Richard B. Moss, MD, is former chief of the Pediatric Pulmonary and Allergy Divisions, and allergy-immunology and pulmonary fellowship training programs director, at Stanford University. He was educated at Columbia (BA), SUNY Downstate (MD), Northwestern/Children’s Memorial Hospital (pediatrics residency) and Stanford (allergy-immunology, pulmonology fellowships). He was Director of the Cystic Fibrosis Center at Stanford (1991-2009) and site principal investigator for the Cystic Fibrosis Therapeutics Development Network (1999-2009), where he was also inaugural Chair of the Protocol Review Committee. He currently is a member of Stanford’s Child Health Research Institute, serves on the Pediatric Mentoring Program at Stanford, the Executive Committee of Stanford’s NIH clinical research program (Spectrum Child Health) and the Stanford IRB. Dr. Moss has reviewed and consulted for the NIH, CFF, national and international foundations, peer-review journals and biopharmaceutical companies. His research interests include immunopathogenesis, outcome measures, and treatment of chronic airway diseases of childhood. Recent work has focused on allergic fungal lung disease.

Clinical Focus

  • Allergy/Asthma/Immunology, Pediatric
  • Pulmonary Medicine/Cystic Fibrosis, Pediatric
  • Allergy

Academic Appointments

Administrative Appointments

  • Chief, Allergy-Immunology, Pediatrics, Stanford University (1991 - 1996)
  • Chair, Protocol Review Committee, Cystic Fibrosis Therapeutic Development Network, Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (2002 - 2005)
  • Co-Director, Allergy-Immunology Felllowship Training Program, Stanford University (1989 - 1995)
  • Chief, Pediatric Pulmonology, Stanford University (1991 - 2006)
  • Principal Investigator, CF Therapeutics Development Network Center, Stanford University (1999 - 2009)
  • Director, Cystic Fibrosis Center, Stanford University (1991 - 2009)
  • Chief, Allergy-Immunology, Pediatrics, Stanford University (2005 - 2009)
  • Director, Allergy-Immunology Fellowship Training Program, Stanford University (2006 - 2011)
  • Executive Committee, SPECTRUM Child Health (2009 - Present)
  • Member, Stanford IRB (2010 - Present)

Honors & Awards

  • Cystic Fibrosis Champion Award, Cystic Fibrosis Research, Inc. (2017)
  • Who's Who in America, Marquis (2006)
  • Member, American Pediatric Society (2005)
  • Professional of the Year, Cystic Fibrosis Research, Inc. (2003)
  • America's Top Pediatricians-Pulmonology, Consumers Research Council of America (2002-)
  • Best Doctors in America, Best Doctors (2001-)
  • Professional of the Year, Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, N. Cal chapter (2008)
  • Top Doctors - Pediatric Pulmonology Ten Years Award, Castle Connolly Medical Ltd American Registry (2002-2012)
  • Top Doctors as Chosen by Their Peers - Pediatric Pulmology, US News and World Report (2012/2013)

Professional Education

  • Fellowship:Stanford University School of Medicine Registrar (1979) CA
  • Residency:McGaw Medical Center of Northwestern University (1977) IL
  • Board Certification: Pediatrics, American Board of Pediatrics (1981)
  • Medical Education:SUNY Downstate College of Medicine (1975) NY
  • Board Certification: Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology, American Board of Allergy and Immunology (1986)
  • Board Certification: Allergy and Immunology, American Board of Allergy and Immunology (1981)
  • Internship:Children's Memorial Hospital (1976) IL
  • BA, Columbia University, Political Science (1971)
  • MD, SUNY Downstate Med Center NYC, Medicine (1975)

Community and International Work

  • Project/Grant reviewer


    Cystic fibrosis

    Partnering Organization(s)

    CF foundations of Canada, UK, Ireland, Switzerland, Germany, France, Italy



    Ongoing Project


    Opportunities for Student Involvement


  • Scientific Advisory Board



    Partnering Organization(s)

    California Medical Association

    Populations Served




    Ongoing Project


    Opportunities for Student Involvement


Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests

I am interested in the pathogenesis of chronic airways diseases of childhood. My work includes basic and clinical research. In the area of basic research, my laboratory has focused on immunoregulation of inflammation in cystic fibrosis, finding deficiencies of activated T cells from CF patients in production of counter-regulatory cytokines (IL-10, IFN-gamma) and redox metabolism. In the arena of clinical research, as a member of the CFF Therapeutics Development Network our research group conducts many trials. I have particular interests in the areas of aerosol therapy with drugs, biologics and gene vectors; mechanisms of pulmonary inflammation and immunomodulatory therapy; and corrrection of CFTR-dependent cell biology defects. We are also investigating new treatments for CF complications such as diabetes and osteoporosis, internet-based disease management, and trials of asthma drugs.

Clinical Trials

  • Study of VX-809 Alone and in Combination With VX-770 in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Patients Homozygous or Heterozygous for the F508del-CFTR Mutation Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate of the safety, efficacy, pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) effects of lumacaftor (VX-809) alone and when coadministered with ivacaftor (VX-770) in participants with cystic fibrosis, homozygous or heterozygous for the F508del-CFTR mutation.

    View full details

  • Study of Ataluren (PTC124™) in Cystic Fibrosis Not Recruiting

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder caused by a mutation in the gene that makes the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. A specific type of mutation called a nonsense (premature stop codon) mutation is the cause of CF in approximately 10% of subjects with the disease. Ataluren (PTC124) is an orally delivered investigational drug that has the potential to overcome the effects of the nonsense mutation. This study is a Phase 3 trial that will evaluate the clinical benefit of ataluren (PTC124) in adult and pediatric patients with CF due to a nonsense mutation. The main goals of the study are to understand whether ataluren (PTC124) can improve pulmonary function and whether the drug can safely be given for a long period of time. The study will also assess the effects of ataluren on CF pulmonary exacerbation frequency, cough frequency, health-related quality of life, antibiotic use for CF-related infections, CF-related disruptions to daily living, body weight, and CF pathophysiology. Funding Source - FDA OOPD

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Angela Leung, (650) 723 - 5193.

    View full details

  • Safety and Pharmacokinetic Study of N6022 in Subjects With Cystic Fibrosis Homozygous for the F508del-CFTR Mutation Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of N6022, and to obtain descriptive information on the effect of N6022 on biomarkers of CFTR function and inflammation in adult cystic fibrosis subjects who are homozygous for the F508del-CFTR mutation.

    View full details

  • Study of Ivacaftor in Subjects With Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Who Have the R117H-CF Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Mutation (KONDUCT) Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ivacaftor in subjects with cystic fibrosis (CF) who have the R117H-CFTR mutation.

    View full details

  • (Study: Vertex IIS) Does Ivacaftor Alter Wild Type CFTR-Open Probability In The Sweat Gland Secretory Coil? Not Recruiting

    Clinical studies of lumacaftor + ivacaftor (combo therapy) produced better FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second) improvements than ivacaftor alone, without further improvement in sweat chloride results. To help understand why sweat chloride was unresponsive, the investigators will use a newly developed sweat secretion test that provides accurate, in vivo readout of CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) function in the sweat gland secretory coil. The investigators devised a protocol to determine if short courses of ivacaftor (3.5 days) will produce significant increases in WT (Wild-Type, i.e. normal) CFTR open probability by measuring CFTR-dependent sweating (C-sweat) in subjects with WT CFTR.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Colleen Dunn, RRT, CCRC, 650-736-0388.

