In vivo kinematics of the scaphoid, lunate, capitate, and third metacarpal in extreme wrist flexion and extension. journal of hand surgery Rainbow, M. J., Kamal, R. N., Leventhal, E., Akelman, E., Moore, D. C., Wolfe, S. W., Crisco, J. J. 2013; 38 (2): 278-288

    Abstract

    Insights into the complexity of active in vivo carpal motion have recently been gained using 3-dimensional imaging; however, kinematics during extremes of motion has not been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to determine motion of the carpus during extremes of wrist flexion and extension.We obtained computed tomography scans of 12 healthy wrists in neutral grip, extreme loaded flexion, and extreme loaded extension. We obtained 3-dimensional bone surfaces and 6-degree-of-freedom kinematics for the radius and carpals. The flexion and extension rotation from neutral grip to extreme flexion and extreme extension of the scaphoid and lunate was expressed as a percentage of capitate flexion and extension and then compared with previous studies of active wrist flexion and extension. We also tested the hypothesis that the capitate and third metacarpal function as a single rigid body. Finally, we used joint space metrics at the radiocarpal and midcarpal joints to describe arthrokinematics.In extreme flexion, the scaphoid and lunate flexed 70% and 46% of the amount the capitate flexed, respectively. In extreme extension, the scaphoid extended 74% and the lunate extended 42% of the amount the capitates extended, respectively. The third metacarpal extended 4° farther than the capitate in extreme extension. The joint contact area decreased at the radiocarpal joint during extreme flexion. The radioscaphoid joint contact center moved onto the radial styloid and volar ridge of the radius in extreme flexion from a more proximal and ulnar location in neutral.The contributions of the scaphoid and lunate to capitate rotation were approximately 25% less in extreme extension compared with wrist motion through an active range of motion. More than half the motion of the carpus when the wrist was loaded in extension occurred at the midcarpal joint.These findings highlight the difference in kinematics of the carpus at the extremes of wrist motion, which occur during activities and injuries, and give insight into the possible etiologies of the scaphoid fractures, interosseous ligament injuries, and carpometacarpal bossing.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhsa.2012.10.035

    View details for PubMedID 23266007

  • The effect of the dorsal intercarpal ligament on lunate extension after distal scaphoid excision. journal of hand surgery Kamal, R. N., Chehata, A., Rainbow, M. J., Llusá, M., Garcia-Elias, M. 2012; 37 (11): 2240-2245

    Abstract

    After a distal scaphoid excision, most wrists develop a mild form of carpal instability-nondissociative with dorsal intercalated segment instability. Substantial dysfunctional malalignment is only occasionally seen. We hypothesized that distal scaphoid excision would lead to carpal instability-nondissociative with dorsal intercalated segment instability in cadavers and that the dorsal intercarpal (DIC) ligament plays a role in preventing such complications.We used 10 cadaver upper extremities in this experiment. A customized jig was used to load the wrist with 98 N. Motion of the capitate and lunate was monitored using the Fastrak motion tracking system. Five specimens had a distal scaphoid excision first, followed by excision of the DIC ligament, whereas the other 5 specimens first had excision of the DIC ligament and then had a distal scaphoid excision. Rotation of the lunate and capitate was calculated as a sum of the relative motions between each intervention and was compared with its original location before intervention (control) for statistical analysis.Distal scaphoid excision and subsequent DIC ligament excision both led to significant lunate extension. DIC ligament excision alone resulted in lunate flexion that was not statistically significant. After DIC ligament excision, distal scaphoid excision led to significant lunate extension. Capitate rotation was minimal in both groups, verifying that the overall wrist position did not change with loading.Distal scaphoid excision leads to significant lunate extension through an imbalance in the force couple between the scaphotrapeziotrapezoidal joint and the triquetrum-hamate joint. The DIC ligament may serve as a secondary stabilizer to the lunocapitate joint and prevent further lunate extension with the wrist in neutral position.The development of a clinically symptomatic carpal instability-nondissociative with dorsal intercalated segment instability with lunocapitate subluxation after distal scaphoid excision may be due to an incompetent DIC ligament.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhsa.2012.07.029

    View details for PubMedID 23044477

  • Elongation of the dorsal carpal ligaments: a computational study of in vivo carpal kinematics. journal of hand surgery Rainbow, M. J., Crisco, J. J., Moore, D. C., Kamal, R. N., Laidlaw, D. H., Akelman, E., Wolfe, S. W. 2012; 37 (7): 1393-1399

