The association of telomere length with colorectal cancer differs by the age of cancer onset.
Clinical and translational gastroenterology
Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures that cap the end of chromosomes and shorten with sequential cell divisions in normal aging. Short telomeres are also implicated in the incidence of many cancers, but the evidence is not conclusive for colorectal cancer (CRC). Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the association of CRC and telomere length.In this case-control study, we measured relative telomere length from peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) DNA with quantitative PCR in 598 CRC patients and 2,212 healthy controls.Multivariate analysis indicated that telomere length was associated with risk for CRC, and this association varied in an age-related manner; younger individuals (≤50 years of age) with longer telomeres (80-99 percentiles) had a 2-6 times higher risk of CRC, while older individuals (>50 years of age) with shortened telomeres (1-10 percentiles) had 2-12 times the risk for CRC. The risk for CRC varies with extremes in telomere length in an age-associated manner.Younger individuals with longer telomeres or older individuals with shorter telomeres are at higher risk for CRC. These findings indicate that the association of PBL telomere length varies according to the age of cancer onset and that CRC is likely associated with at minimum two different mechanisms of telomere dynamics.
View details for DOI 10.1038/ctg.2014.3
View details for PubMedID 24598784
Fine-mapping of genome-wide association study-identified risk loci for colorectal cancer in African Americans
HUMAN MOLECULAR GENETICS
2013; 22 (24): 5048-5055
Genome-wide association studies of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Europeans and Asians have identified 21 risk susceptibility regions [29 index single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)]. Characterizing these risk regions in diverse racial groups with different linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure can help localize causal variants. We examined associations between CRC and all 29 index SNPs in 6597 African Americans (1894 cases and 4703 controls). Nine SNPs in eight regions (5q31.1, 6q26-q27, 8q23.3, 8q24.21, 11q13.4, 15q13.3, 18q21.1 and 20p12.3) formally replicated in our data with one-sided P-values <0.05 and the same risk directions as reported previously. We performed fine-mapping of the 21 risk regions (including 250 kb on both sides of the index SNPs) using genotyped and imputed markers at the density of the 1000 Genomes Project to search for additional or more predictive risk markers. Among the SNPs correlated with the index variants, two markers, rs12759486 (or rs7547751, a putative functional variant in perfect LD with it) in 1q41 and rs7252505 in 19q13.1, were more strongly and statistically significantly associated with CRC (P < 0.0006). The average per allele risk was improved using the replicated index variants and the two new markers (odds ratio = 1.14, P = 6.5 × 10(-16)) in African Americans, compared with using all index SNPs (odds ratio = 1.07, P = 3.4 × 10(-10)). The contribution of the two new risk SNPs to CRC heritability was estimated to be 1.5% in African Americans. This study highlights the importance of fine-mapping in diverse populations.
View details for DOI 10.1093/hmg/ddt337
View details for Web of Science ID 000327542600015
View details for PubMedID 23851122
Genetic variation in the inflammation and innate immunity pathways and colorectal cancer risk.
Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
2013; 22 (11): 2094-2101
It is widely accepted that chronic inflammation plays a role in the etiology of colorectal cancer. Using a two-stage design, we examined the associations between colorectal cancer and common variation in 37 key genes in the inflammation and innate immunity pathways.In the discovery stage, 2,322 discordant sibships (2,535 cases, 3,915 sibling controls) from the Colorectal Cancer Family Registry were genotyped for more than 600 tagSNPs and 99 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were selected for further examination based on strength of association. In the second stage, 351 SNPs tagging gene regions covered by the 99 SNPs were tested in 4,783 Multiethnic Cohort subjects (2,153 cases, 2,630 controls).The association between rs9858822 in the PPARG gene and colorectal cancer was statistically significant at the end of the second stage (OR per allele = 1.36, Bonferroni-adjusted P = 0.045), based on the "effective" number of markers in stage II (n = 306). The risk allele C was common (frequency 0.3) in African Americans but rare (frequency < 0.03) in whites, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and Native Hawaiians. No statistically significant heterogeneity of effects across race/ethnicity, body mass index (BMI) levels, regular aspirin use, or pack-years of smoking was detected for this SNP. Suggestive associations were also observed for several SNPs in close vicinity to rs9858822.Our results provide new evidence of association between PPARG variants and colorectal cancer risk.Further replication in independent samples is warranted.
View details for DOI 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-13-0694
View details for PubMedID 24045924
Telomere length varies by DNA extraction method: implications for epidemiologic research.
Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
2013; 22 (11): 2047-2054
Both shorter and longer telomeres in peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) DNA have been associated with cancer risk. However, associations remain inconsistent across studies of the same cancer type. This study compares DNA preparation methods to determine telomere length from patients with colorectal cancer.We examined PBL relative telomere length (RTL) measured by quantitative PCR (qPCR) in 1,033 patients with colorectal cancer and 2,952 healthy controls. DNA was extracted with phenol/chloroform, PureGene, or QIAamp.We observed differences in RTL depending on DNA extraction method (P < 0.001). Phenol/chloroform-extracted DNA had a mean RTL (T/S ratio) of 0.78 (range 0.01-6.54) compared with PureGene-extracted DNA (mean RTL of 0.75; range 0.00-12.33). DNA extracted by QIAamp yielded a mean RTL of 0.38 (range 0.02-3.69). We subsequently compared RTL measured by qPCR from an independent set of 20 colorectal cancer cases and 24 normal controls in PBL DNA extracted by each of the three extraction methods. The range of RTL measured by qPCR from QIAamp-extracted DNA (0.17-0.58) was less than from either PureGene or phenol/chloroform (ranges, 0.04-2.67 and 0.32-2.81, respectively).RTL measured by qPCR from QIAamp-extracted DNA was less than from either PureGene or phenol/chloroform (P < 0.001).Differences in DNA extraction method may contribute to the discrepancies between studies seeking to find an association between the risk of cancer or other diseases and RTL.
View details for DOI 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-13-0409
View details for PubMedID 24019396
Diagnostic Chest X-Rays and Breast Cancer Risk before Age 50 Years for BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers
CANCER EPIDEMIOLOGY BIOMARKERS & PREVENTION
2013; 22 (9): 1547-1556
Background: The effects of low-dose medical radiation on breast cancer risk are uncertain, and few studies have included genetically susceptible women, such as those who carry germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Methods: We studied 454 BRCA1 and 273 BRCA2 mutation carriers aged <50 years from three breast cancer family registries in the USA, Canada, and Australia/New Zealand. We estimated breast cancer risk associated with diagnostic chest x-rays by comparing mutation carriers with breast cancer (cases) with those without breast cancer (controls). Exposure to chest x-rays was self-reported. Mammograms were not considered in the analysis. Results: After adjusting for known risk factors for breast cancer, the odds ratio (OR) for a history of diagnostic chest x-rays, excluding those for tuberculosis or pneumonia, was 1.16 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.64-2.11) for BRCA1 mutations carriers and 1.22 (95% CI=0.62-2.42) for BRCA2 mutations carriers. The OR was statistically elevated for BRCA2 mutation carriers with 3-5 diagnostic chest x-rays (p = 0.01), but not for those with 6 or more chest x-rays. Few women reported chest fluoroscopy for tuberculosis or chest x-rays for pneumonia; the OR estimates were elevated, but not statistically significant, for BRCA1 mutation carriers. Conclusions: Our findings do not support a positive association between diagnostic chest x-rays and breast cancer risk before age 50 years for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Impact: Given the increasing use of diagnostic imaging involving higher ionizing radiation doses, further studies of genetically predisposed women are warranted.