    View full details

  • Study of Ataluren in Nonsense Mutation Cystic Fibrosis (ACT CF) Not Recruiting

    This is a Phase 3, international, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, efficacy and safety study of ataluren in patients with nonsense mutation cystic fibrosis (nmCF) not receiving chronic inhaled aminoglycosides.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact May Zepeda, 650-724-0177.

    View full details

  • A Study of the Safety and Efficacy of Tobramycin for Inhalation in Young Children With Cystic Fibrosis Not Recruiting

    This study's primary goals are to test the safety and effectiveness of Tobramycin for Inhalation (TOBIr) in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients who are between 6 months and 6 years of age. This drug is an antibiotic that is inhaled into the lungs by the patient. It has already been studied and approved by the FDA for treatment of CF patients 6 years and older. Lung fluid will be examined for bacteria before and after the 28-day treatment. The amount of bacteria before and after treatment will be compared. This will indicate whether the antibiotic was effective in killing bacteria in the lungs. Once treatment begins, patients will be monitored every 2 weeks throughout the study (5 exams in 56 days). Half of the patients will receive TOBIr, half will receive a placebo (a substance that looks like TOBIr but contains no medication).

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial.

    View full details

  • Dose Escalation Study of QR-010 in Homozygous ΔF508 Cystic Fibrosis Patients Recruiting

    A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of single and multiple ascending doses of QR-010 in adults homozygous for ΔF508 Cystic Fibrosis.

    View full details

  • A Study of Lumacaftor in Combination With Ivacaftor in Cystic Fibrosis Subjects Aged 12 Years and Older Who Are Homozygous for the F508del-CFTR Mutation Recruiting

    The primary objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of lumacaftor in combination with ivacaftor at Week 24 in participants aged 12 years and older with cystic fibrosis (CF) who are homozygous for the F508del mutation on the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene.

    View full details

  • G551D Observational Study- Expanded to Additional Genotypes and Extended for Long Therm Follow up (GOAL-e2) Not Recruiting

    The goal of this research study is to collect blood and urine samples from people who have either the R117H type of CF or the non-G551D gating type of CF to be kept for future research.We will also use some of the collected blood to measure the number of neutrophils.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Angela Leung, (650) 723 - 5193.

    View full details

  • Study of N91115 in Patients With Cystic Fibrosis Homozygous F508del-CFTR Mutation Not Recruiting

    This Phase 1b study in F508del-CFTR homozygous CF patients is being conducted to assess the safety of N91115 as the sole cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulator at doses near the expected therapeutic exposure level in preparation for Phase 2 studies of N91115 added to the CFTR modulator combination lumacaftor/ivacaftor when launched.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial.

    View full details

  • Rare Genetic Disorders of the Breathing Airways Recruiting

    Mucociliary clearance, in which mucus secretions are cleared from the breathing airways, is the primary defense mechanism for the lungs. Inhaled particles, including microbes that can cause infections, are normally entrapped in mucus on the airway surfaces and then cleared out by the coordinated action of tiny hair-like structures called cilia. Individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia, variant cystic fibrosis, and pseudohypoaldosteronism have defective mucociliary clearance. The purpose of this study is to collect clinical and genetic information about these three airway diseases to improve current diagnostic procedures.

    View full details

  • The EPIC Observational Study Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to better define risk factors preceding first isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) from respiratory cultures in cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease and to better define clinical outcomes associated with acquisition of Pa. This study will also collect and bank DNA samples for current and future studies designed to enhance the understanding of the pathogenesis of CF.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Colleen Dunn, (650) 736 - 0388.

    View full details

  • EMPIRE CF: A Phase 2 Study to Evaluate the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of CTX-4430 in Adult CF Patients Not Recruiting

    This study is a Phase 2, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of CTX-4430 administered once-daily for 48 weeks for treatment of CF.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Colleen Dunn, 650-736-0388.

    View full details


  • Aspergillus-Pseudomonas interactions in Cystic Fibrosis, Stanford University (9/19/2013)

    I am collaborating with Stanford faculty investigators including David Stevens, Jeff Wine, Alfred Spoorman, Ray Sobel and others, and colleagues at UC Berkeley and Children's Oakland Research Institute to explore the relationship and role of P. aeruginosa and A. fumigates in cystic fibrosis. This is related to ongoing work in collaboration with Lee Herzenberg and others on innate immune mechanisms operative in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, including development of a diagnostic and monitoring assay.


    Palo Alto


2017-18 Courses

Graduate and Fellowship Programs


All Publications

  • Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator modulators: precision medicine in cystic fibrosis. Current opinion in pediatrics Burgener, E. B., Moss, R. B. 2018


    The aim of this study was to describe the newest development in cystic fibrosis (CF) care, CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulator therapies.Phase II results showing CFTR modulator triple therapies are more effective than current CFTR modulators.CFTR modulator therapy targets the protein defective in CF and boosts its function, but the drug must match mutation pathobiology. Ivacaftor, a CFTR potentiator, was the first modulator approved in 2012, with impressive improvement in lung function and other measures of disease in patients with gating and other residual function mutations (∼10% of CF patients). In 2015, the combination of lumacaftor, a CFTR corrector, and ivacaftor was approved for patients homozygous for the F508del mutation (∼40-50% of the CF population) with positive but less impressive clinical response and 10-20% incidence of intolerance. A next-generation CFTR corrector, tezacaftor, with ivacaftor equally effective and better tolerated than lumacaftor, has also received US Food and Drug Administration approval. Novel CFTR correctors, entering Phase 3 trials in triple modulator combination with tezacaftor-ivacaftor, appear substantially more effective for patients who are homozygous for the F508del mutation and can provide benefit for patients with a single F508del mutation. This offers promise of effective CFTR modulator therapy for nearly 90% of CF patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/MOP.0000000000000627

    View details for PubMedID 29538046

  • Susceptibility of Candida albicans from Cystic Fibrosis Patients. Mycopathologia Sabino, R., Carolino, E., Moss, R. B., Banaei, N., Verissimo, C., Stevens, D. A. 2017


    Candida albicans is a common microbe, colonizer and potential pathogen found in respiratory cultures of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Because of possible development of resistance in patient isolates resulting from residence in the abnormal milieu of CF patient airways, or from exposure to antifungals, and considering the possibility of patient-to-patient spread of microbes and reports of elevated resistance to other fungal pathogens, it was important to assay the susceptibility of isolates of Candida and compare that profile to isolates from the community. In our center, and unlike another fungal pathogen, no increase in resistance of Candida isolates of the CF cohort was found.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11046-017-0133-9

    View details for PubMedID 28421452

  • The magnitude of ivacaftor effects on fluid secretion via R117H-CFTR channels: Human in vivo measurements PLOS ONE Char, J. E., Dunn, C., Davies, Z., Milla, C., Moss, R. B., Wine, J. J. 2017; 12 (4)


    We optically measured effects of orally available ivacaftor (Kalydeco®) on sweat rates of identified glands in 3 R117H subjects, each having a unique set of additional mutations, and compared them with 5 healthy control subjects tested contemporaneously. We injected β-adrenergic agonists intradermally to stimulate CFTR-dependent 'C-sweat' and methacholine to stimulate 'M-sweat', which persists in CF subjects. We focused on an R117H-7T/F508del subject who produced quantifiable C-sweat off ivacaftor and was available for 1 blinded, 3 off ivacaftor, and 3 on ivacaftor tests, allowing us to estimate in vivo fold-increase in sweat rates produced by ivacaftor's effect on the open probability (PO) of R117H-CFTR. Measured sweat rates must be corrected for sweat losses. With estimated sweat losses of 0.023 to 0.08 nl·gland-1·min-1, ivacaftor increased the average C-sweat rates 3-7 fold, and estimated function as % of WT were 4.1-12% off ivacaftor and 21.9-32% on ivacaftor (larger values reflect increased loss estimates). Based on single tests, an R117H-7T/ R117H-7T subject showed 6-9% WT function off ivacaftor and 28-43% on ivacaftor. Repeat testing of an R117H-5T/F508del subject detected only trace responding to ivacaftor. We conclude that in vivo, R117H PO is strongly increased by ivacaftor, but channel number, mainly determined by variable deletion of exon 10, has a marked influence on outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0175486