    Abstract

    The dorsal radiocarpal (DRC) and dorsal intercarpal (DIC) ligaments play an important role in scapholunate and lunotriquetral stability. The purpose of this study was to compute changes in ligament elongation as a function of wrist position for the DRC and the scaphoid and trapezoidal insertions of the DIC.We developed a computational model that incorporated a digital dataset of ligament origin and insertions, bone surface models, and in vivo 3-dimensional kinematics (n = 28 wrists), as well as an algorithm for computing ligament fiber path.The differences between the maximum length and minimum length of the DRC, DIC scaphoid component, and DIC trapezoidal component over the entire range of motion were 5.1 ± 1.5 mm, 2.7 ± 1.5 mm, and 5.9 ± 2.5 mm, respectively. The DRC elongated as the wrist moved from ulnar extension to radial flexion, and the DIC elongated as the wrist moved from radial deviation to ulnar deviation.The DRC and DIC lengthened in opposing directions during wrist ulnar and radial deviation. Despite complex carpal bone anatomy and kinematics, computed fiber elongations were found to vary linearly with wrist position. Errors between computed values and model predictions were less than 2.0 mm across all subjects and positions.The relationships between ligament elongation and wrist position should further our understanding of ligament function, provide insight into the potential effects of dorsal wrist incisions on specific wrist ranges of motion, and serve as a basis for modeling of the wrist.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhsa.2012.04.025

    View details for PubMedID 22633233

  • Updates on Disaster Preparedness and Progress in Disaster Relief JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ORTHOPAEDIC SURGEONS Pollak, A. N., Born, C. T., Kamal, R. N., Adashi, E. Y. 2012; 20: S54-S58

    Abstract

    Immediately after the January 2010 earthquake in Haiti, many private citizens, governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and medical associations struggled to mount an effective humanitarian aid response. The experiences of these groups have led to changes at their institutions regarding disaster preparedness and response to future events. One of the main challenges in a humanitarian medical response to a disaster is determining when to end response efforts and return responsibility for delivery of medical care back to the host nation. For such a transition to occur, the host nation must have the capacity to deliver medical care. In Haiti, minimal capacity to deliver such care existed before the earthquake, making subsequent transition difficult. If successful, several initiatives proposed to improve disaster response and increase surgical capacity in Haiti could be deployed to other low- and middle-income countries.

    View details for DOI 10.5435/JAAOS-20-08-S54

    View details for Web of Science ID 000307199000013

    View details for PubMedID 22865138

  • In Vivo Triquetrum-Hamate Kinematics through a Simulated Hammering Wrist Motion J Bone Joint Surg Am Kamal, R., et al 2012
  • The Use of Near-Infrared Spectrometry for the Diagnosis of Lower-extremity Compartment Syndrome ORTHOPEDICS Bariteau, J. T., Beutel, B. G., Kamal, R., Hayda, R., Born, C. 2011; 34 (3)
  • Total Wrist Athroplasty in the Non-Rheumatoid Patient J Hand Surg Am. Kamal, R. 2011
  • Arthroscopic Treatment of Radiocarpal Dislocation: A Case Report Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery Kamal, R., et al 2011
  • Effects on cytokines and histology by treatment with the ace inhibitor captopril and the antioxidant retinoic acid in the monocrotaline model of experimentally induced lung fibrosis CURRENT PHARMACEUTICAL DESIGN Baybutt, R. C., Herndon, B. L., Umbehr, J., Mein, J., Xue, Y., Reppert, S., Van Dillen, C., Kamal, R., Halder, A., Moteni, A. 2007; 13 (13): 1327-1333

    Abstract

    Monocrotaline (MCT), a pyrrolizidine alkaloid extracted from the shrub Crotalaria spectabilis, induces in the lungs of many mammalian species severe hypertension and fibrosis. Previous work with MCT-induced lung disease in rats has shown that some of the steps to progressive fibrosis can be interrupted or decreased by intervention with retinoic acid (RA) or with the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril. This report emphasizes the pathology and cytokines present in lungs of rats in the MCT model of hypertension and fibrosis in 8 treatment groups, six per group: (1) controls, not treated; (2) captopril; (3) RA; (4) combined captopril and RA. Groups 5-8 replicated groups 1-4 and also received MCT subcutaneously. Tissues were harvested at 28 days for histopathology and measurement of cytokines TGFbeta, TNFalpha, interleukin 6, and IFN_. TGFbeta was depressed at 28 days by MCT, an effect reversed by a combination of captopril and RA. RA influences production of an important Th1 cytokine, IFN_, and demonstrated the greatest limitation of MCT-induced TNFalpha. The MCT-induced lung pathology of vasculitis, interstitial pneumonia and fibrosis was limited by captopril. Smooth muscle actin was overexpressed in MCT treated animals receiving RA, an effect reduced with captopril. Overall, the study confirmed the existence of a protective effect for both captopril and RA from MCT-induced lung damage at 30 days. No synergistic or antagonistic activity was observed when the two drugs were administered together. Each of the drugs exerts different and particular effects on serum and tissue levels of various cytokines, suggesting that each drug is efficient at different points of attack in the control of lung fibrosis.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247013200005

    View details for PubMedID 17506718

  • Retinoic Acid-High Diet controls M1/M2 Activation Phenotypes in Macrophages and Protects from Monocrotaline-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis Nutrition Research Kamal, R., et al 2004