View details for DOI 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-13-0189
View details for Web of Science ID 000324674500008
View details for PubMedID 23853209
Genetic Variation in the Base Excision Repair Pathway, Environmental Risk Factors, and Colorectal Adenoma Risk
2013; 8 (8)
Cigarette smoking, high alcohol intake, and low dietary folate levels are risk factors for colorectal adenomas. Oxidative damage caused by these three factors can be repaired through the base excision repair pathway (BER). We hypothesized that genetic variation in BER might modify colorectal adenoma risk. In a sigmoidoscopy-based study, we examined associations between 182 haplotype tagging SNPs in 14 BER genes, and colorectal adenoma risk, and examined their potential role as modifiers of the effect cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, and dietary folate levels. Among all individuals, no statistically significant associations between BER SNPs and adenoma risk persisted after correction for multiple comparisons. However, among Asian-Pacific Islanders we observed two SNPs in FEN1 and one in NTHL1, and among African-Americans one SNP in APEX1 that were associated with colorectal adenoma risk. Significant associations were also observed between SNPs in the NEIL2 gene and rectal adenoma risk. Three SNPS modified the effect of smoking (MUTYH interaction p = 0.002; OGG1 interaction p = 0.013); FEN1 interaction p = 0.013)), one SNP in LIG3 modified the effect of alcohol consumption (interaction p = 0.024) and two SNPs in LIG3 modified the effect of dietary folate (interaction p = 0.001 and p = 0.08) on colorectal adenoma risk. These findings support a role for genetic variants in the BER pathway as potential modifiers of colorectal adenoma risk. Our findings strengthen the role of oxidative damage induced by key lifestyle and dietary risk factors in colorectal adenoma formation.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0071211
View details for Web of Science ID 000323097300101
View details for PubMedID 23951112
Common variants in genes coding for chemotherapy metabolizing enzymes, transporters, and targets: a case-control study of contralateral breast cancer risk in the WECARE Study
CANCER CAUSES & CONTROL
2013; 24 (8): 1605-1614
Women who receive chemotherapy for a first primary breast cancer have been observed to have a reduced risk of contralateral breast cancer (CBC), however, whether the genetic profile of a patient modifies this protective effect is currently not understood. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of germline genetic variation in genes coding for drug metabolizing enzymes, transporters, and targets on the association between chemotherapy and risk of CBC.From the population-based Women's Environment Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology (WECARE) Study, we included 636 Caucasian women with CBC (cases) and 1,224 women with unilateral breast cancer (controls). The association between common chemotherapeutic regimens, CMF and FAC/FEC, and risk of CBC stratified by genotype of 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 14 genes selected for their known involvement in metabolism, action, and transport of breast cancer chemotherapeutic agents, were determined using conditional logistic regression.CMF (RR = 0.5, 95 % CI 0.4, 0.7) and FAC/FEC (RR = 0.7, 95 % CI 0.4, 1.0) are associated with lower CBC risk relative to no chemotherapy in multivariable-adjusted models. Here we show that genotype of selected genes involved in the metabolism and uptake of these therapeutic agents does not significantly alter the protective effect of either CMF or FAC/FEC on risk of CBC.The results of this study show that germline genetic variation in selected gene does not significantly alter the protective effect of CMF, FAC, and FEC on risk of CBC.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s10552-013-0237-6
View details for Web of Science ID 000321761400014
View details for PubMedID 23775025
Reproductive Status at First Diagnosis Influences Risk of Radiation-Induced Second Primary Contralateral Breast Cancer in the WECARE Study
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS
2012; 84 (4): 917-924
Our study examined whether reproductive and hormonal factors before, at the time of, or after radiation treatment for a first primary breast cancer modify the risk of radiation-induced second primary breast cancer.The Women's Environmental, Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology (WECARE) Study is a multicenter, population-based study of 708 women (cases) with asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (CBC) and 1399 women (controls) with unilateral breast cancer. Radiotherapy (RT) records, coupled with anthropomorphic phantom simulations, were used to estimate quadrant-specific radiation dose to the contralateral breast for each patient. Rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed to assess the relationship between reproductive factors and risk of CBC.Women who were nulliparous at diagnosis and exposed to ?1 Gy to the contralateral breast had a greater risk for CBC than did matched unexposed nulliparous women (RR=2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-4.0). No increased risk was seen in RT-exposed parous women (RR=1.1; 95% CI, 0.8-1.4). Women treated with RT who later became pregnant (8 cases and 9 controls) had a greater risk for CBC (RR=6.0; 95% CI, 1.3-28.4) than unexposed women (4 cases and 7 controls) who also became pregnant. The association of radiation with risk of CBC did not vary by number of pregnancies, history of breastfeeding, or menopausal status at the time of first breast cancer diagnosis.Nulliparous women treated with RT were at an increased risk for CBC. Although based on small numbers, women who become pregnant after first diagnosis also seem to be at an increased risk for radiation-induced CBC.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2012.01.047
View details for Web of Science ID 000310565300027
View details for PubMedID 22483700
- Menarche, menopause, and breast cancer risk: individual participant meta-analysis, including 118 964 women with breast cancer from 117 epidemiological studies LANCET ONCOLOGY 2012; 13 (11): 1141-1151