    View details for Web of Science ID 000399875200023

    View details for PubMedID 28419121

  • Are Cystic Fibrosis Aspergillus fumigatus Isolates Different? Intermicrobial Interactions with Pseudomonas MYCOPATHOLOGIA Nazik, H., Moss, R. B., Karna, V., Clemons, K. V., Banaei, N., Cohen, K., Choudhary, V., Stevens, D. A. 2017; 182 (3-4): 315-318
  • Assessment of safety and efficacy of long-term treatment with combination lumacaftor and ivacaftor therapy in patients with cystic fibrosis homozygous for the F508del-CFTR mutation (PROGRESS): a phase 3, extension study. The Lancet. Respiratory medicine Konstan, M. W., McKone, E. F., Moss, R. B., Marigowda, G., Tian, S., Waltz, D., Huang, X., Lubarsky, B., Rubin, J., Millar, S. J., Pasta, D. J., Mayer-Hamblett, N., Goss, C. H., Morgan, W., Sawicki, G. S. 2017; 5 (2): 107-118


    The 24-week safety and efficacy of lumacaftor/ivacaftor combination therapy was shown in two randomised controlled trials (RCTs)-TRAFFIC and TRANSPORT-in patients with cystic fibrosis who were aged 12 years or older and homozygous for the F508del-CFTR mutation. We aimed to assess the long-term safety and efficacy of extended lumacaftor/ivacaftor therapy in this group of patients in PROGRESS, the long-term extension of TRAFFIC and TRANSPORT.PROGRESS was a phase 3, parallel-group, multicentre, 96-week study of patients who completed TRAFFIC or TRANSPORT in 191 sites in 15 countries. Patients were eligible if they were at least 12 years old with cystic fibrosis and homozygous for the F508del-CFTR mutation. Exclusion criteria included any comorbidity or laboratory abnormality that, in the opinion of the investigator, might confound the results of the study or pose an additional risk in administering the study drug to the participant, history of drug intolerance, and history of poor compliance with the study drug. Patients who previously received active treatment in TRANSPORT or TRAFFIC remained on the same dose in PROGRESS. Patients who had received placebo in TRANSPORT or TRAFFIC were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive lumacaftor (400 mg every 12 h)/ivacaftor (250 mg every 12 h) or lumacaftor (600 mg once daily)/ivacaftor (250 mg every 12 h). The primary outcome was to assess the long-term safety of combined therapy. The estimated annual rate of decline in percent predicted FEV1 (ppFEV1) in treated patients was compared with that of a matched registry cohort. Efficacy analyses were based on modified intention-to-treat, such that data were included for all patients who were randomly assigned and received at least one dose of study drug. This study is registered with, number NCT01931839.Between Oct 24, 2013, and April 7, 2016, 1030 patients from the TRANSPORT and TRAFFIC studies enrolled in PROGRESS, and 1029 received at least one dose of study drug. 340 patients continued treatment with lumacaftor 400 mg every 12 h/ivacaftor 250 mg every 12 h; 176 patients who had received placebo in the TRANSPORT or TRAFFIC studies initiated treatment with lumacaftor 400 mg every 12 h/ivacaftor 250 mg every 12 h, the commercially available dose, for which data are presented. The most common adverse events were infective pulmonary exacerbations, cough, increased sputum, and haemoptysis. Modest blood pressure increases seen in TRAFFIC and TRANSPORT were also observed in PROGRESS. For patients continuing treatment, the mean change from baseline in ppFEV1 was 0·5 (95% CI -0·4 to 1·5) at extension week 72 and 0·5 (-0·7 to 1·6) at extension week 96; change in BMI was 0·69 (0·56 to 0·81) at extension week 72 and 0·96 (0·81 to 1·11) at extension week 96. The annualised pulmonary exacerbation rate in patients continuing treatment through extension week 96 (0·65, 0·56 to 0·75) remained lower than the placebo rate in TRAFFIC and TRANSPORT. The annualised rate of ppFEV1 decline was reduced in lumacaftor/ivacaftor-treated patients compared with matched controls (-1·33, -1·80 to -0·85 vs -2·29, -2·56 to -2·03). The efficacy and safety profile of the lumacaftor 600 mg once daily/ivacaftor 250 mg every 12 h groups was generally similar to that of the lumacaftor 400 mg every 12 h/ivacaftor 250 mg every 12 h groups.The long-term safety profile of lumacaftor/ivacaftor combination therapy was consistent with previous RCTs. Benefits continued to be observed with longer-term treatment, and lumacaftor/ivacaftor was associated with a 42% slower rate of ppFEV1 decline than in matched registry controls.Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S2213-2600(16)30427-1

    View details for PubMedID 28011037

  • Small Colony Variants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Display Heterogeneity in Inhibiting Aspergillus fumigatus Biofilm. Mycopathologia Anand, R., Moss, R. B., Sass, G., Banaei, N., Clemons, K. V., Martinez, M., Stevens, D. A. 2017


    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus fumigatus are major microbes in cystic fibrosis (CF). We reported non-mucoid P. aeruginosa isolates more inhibitory to A. fumigatus than mucoid ones. Another CF P. aeruginosa phenotype, small colony variants (SCVs), is an unknown factor in intermicrobial competition with A. fumigatus. Clinical SCV isolates and reference CF non-mucoid isolate (Pa10, producing normal-sized colonies) were compared. Live cells of P. aeruginosa or filtrates from P. aeruginosa planktonic or biofilm cultures were co-incubated with A. fumigatus growing under conditions allowing biofilm formation or with preformed biofilm. Metabolic activity of A. fumigatus biofilm was then measured. When necessary, assays were done after adjustment for growth differences by adding fresh medium to the planktonic culture filtrate. Pyoverdine determinations were performed spectrophotometrically on the planktonic culture filtrates. In all experimental conditions (live cells and planktonic or biofilm culture filtrates of P. aeruginosa versus A. fumigatus biofilm formation or preformed biofilm), three SCV isolates were less inhibitory than Pa10, two equal or more inhibitory. Adjusting planktonic culture filtrates for growth differences showed SCV inhibition differences variably related to growth or deficient inhibitor production. Studies suggested the principal P. aeruginosa inhibitor to be pyoverdine. SCV isolates appear heterogeneous in their capacity to inhibit A. fumigatus biofilm. SCV isolates can be important in the CF microbiome, because they are capable of intermicrobial inhibition.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11046-017-0186-9

    View details for PubMedID 28785939

  • Lung function decline is delayed but not decreased in patients with cystic fibrosis and the R117H gene mutation. Journal of cystic fibrosis : official journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society Wagener, J. S., Millar, S. J., Mayer-Hamblett, N., Sawicki, G. S., McKone, E. F., Goss, C. H., Konstan, M. W., Morgan, W. J., Pasta, D. J., Moss, R. B. 2017


    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) experience variable lung disease phenotypes. The R117H mutation is often associated with preserved lung function. Our objective was to compare the rate of lung function decline in patients with the R117H mutation and patients homozygous for the F508del mutation.Rate of decline in percentage-of-predicted FEV1 (ppFEV1) was analyzed using the 2006-2010 US CF Foundation Patient Registry.4-year rate of decline was slower in 156 R117H patients compared with 6251 F508del patients (-0.61 vs -2.03 ppFEV1/year, P<0.001). Rates of decline in children were slower in R117H vs F508del patients (6-12-year-olds: +0.73 vs -1.91 ppFEV1/year, P<0.001 and 13-17-year-olds: -1.55 vs -2.66 ppFEV1/year, P=0.046), whereas rates in adults were not significantly different (18-24-year-olds: -1.52 vs -2.12, P=0.26 and ≥25-year-olds: -1.17 vs -1.40, P=0.33).These findings are consistent with a delayed onset, but ultimately similar progression, of lung disease in R117H compared with homozygous F508del patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jcf.2017.10.003

    View details for PubMedID 29100868

  • Are Cystic Fibrosis Aspergillus fumigatus Isolates Different? Intermicrobial Interactions with Pseudomonas. Mycopathologia Nazik, H., Moss, R. B., Karna, V., Clemons, K. V., Banaei, N., Cohen, K., Choudhary, V., Stevens, D. A. 2016: -?


    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus fumigatus are the leading bacterial and fungal pathogens in cystic fibrosis (CF). We have shown that Af biofilms are susceptible to Pseudomonas, particularly CF phenotypes. Those studies were performed with a reference virulent non-CF Aspergillus. Pseudomonas resident in CF airways undergo profound genetic and phenotypic adaptations to the abnormal environment. Studies have also indicated Aspergillus from CF patients have unexpected profiles of antifungal susceptibility. This would suggest that Aspergillus isolates from CF patients may be different or altered from other clinical isolates. It is important to know whether Aspergillus may also be altered, as a result of that CF environment, in susceptibility to Pseudomonas. CF Aspergillus proved not different in that susceptibility.

    View details for PubMedID 27822731

  • Effect of Media Modified To Mimic Cystic Fibrosis Sputum on the Susceptibility of Aspergillus fumigatus, and the Frequency of Resistance at One Center. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy Stevens, D. A., Moss, R. B., Hernandez, C., Clemons, K. V., Martinez, M. 2016; 60 (4): 2180-2184


    Studies of cystic fibrosis (CF) patient exacerbations attributed to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection have indicated a lack of correlation of outcome with in vitro susceptibility results. One explanation has been that media for testing do not mimic the airway milieu, resulting in incorrect conclusions. Therefore media have been devised to mimic CF sputum. Aspergillus fumigatus is the leading fungal pathogen in CF, and susceptibility testing also is used to decide therapeutic choices. We assessed whether media designed to mimic CF sputa would give different fungal susceptibility results than classical methods, assaying voriconazole, the most utilized anti-Aspergillus drug in this setting, and 30 CF Aspergillus isolates. The frequency of marked resistance (defined as MIC >4 mcg/ml) in our CF unit by classical methods is 7%. Studies with classical methods and with Digested Sputum Medium, Synthetic Sputum Medium, and Artificial Sputum Medium revealed prominent differences in Aspergillus susceptibility results, as well as growth rate, with each medium. Clinical correlative studies are required to determine which results are most useful in predicting outcome. Comparison of MICs with non-CF isolates also indicated the CF isolates were generally more resistant.

    View details for DOI 10.1128/AAC.02649-15

    View details for PubMedID 26810647

  • Treating allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: the way forward. European respiratory journal Moss, R. B. 2016; 47 (2): 385-387

    View details for DOI 10.1183/13993003.01816-2015

    View details for PubMedID 26828049

  • The basophil surface marker CD203c identifies Aspergillus species sensitization in patients with cystic fibrosis JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY Mirkovic, B., Lavelle, G. M., Azim, A. A., Helma, K., Gargoum, F. S., Molloy, K., Gernez, Y., Dunne, K., Renwick, J., Murphy, P., Moss, R. B., Greene, C. M., Gunaratnam, C., Chotirmall, S. H., McElvaney, N. G. 2016; 137 (2): 436-?
  • Blood basophil activation is a reliable biomarker of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in cystic fibrosis EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL Gernez, Y., Walters, J., Mirkovic, B., Lavelle, G. M., Colleen, D. E., Davies, Z. A., Everson, C., Tirouvanziam, R., Silver, E., Wallenstein, S., Chotirmall, S. H., McElvaney, N. G., Herzenberg, L. A., Moss, R. B. 2016; 47 (1): 177-185


    The diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is clinically challenging, due to the absence of an objective biological test. Since blood basophils play a major role in allergic responses, we hypothesised that changes in their surface activation pattern discriminate between CF patients with and without ABPA.We conducted a prospective longitudinal study (Stanford cohort) comparing basophil activation test CD203c levels by flow cytometry before and after activation with Aspergillus fumigatus allergen extract or recombinant Asp f1 in 20 CF patients with ABPA (CF-ABPA) and in two comparison groups: CF patients with A. fumigatus colonisation (AC) but without ABPA (CF-AC; n=13) and CF patients without either AC or ABPA (CF; n=12). Patients were tested every 6 months and when ill with pulmonary exacerbation. We also conducted cross-sectional validation in a separate patient set (Dublin cohort).Basophil CD203c surface expression reliably discriminated CF-ABPA from CF-AC and CF over time. Ex vivo stimulation with A. fumigatus extract or recombinant Asp f1 produced similar results within the Stanford (p<0.0001) and the Dublin cohorts. CF-ABPA patients were likelier to have elevated specific IgE to A. fumigatus and were less frequently co-infected with Staphylococcus aureus.Basophil CD203c upregulation is a suitable diagnostic and stable monitoring biomarker of ABPA in CF.

    View details for DOI 10.1183/13993003.01068-2015

    View details for Web of Science ID 000367443900023

  • Basophil activation test determination of CD63 combined with CD203c is not superior to CD203c alone in identifying allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in cystic fibrosis. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology Gernez, Y., Waters, J., Tirouvanziam, R., Herzenberg, L., Moss, R. 2016; 138 (4): 1195–96

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jaci.2016.04.002

    View details for PubMedID 27215492

  • Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis Journal of Fungi Tracy, M. C., Okorie, C. A., Foley, E. A., Moss, R. B. 2016; 2 (2): 17

    View details for DOI 10.3390/jof2020017

  • Basophil activation test determination of CD63 combined with CD203c is not superior to CD203c alone in identifying ABPA in cystic fibrosis Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Gernez, Y., Waters, J., Tirouvanziam, R., Herzenberg, L. A., Moss, R. B. 2016
  • Earth Mover's Distance (EMD): A True Metric for Comparing Biomarker Expression Levels in Cell Populations. PloS one Orlova, D. Y., Zimmerman, N., Meehan, S., Meehan, C., Waters, J., Ghosn, E. E., Filatenkov, A., Kolyagin, G. A., Gernez, Y., Tsuda, S., Moore, W., Moss, R. B., Herzenberg, L. A., Walther, G. 2016; 11 (3)


    Changes in the frequencies of cell subsets that (co)express characteristic biomarkers, or levels of the biomarkers on the subsets, are widely used as indices of drug response, disease prognosis, stem cell reconstitution, etc. However, although the currently available computational "gating" tools accurately reveal subset frequencies and marker expression levels, they fail to enable statistically reliable judgements as to whether these frequencies and expression levels differ significantly between/among subject groups. Here we introduce flow cytometry data analysis pipeline which includes the Earth Mover's Distance (EMD) metric as solution to this problem. Well known as an informative quantitative measure of differences between distributions, we present three exemplary studies showing that EMD 1) reveals clinically-relevant shifts in two markers on blood basophils responding to an offending allergen; 2) shows that ablative tumor radiation induces significant changes in the murine colon cancer tumor microenvironment; and, 3) ranks immunological differences in mouse peritoneal cavity cells harvested from three genetically distinct mouse strains.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0151859