Development of a Panel of Genome-Wide Ancestry Informative Markers to Study Admixture Throughout the Americas
2012; 8 (3)
Most individuals throughout the Americas are admixed descendants of Native American, European, and African ancestors. Complex historical factors have resulted in varying proportions of ancestral contributions between individuals within and among ethnic groups. We developed a panel of 446 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) optimized to estimate ancestral proportions in individuals and populations throughout Latin America. We used genome-wide data from 953 individuals from diverse African, European, and Native American populations to select AIMs optimized for each of the three main continental populations that form the basis of modern Latin American populations. We selected markers on the basis of locus-specific branch length to be informative, well distributed throughout the genome, capable of being genotyped on widely available commercial platforms, and applicable throughout the Americas by minimizing within-continent heterogeneity. We then validated the panel in samples from four admixed populations by comparing ancestry estimates based on the AIMs panel to estimates based on genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. The panel provided balanced discriminatory power among the three ancestral populations and accurate estimates of individual ancestry proportions (R² > 0.9 for ancestral components with significant between-subject variance). Finally, we genotyped samples from 18 populations from Latin America using the AIMs panel and estimated variability in ancestry within and between these populations. This panel and its reference genotype information will be useful resources to explore population history of admixture in Latin America and to correct for the potential effects of population stratification in admixed samples in the region.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002554
View details for Web of Science ID 000302254800030
View details for PubMedID 22412386
Risk factors by molecular subtypes of breast cancer across a population-based study of women 56 years or younger
BREAST CANCER RESEARCH AND TREATMENT
2011; 130 (2): 587-597
Differences in incidence, prognosis, and treatment response suggest gene expression patterns may discern breast cancer subtypes with unique risk factor profiles; however, previous results were based predominantly on older women. In this study, we examined similar relationships in women ? 56 years, classified by immunohistochemical staining for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 for 890 breast cancer cases and 3,432 frequency-matched population-based controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for tumor subtypes were calculated using multivariate polytomous regression models. A total of 455 (51.1%) tumors were considered luminal A, 72 (8.1%) luminal B, 117 (13.1%) non-luminal HER-2/neu+, and 246 (27.6%) triple negative. Triple negative tumors were associated with breast feeding duration (per 6 months: OR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.64-0.90). Among premenopausal women, increasing body size was more strongly associated with luminal B (OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.07-2.77) and triple negative tumors (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.22-2.28). A history of benign breast disease was associated only with increased risk of luminal A tumors (OR = 1.89, 95% CI 1.43-2.50). A family history of breast cancer was a risk factor for luminal A tumors (OR = 1.93, 95% CI 1.38-2.70) regardless of age, and triple negative tumors with higher risks for women <45 (OR = 5.02, 95% CI 2.82-8.92; P for age interaction = 0.005). We found that little-to-no breastfeeding and high BMI were associated with increased risk of triple negative breast cancer. That some risk factors differ by molecular subtypes suggests etiologic heterogeneity in breast carcinogenesis among young women.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s10549-011-1616-x
View details for Web of Science ID 000295675700023
View details for PubMedID 21667121
BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, oral contraceptive use, and breast cancer before age 50
CANCER EPIDEMIOLOGY BIOMARKERS & PREVENTION
2006; 15 (10): 1863-1870
Understanding the effect of oral contraceptives on risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers is important because oral contraceptive use is a common, modifiable practice.We studied 497 BRCA1 and 307 BRCA2 mutation carriers, of whom 195 and 128, respectively, had been diagnosed with breast cancer. Case-control analyses were conducted using unconditional logistic regression with adjustments for family history and familial relationships and were restricted to subjects with a reference age under 50 years.For BRCA1 mutation carriers, there was no significant association between risk of breast cancer and use of oral contraceptives for at least 1 year [odds ratio (OR), 0.77; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.53-1.12] or duration of oral contraceptive use (P(trend) = 0.62). For BRCA2 mutation carriers, there was no association with use of oral contraceptives for at least 1 year (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 0.90-2.92); however, there was an association of elevated risk with oral contraceptive use for at least 5 years (OR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.08-3.94) and with duration of use (OR(trend) per year of use, 1.08; P = 0.008). Similar results were obtained when we considered only use of oral contraceptives that first started in 1975 or later.We found no evidence overall that use of oral contraceptives for at least 1 year is associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers before age 50. For BRCA2 mutation carriers, use of oral contraceptives may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer among women who use them for at least 5 years. Further studies reporting results separately for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers are needed to resolve this important issue.