    View details for PubMedID 27008164

  • Inhibition of Aspergillus fumigatus and Its Biofilm by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Is Dependent on the Source, Phenotype and Growth Conditions of the Bacterium PLOS ONE Ferreira, J. A., Penner, J. C., Moss, R. B., Haagensen, J. A., Clemons, K. V., Spormann, A. M., Nazik, H., Cohen, K., Banaei, N., Carolino, E., Stevens, D. A. 2015; 10 (8)

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0134692

    View details for Web of Science ID 000359121100068

    View details for PubMedID 26252384

  • Efficacy and safety of ivacaftor in patients with cystic fibrosis who have an Arg117His-CFTR mutation: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial LANCET RESPIRATORY MEDICINE Moss, R. B., Flume, P. A., Elborn, J. S., Cooke, J., Rowe, S. M., McColley, S. A., Rubenstein, R. C., Higgins, M. 2015; 3 (7): 524-533


    Ivacaftor has been previously assessed in patients with cystic fibrosis with Gly551Asp-CFTR or other gating mutations. We assessed ivacaftor in patients with Arg117His-CFTR, a residual function mutation.We did a 24-week, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomised clinical trial, which enrolled 69 patients with cystic fibrosis aged 6 years and older with Arg117His-CFTR and percentage of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (% predicted FEV1) of at least 40. We randomly assigned eligible patients (1:1) to receive placebo or ivacaftor 150 mg every 12 h for 24 weeks. Randomisation was stratified by age (6-11, 12-17, and ≥18 years) and % predicted FEV1 (<70, ≥70 to ≤90, and >90). The primary outcome was the absolute change from baseline in % predicted FEV1 through week 24. Secondary outcomes included safety and changes in sweat chloride concentrations and Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised (CFQ-R) respiratory domain scores. An open-label extension enrolled 65 of the patients after washout; after 12 weeks, we did an interim analysis.After 24 weeks, the treatment difference in mean absolute change in % predicted FEV1 between ivacaftor (n=34) and placebo (n=35) was 2·1 percentage points (95% CI -1·13 to 5·35; p=0·20). Ivacaftor treatment resulted in significant treatment differences in sweat chloride (-24·0 mmol/L, 95% CI -28·01 to -19·93; p<0·0001) and CFQ-R respiratory domain (8·4, 2·17 to 14·61; p=0·009). In prespecified subgroup analyses, % predicted FEV1 significantly improved with ivacaftor in patients aged 18 years or older (treatment difference vs placebo: 5·0 percentage points, 95% CI 1·15 to 8·78; p=0·01), but not in patients aged 6-11 years (-6·3 percentage points, -11·96 to -0·71; p=0·03). In the extension study, both placebo-to-ivacaftor and ivacaftor-to-ivacaftor groups showed % predicted FEV1 improvement (absolute change from post-washout baseline at week 12: placebo-to-ivacaftor, 5·0 percentage points [p=0·0005]; ivacaftor-to-ivacaftor, 6·0 percentage points [p=0·006]). We did not identify any new safety concerns. The studies are registered with (the randomised, placebo-controlled study, number NCT01614457; the open-label extension study, number NCT01707290).Although this study did not show a significant improvement in % predicted FEV1, ivacaftor did significantly improve sweat chloride and CFQ-R respiratory domain scores and lung function in adult patients with Arg117His-CFTR, indicating that ivacaftor might benefit patients with Arg117His-CFTR who have established disease.Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S2213-2600(15)00201-5

    View details for Web of Science ID 000357648000022

    View details for PubMedID 26070913

  • Molecular epidemiology of Aspergillus collected from cystic fibrosis patients JOURNAL OF CYSTIC FIBROSIS Sabino, R., Ferreira, J. A., Moss, R. B., Valente, J., Verissimo, C., Carolino, E., Clemons, K. V., Everson, C., Banaei, N., Penner, J., Stevens, D. A. 2015; 14 (4): 474-481
  • Recent advances in cystic fibrosis CURRENT OPINION IN PEDIATRICS Milla, C. E., Moss, R. B. 2015; 27 (3): 317-324


    The field of cystic fibrosis (CF) continues to evolve at a fast pace thanks to novel observations that have enabled deeper understanding of the disease pathophysiology. Parallel groundbreaking developments in innovative therapies permit, for the first time, distinct disease modification.This review highlights important discoveries in fluid homeostasis and mucus secretion in CF that further informs the pathophysiology of the airway disease that characterizes CF. In addition, current concepts and novel paradigms, such as 'theratypes' and 'CF transmembrane conductance regulator chaperome', which will be important for the continued development of disease modifying therapies, are reviewed.The rate of progress in the field continues to accelerate with new knowledge informing the development of innovative therapies. This has already led to tangible substantial and unprecedented clinical benefit for selected subsets of the CF patient population. In the years ahead, further knowledge acquisition may motivate the extension of these benefits to the larger population of people with CF.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/MOP.0000000000000226

    View details for Web of Science ID 000354214800009

    View details for PubMedID 25888148

  • Fungi in Cystic Fibrosis and Non-Cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis SEMINARS IN RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Moss, R. B. 2015; 36 (2): 207-216


    Bronchiectasis is a pathologic bronchial dilatation with loss of function that can result from multiple inflammatory and infectious injuries to the conducting airways of the lung. Molds, particularly the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, have been implicated as a common cause of both cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF bronchiectasis, the latter primarily in patients with severe asthma. The pathogenesis of mold-associated bronchiectasis is usually due to atopic sensitization to mold allergens in the presence of active chronic endobronchial fungal infection with host innate and adaptive immune deviation to a Th2-dominated inflammation, a condition known as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) (or allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis if a non-Aspergillus mold is implicated). Diagnostic criteria of ABPA continue to evolve, while treatment relies upon downregulation of the allergic inflammatory response with immunomodulatory agents and antifungal pharmacotherapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1055/s-0035-1546750

    View details for Web of Science ID 000351969300005

    View details for PubMedID 25826588

  • Long-term treatment with oral N-acetylcysteine: Affects lung. function but not sputum inflammation in cystic fibrosis subjects. A phase II randomized placebo-controlled trial JOURNAL OF CYSTIC FIBROSIS Conrad, C., Lymp, J., Thompson, V., Dunn, C., DAVIES, Z., CHATFIELD, B., Nichols, D., Clancy, J., Vender, R., Egan, M. E., Quittell, L., Michelson, P., Antony, V., Spahr, J., Rubenstein, R. C., Moss, R. B., Herzenberg, L. A., Goss, C. H., Tirouvanziam, R. 2015; 14 (2): 219-227


    To evaluate the effects of oral N-acetylcysteine (NAC), which replenishes systemic glutathione, on decreasing inflammation and improving lung function in CF airways.A multicenter, randomized, double-blind proof of concept study in which 70 CF subjects received NAC or placebo orally thrice daily for 24weeks.primary, change in sputum human neutrophil elastase (HNE) activity; secondary, FEV1 and other clinical lung function measures; and safety, the safety and tolerability of NAC and the potential of NAC to promote pulmonary hypertension in subjects with CF.Lung function (FEV1 and FEF25-75%) remained stable or increased slightly in the NAC group but decreased in the placebo group (p=0.02 and 0.02). Log10 HNE activity remained equal between cohorts (difference 0.21, 95% CI -0.07 to 0.48, p=0.14).NAC recipients maintained their lung function while placebo recipients declined (24week FEV1 treatment effect=150mL, p<0.02). However no effect on HNE activity and other selected biomarkers of neutrophilic inflammation were detected. Further studies on mechanism and clinical outcomes are warranted.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jcf.2014.08.008

    View details for Web of Science ID 000352662600008

    View details for PubMedID 25228446

  • Lumacaftor-Ivacaftor in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis Homozygous for Phe508del CFTR. The New England journal of medicine Wainwright, C. E., Elborn, J. S., Ramsey, B. W., Marigowda, G., Huang, X., Cipolli, M., Colombo, C., Davies, J. C., De Boeck, K., Flume, P. A., Konstan, M. W., McColley, S. A., McCoy, K., McKone, E. F., Munck, A., Ratjen, F., Rowe, S. M., Waltz, D., Boyle, M. P. 2015; 373 (3): 220–31


    Cystic fibrosis is a life-limiting disease that is caused by defective or deficient cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein activity. Phe508del is the most common CFTR mutation.We conducted two phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies that were designed to assess the effects of lumacaftor (VX-809), a CFTR corrector, in combination with ivacaftor (VX-770), a CFTR potentiator, in patients 12 years of age or older who had cystic fibrosis and were homozygous for the Phe508del CFTR mutation. In both studies, patients were randomly assigned to receive either lumacaftor (600 mg once daily or 400 mg every 12 hours) in combination with ivacaftor (250 mg every 12 hours) or matched placebo for 24 weeks. The primary end point was the absolute change from baseline in the percentage of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) at week 24.A total of 1108 patients underwent randomization and received study drug. The mean baseline FEV1 was 61% of the predicted value. In both studies, there were significant improvements in the primary end point in both lumacaftor-ivacaftor dose groups; the difference between active treatment and placebo with respect to the mean absolute improvement in the percentage of predicted FEV1 ranged from 2.6 to 4.0 percentage points (P<0.001), which corresponded to a mean relative treatment difference of 4.3 to 6.7% (P<0.001). Pooled analyses showed that the rate of pulmonary exacerbations was 30 to 39% lower in the lumacaftor-ivacaftor groups than in the placebo group; the rate of events leading to hospitalization or the use of intravenous antibiotics was lower in the lumacaftor-ivacaftor groups as well. The incidence of adverse events was generally similar in the lumacaftor-ivacaftor and placebo groups. The rate of discontinuation due to an adverse event was 4.2% among patients who received lumacaftor-ivacaftor versus 1.6% among those who received placebo.These data show that lumacaftor in combination with ivacaftor provided a benefit for patients with cystic fibrosis homozygous for the Phe508del CFTR mutation. (Funded by Vertex Pharmaceuticals and others; TRAFFIC and TRANSPORT numbers, NCT01807923 and NCT01807949.).

    View details for DOI 10.1056/NEJMoa1409547

    View details for PubMedID 25981758

  • Inhibition of Aspergillus fumigatus and Its Biofilm by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Is Dependent on the Source, Phenotype and Growth Conditions of the Bacterium. PloS one Ferreira, J. A., Penner, J. C., Moss, R. B., Haagensen, J. A., Clemons, K. V., Spormann, A. M., Nazik, H., Cohen, K., Banaei, N., Carolino, E., Stevens, D. A. 2015; 10 (8)


    Aspergillus fumigatus (Af) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) are leading fungal and bacterial pathogens, respectively, in many clinical situations. Relevant to this, their interface and co-existence has been studied. In some experiments in vitro, Pa products have been defined that are inhibitory to Af. In some clinical situations, both can be biofilm producers, and biofilm could alter their physiology and affect their interaction. That may be most relevant to airways in cystic fibrosis (CF), where both are often prominent residents. We have studied clinical Pa isolates from several sources for their effects on Af, including testing involving their biofilms. We show that the described inhibition of Af is related to the source and phenotype of the Pa isolate. Pa cells inhibited the growth and formation of Af biofilm from conidia, with CF isolates more inhibitory than non-CF isolates, and non-mucoid CF isolates most inhibitory. Inhibition did not require live Pa contact, as culture filtrates were also inhibitory, and again non-mucoid>mucoid CF>non-CF. Preformed Af biofilm was more resistant to Pa, and inhibition that occurred could be reproduced with filtrates. Inhibition of Af biofilm appears also dependent on bacterial growth conditions; filtrates from Pa grown as biofilm were more inhibitory than from Pa grown planktonically. The differences in Pa shown from these different sources are consistent with the extensive evolutionary Pa changes that have been described in association with chronic residence in CF airways, and may reflect adaptive changes to life in a polymicrobial environment.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0134692

    View details for PubMedID 26252384

  • The basophil surface marker CD203c identifies Aspergillus species sensitization in patients with cystic fibrosis. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 2015


    Colonization by Aspergillus fumigatus in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) can cause A fumigatus sensitization and/or allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), which affects pulmonary function and clinical outcomes. Recent studies show that specific allergens upregulate the surface-expressed basophil marker CD203c in sensitized subjects, a response that can be readily measured by using flow cytometry.We sought to identify A fumigatus sensitization in patients with CF by using the basophil activation test (BAT).Patients with CF attending Beaumont Hospital were screened for study inclusion. BAT was used to identify A fumigatus sensitization. Serologic (total and A fumigatus-specific IgE), pulmonary function, and body mass index measurements were performed.The BAT discriminates A fumigatus-sensitized from nonsensitized patients with CF. Persistent isolation of A fumigatus in sputum is a significant risk factor for A fumigatus sensitization. Levels of the A fumigatus-stimulated basophil activation marker CD203c inversely correlated with pulmonary function and body mass index in A fumigatus-sensitized but not nonsensitized patients with CF. Total and A fumigatus-specific IgE, but not IgG, levels are increased in A fumigatus-sensitized patients with CF and ABPA when compared with those in A fumigatus-sensitized and nonsensitized patients with CF without ABPA. Itraconazole treatment did not affect A fumigatus sensitization.Combining the BAT with routine serologic testing allows classification of patients with CF into 3 groups: nonsensitized, A fumigatus-sensitized, and ABPA. Accurate and prompt identification of A fumigatus-associated clinical status might allow early and targeted therapeutic intervention, potentially improving clinical outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jaci.2015.07.045

    View details for PubMedID 26388311

  • Long-term safety and efficacy of ivacaftor in patients with cystic fibrosis who have the Gly551Asp-CFTR mutation: a phase 3, open-label extension study (PERSIST) LANCET RESPIRATORY MEDICINE McKone, E. F., Borowitz, D., Drevinek, P., Griese, M., Konstan, M. W., Wainwright, C., Ratjen, F., Sermet-Gaudelus, I., Plant, B., Munck, A., Jiang, Y., Gilmartin, G., Davies, J. C. 2014; 2 (11): 902-910