View details for DOI 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-06-0258
View details for Web of Science ID 000241616800019
View details for PubMedID 17021353
- No increased risk of breast cancer associated with alcohol consumption among carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations ages < 50 years CANCER EPIDEMIOLOGY BIOMARKERS & PREVENTION 2006; 15 (8): 1565-1567
Alcohol, tobacco and breast cancer - collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 58515 women with breast cancer and 95067 women without the disease
BRITISH JOURNAL OF CANCER
2002; 87 (11): 1234-1245
Alcohol and tobacco consumption are closely correlated and published results on their association with breast cancer have not always allowed adequately for confounding between these exposures. Over 80% of the relevant information worldwide on alcohol and tobacco consumption and breast cancer were collated, checked and analysed centrally. Analyses included 58,515 women with invasive breast cancer and 95,067 controls from 53 studies. Relative risks of breast cancer were estimated, after stratifying by study, age, parity and, where appropriate, women's age when their first child was born and consumption of alcohol and tobacco. The average consumption of alcohol reported by controls from developed countries was 6.0 g per day, i.e. about half a unit/drink of alcohol per day, and was greater in ever-smokers than never-smokers, (8.4 g per day and 5.0 g per day, respectively). Compared with women who reported drinking no alcohol, the relative risk of breast cancer was 1.32 (1.19-1.45, P<0.00001) for an intake of 35-44 g per day alcohol, and 1.46 (1.33-1.61, P<0.00001) for >/=45 g per day alcohol. The relative risk of breast cancer increased by 7.1% (95% CI 5.5-8.7%; P<0.00001) for each additional 10 g per day intake of alcohol, i.e. for each extra unit or drink of alcohol consumed on a daily basis. This increase was the same in ever-smokers and never-smokers (7.1% per 10 g per day, P<0.00001, in each group). By contrast, the relationship between smoking and breast cancer was substantially confounded by the effect of alcohol. When analyses were restricted to 22 255 women with breast cancer and 40 832 controls who reported drinking no alcohol, smoking was not associated with breast cancer (compared to never-smokers, relative risk for ever-smokers=1.03, 95% CI 0.98-1.07, and for current smokers=0.99, 0.92-1.05). The results for alcohol and for tobacco did not vary substantially across studies, study designs, or according to 15 personal characteristics of the women; nor were the findings materially confounded by any of these factors. If the observed relationship for alcohol is causal, these results suggest that about 4% of the breast cancers in developed countries are attributable to alcohol. In developing countries, where alcohol consumption among controls averaged only 0.4 g per day, alcohol would have a negligible effect on the incidence of breast cancer. In conclusion, smoking has little or no independent effect on the risk of developing breast cancer; the effect of alcohol on breast cancer needs to be interpreted in the context of its beneficial effects, in moderation, on cardiovascular disease and its harmful effects on cirrhosis and cancers of the mouth, larynx, oesophagus and liver.
View details for DOI 10.1038/sj.bjc.6600596
View details for Web of Science ID 000179819900009
View details for PubMedID 12439712
Comparison of techniques for the successful detection of BRCA1 mutations in fixed paraffin-embedded tissue
CANCER EPIDEMIOLOGY BIOMARKERS & PREVENTION
2002; 11 (9): 809-814
Genomic DNA isolated from archived paraffin-embedded tissues (PETs) has important applicability in genetic epidemiological studies. To determine the accuracy of the sequence data, using DNA derived from PET among patients with known mutations characterized from blood, we conducted a blinded factorial experiment to simultaneously examine the influence of mutation type, age of the PET, PCR product type, and Taq DNA polymerase on BRCA1 gene mutation detection. The probability of detecting sequencing artifacts was also investigated. We found that: (a) gene detection was most accurate for newer PET; (b) high fidelity Taq with shorter PCR amplicon length yielded the highest mutation detection success rate and lowest artifact rate; and (c) base substitutions were more often correctly identified than frameshift mutations or wild-type sequences. We concluded that DNA derived from PET that archived for less than 18 years can be used successfully for detecting BRCA1 gene mutations if quality control is strictly maintained.
View details for Web of Science ID 000177967900003
View details for PubMedID 12223423
Breast cancer and hormone replacement therapy: collaborative reanalysis of data from 51 epidemiological studies of 52,705 women with breast cancer and 108,411 women without breast cancer
1997; 350 (9084): 1047-1059
View details for Web of Science ID A1997YA73400007
Breast cancer and hormonal contraceptives: Further results
1996; 54 (3): S1-S106
View details for Web of Science ID A1996VN55200002
Breast cancer and hormonal contraceptives: Collaborative reanalysis of individual data on 53297 women with breast cancer and 100239 women without breast cancer from 54 epidemiological studies
1996; 347 (9017): 1713-1727
View details for Web of Science ID A1996UT39600008