    Ivacaftor, a cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiator, is approved for the treatment of patients with cystic fibrosis aged 6 years or older with Gly551Asp-CFTR. We assessed the safety and efficacy of ivacaftor during 96 weeks of PERSIST in patients with cystic fibrosis who completed a previous 48-week, placebo-controlled trial of the drug (STRIVE or ENVISION).In this phase 3, open-label extension study, patients received ivacaftor 150 mg every 12 h in addition to their prescribed cystic fibrosis therapies. Patients who received placebo in their previous study initiated ivacaftor in this extension study. Patients were eligible if they had a Gly551Asp-CFTR mutation on at least one allele. The primary objective was to assess the long-term safety profile of ivacaftor as assessed by adverse events, clinical laboratory assessments, electrocardiograms, vital signs, and physical examination; secondary measures included change in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), weight, and pulmonary exacerbations. This study is registered with, number NCT01117012 and EudraCT, number 2009-012997-11.Between July 8, 2010, and April 8, 2013, 144 adolescents/adults (≥12 years) from STRIVE and 48 children (6-11 years) from ENVISION were enrolled. Across both trials, 38 (20%) patients had a serious adverse event during the first 48 weeks and 44 (23%) during the subsequent 48 weeks. Two adults (1%) and one child (<1%) discontinued because of adverse events. The most common adverse events were pulmonary exacerbation, cough, and upper respiratory tract infection. Patients previously treated with ivacaftor had sustained improvements in FEV1, weight, and rate of pulmonary exacerbations for up to 144 weeks of treatment. Among adolescents/adults and children who previously received ivacaftor, absolute change in FEV1 at week 96 (144 weeks ivacaftor) was 9·4 and 10·3 % points and absolute increase in weight was 4·1 kg and 14·8 kg, respectively. For adolescents/adults only, the pulmonary exacerbation rate remained suppressed compared with that of patients who received placebo in the placebo-controlled study.At 144 weeks of treatment, ivacaftor was well tolerated, with no new safety concerns. Ivacaftor also provided durable effects for 144 weeks in patients who had received active treatment in the placebo-controlled study. Those patients who previously received placebo had improvements comparable to those of patients treated with ivacaftor in the placebo-controlled study.Vertex Pharmaceuticals Inc.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/52213-2600(14)70218-8

    View details for Web of Science ID 000344909400016

    View details for PubMedID 25311995

  • EFFECTS OF IVACAFTOR IN CF PATIENTS WITH R117H-CFTR Moss, R., Flume, P. A., Elborn, J., Cooke, J., Rowe, S. M., McColley, S. A., Rubenstein, R. C., Pilewski, J. M., Higgins, M. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 2014: 221–221
  • Ataluren for the treatment of nonsense-mutation cystic fibrosis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial LANCET RESPIRATORY MEDICINE Kerem, E., Konstan, M. W., De Boeck, K., Accurso, F. J., Sermet-Gaudelus, I., Wilschanski, M., Elborn, J. S., Melotti, P., Bronsveld, I., Fajac, I., Malfroot, A., Rosenbluth, D. B., Walker, P. A., McColley, S. A., Knoop, C., Quattrucci, S., Rietschel, E., Zeitlin, P. L., Barth, J., Elfring, G. L., Welch, E. M., Branstrom, A., Spiegel, R. J., Peltz, S. W., Ajayi, T., Rowe, S. M. 2014; 2 (7): 539-547


    Ataluren was developed to restore functional protein production in genetic disorders caused by nonsense mutations, which are the cause of cystic fibrosis in 10% of patients. This trial was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of ataluren in patients with nonsense-mutation cystic fibrosis.This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study enrolled patients from 36 sites in 11 countries in North America and Europe. Eligible patients with nonsense-mutation cystic fibrosis (aged ≥ 6 years; abnormal nasal potential difference; sweat chloride >40 mmol/L; forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1] ≥ 40% and ≤ 90%) were randomly assigned by interactive response technology to receive oral ataluren (10 mg/kg in morning, 10 mg/kg midday, and 20 mg/kg in evening) or matching placebo for 48 weeks. Randomisation used a block size of four, stratified by age, chronic inhaled antibiotic use, and percent-predicted FEV1. The primary endpoint was relative change in percent-predicted FEV1 from baseline to week 48, analysed in all patients with a post-baseline spirometry measurement. This study is registered with, number NCT00803205.Between Sept 8, 2009, and Nov 30, 2010, 238 patients were randomly assigned, of whom 116 in each treatment group had a valid post-baseline spirometry measurement. Relative change from baseline in percent-predicted FEV1 did not differ significantly between ataluren and placebo at week 48 (-2.5% vs -5.5%; difference 3.0% [95% CI -0.8 to 6.3]; p=0.12). The number of pulmonary exacerbations did not differ significantly between treatment groups (rate ratio 0.77 [95% CI 0.57-1.05]; p=0.0992). However, post-hoc analysis of the subgroup of patients not using chronic inhaled tobramycin showed a 5.7% difference (95% CI 1.5-10.1) in relative change from baseline in percent-predicted FEV1 between the ataluren and placebo groups at week 48 (-0.7% [-4.0 to 2.1] vs -6.4% [-9.8 to -3.7]; nominal p=0.0082), and fewer pulmonary exacerbations in the ataluern group (1.42 events [0.9-1.9] vs 2.18 events [1.6-2.7]; rate ratio 0.60 [0.42-0.86]; nominal p=0.0061). Safety profiles were generally similar for ataluren and placebo, except for the occurrence of increased creatinine concentrations (ie, acute kidney injury), which occurred in 18 (15%) of 118 patients in the ataluren group compared with one (<1%) of 120 patients in the placebo group. No life-threatening adverse events or deaths were reported in either group.Although ataluren did not improve lung function in the overall population of nonsense-mutation cystic fibrosis patients who received this treatment, it might be beneficial for patients not taking chronic inhaled tobramycin.PTC Therapeutics, Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, US Food and Drug Administration's Office of Orphan Products Development, and the National Institutes of Health.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S2213-2600(14)70100-6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000338977100013

    View details for PubMedID 24836205

  • A CFTR corrector (lumacaftor) and a CFTR potentiator (ivacaftor) for treatment of patients with cystic fibrosis who have a phe508del CFTR mutation: a phase 2 randomised controlled trial LANCET RESPIRATORY MEDICINE Boyle, M. P., Bell, S. C., Konstan, M. W., McColley, S. A., Rowe, S. M., Rietschel, E., Huang, X., Waltz, D., Patel, N. R., Rodman, D. 2014; 2 (7): 527-538


    The phe508del CFTR mutation causes cystic fibrosis by limiting the amount of CFTR protein that reaches the epithelial cell surface. We tested combination treatment with lumacaftor, an investigational CFTR corrector that increases trafficking of phe508del CFTR to the cell surface, and ivacaftor, a CFTR potentiator that enhances chloride transport of CFTR on the cell surface.In this phase 2 clinical trial, we assessed three successive cohorts, with the results of each cohort informing dose selection for the subsequent cohort. We recruited patients from 24 cystic fibrosis centres in Australia, Belgium, Germany, New Zealand, and the USA. Eligibility criteria were: confirmed diagnosis of cystic fibrosis, age at least 18 years, and a forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) of 40% or more than predicted. Cohort 1 included phe508del CFTR homozygous patients randomly assigned to either lumacaftor 200 mg once per day for 14 days followed by addition of ivacaftor 150 mg or 250 mg every 12 h for 7 days, or 21 days of placebo. Together, cohorts 2 and 3 included phe508del CFTR homozygous and heterozygous patients, randomly assigned to either 56 days of lumacaftor (cohort 2: 200 mg, 400 mg, or 600 mg once per day, cohort 3: 400 mg every 12 h) with ivacaftor 250 mg every 12 h added after 28 days, or 56 days of placebo. The primary outcomes for all cohorts were change in sweat chloride concentration during the combination treatment period in the intention-to-treat population and safety (laboratory measurements and adverse events). The study is registered with, number NCT01225211, and EudraCT, number 2010-020413-90.Cohort 1 included 64 participants. Cohort 2 and 3 combined contained 96 phe508del CFTR homozygous patients and 28 compound heterozygotes. Treatment with lumacaftor 200 mg once daily and ivacaftor 250 mg every 12 h decreased mean sweat chloride concentration by 9.1 mmol/L (p<0.001) during the combination treatment period in cohort 1. In cohorts 2 and 3, mean sweat chloride concentration did not decrease significantly during combination treatment in any group. Frequency and nature of adverse events were much the same in the treatment and placebo groups during the combination treatment period; the most commonly reported events were respiratory. 12 of 97 participants had chest tightness or dyspnoea during treatment with lumacaftor alone. In pre-planned secondary analyses, a significant decrease in sweat chloride concentration occurred in the treatment groups between day 1 and day 56 (lumacaftor 400 mg once per day group -9.1 mmol/L, p<0.001; lumacaftor 600 mg once per day group -8.9 mmol/L, p<0.001; lumacaftor 400 mg every 12 h group -10.3 mmol/L, p=0.002). These changes were significantly greater than the change in the placebo group. In cohort 2, the lumacaftor 600 mg once per day significantly improved FEV1 from day 1 to 56 (difference compared with placebo group: +5.6 percentage points, p=0.013), primarily during the combination period. In cohort 3, FEV1 did not change significantly across the entire study period compared with placebo (difference +4.2 percentage points, p=0.132), but did during the combination period (difference +7.7 percentage points, p=0·003). Phe508del CFTR heterozygous patients did not have a significant improvement in FEV1.We provide evidence that combination lumacaftor and ivacaftor improves FEV1 for patients with cystic fibrosis who are homozygous for phe508del CFTR, with a modest effect on sweat chloride concentration. These results support the further exploration of combination lumacaftor and ivacaftor as a treatment in this setting.Vertex Pharmaceuticals, Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Therapeutics Development Network.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S2213-2600(14)70132-8

    View details for Web of Science ID 000338977100012

    View details for PubMedID 24973281

  • Treatment options in severe fungal asthma and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL Moss, R. B. 2014; 43 (5): 1487-1500


    Severe asthma with fungal sensitisation and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis encompass two closely related subgroups of patients with severe allergic asthma. Pulmonary disease is due to pronounced host inflammatory responses to noninvasive subclinical endobronchial infection with filamentous fungi, usually Aspergillus fumigatus. These patients usually do not achieve satisfactory disease control with conventional treatment of severe asthma, i.e. high-dose inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting bronchodilators. Although prolonged systemic corticosteroids are effective, they carry a substantial toxicity profile. Supplementary or alternative therapies have primarily focused on use of antifungal agents including oral triazoles and inhaled amphotericin B. Immunomodulation with omalizumab, a humanised anti-IgE monoclonal antibody, or "pulse" monthly high-dose intravenous corticosteroid, has also been employed. This article considers the experience with these approaches, with emphasis on recent clinical trials.

    View details for DOI 10.1183/09031936.00139513

    View details for Web of Science ID 000335614600033

    View details for PubMedID 24311776

  • A Little CFTR Goes a Long Way: CFTR-Dependent Sweat Secretion from G551D and R117H-5T Cystic Fibrosis Subjects Taking Ivacaftor PLOS ONE Char, J. E., Wolfe, M. H., Cho, H., Park, I., Jeong, J. H., Frisbee, E., Dunn, C., Davies, Z., Milla, C., Moss, R. B., Thomas, E. A., Wine, J. J. 2014; 9 (2)

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0088564

    View details for Web of Science ID 000331254600090

    View details for PubMedID 24520399

  • A Little CFTR Goes a Long Way: CFTR-Dependent Sweat Secretion from G551D and R117H-5T Cystic Fibrosis Subjects Taking Ivacaftor PLos One Char, J. E., Wolfe, M. H., Cho, H., Park, I., Jeong, J. H., Frisbee, E., Dunn, C., Davies, Z., Milla, C., Moss, R. B., Thomas, E. A., Wine, J. J. 2014: e88564
  • Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: review of literature and proposal of new diagnostic and classification criteria CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGY Agarwal, R., Chakrabarti, A., Shah, A., Gupta, D., Meis, J. F., Guleria, R., Moss, R., Denning, D. W. 2013; 43 (8): 850-873


    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is an immunological pulmonary disorder caused by hypersensitivity to Aspergillus fumigatus, manifesting with poorly controlled asthma, recurrent pulmonary infiltrates and bronchiectasis. There are estimated to be in excess of four million patients affected world-wide. The importance of recognizing ABPA relates to the improvement of patient symptoms, and delay in development or prevention of bronchiectasis, one manifestation of permanent lung damage in ABPA. Environmental factors may not be the only pathogenetic factors because not all asthmatics develop ABPA despite being exposed to the same environment. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is probably a polygenic disorder, which does not remit completely once expressed, although long-term remissions do occur. In a genetically predisposed individual, inhaled conidia of A. fumigatus germinate into hyphae with release of antigens that activate the innate and adaptive immune responses (Th2 CD4(+) T cell responses) of the lung. The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM) has constituted a working group on ABPA complicating asthma (, which convened an international conference to summarize the current state of knowledge, and formulate consensus-based guidelines for diagnosis and therapy. New diagnosis and staging criteria for ABPA are proposed. Although a small number of randomized controlled trials have been conducted, long-term management remains poorly studied. Primary therapy consists of oral corticosteroids to control exacerbations, itraconazole as a steroid-sparing agent and optimized asthma therapy. Uncertainties surround the prevention and management of bronchiectasis, chronic pulmonary aspergillosis and aspergilloma as complications, concurrent rhinosinusitis and environmental control. There is need for new oral antifungal agents and immunomodulatory therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/cea.12141

    View details for Web of Science ID 000322372100004

    View details for PubMedID 23889240

  • Optimizing Nasal Potential Difference Analysis for CFTR Modulator Development: Assessment of Ivacaftor in CF Subjects with the G551D-CFTR Mutation PLOS ONE Rowe, S. M., Liu, B., Hill, A., Hathorne, H., Cohen, M., Beamer, J. R., Accurso, F. J., Dong, Q., Ordonez, C. L., Stone, A. J., Olson, E. R., Clancy, J. P. 2013; 8 (7)


    Nasal potential difference (NPD) is used as a biomarker of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activity. We evaluated methods to detect changes in chloride and sodium transport by NPD based on a secondary analysis of a Phase II CFTR-modulator study. Thirty-nine subjects with CF who also had the G551D-CFTR mutation were randomized to receive ivacaftor (Kalydeco™; also known as VX-770) in four doses or placebo twice daily for at least 14 days. All data were analyzed by a single investigator who was blinded to treatment assignment. We compared three analysis methods to determine the best approach to quantify changes in chloride and sodium transport: (1) the average of both nostrils; (2) the most-polarized nostril at each visit; and (3) the most-polarized nostril at screening carried forward. Parameters of ion transport included the PD change with zero chloride plus isoproterenol (CFTR activity), the basal PD, Ringer's PD, and change in PD with amiloride (measurements of ENaC activity), and the delta NPD (measuring CFTR and ENaC activity). The average and most-polarized nostril at each visit were most sensitive to changes in chloride and sodium transport, whereas the most-polarized nostril at screening carried forward was less discriminatory. Based on our findings, NPD studies should assess both nostrils rather than a single nostril. We also found that changes in CFTR activity were more readily detected than changes in ENaC activity, and that rigorous standardization was associated with relatively good within-subject reproducibility in placebo-treated subjects (± 2.8 mV). Therefore, we have confirmed an assay of reasonable reproducibility for detecting chloride-transport improvements in response to CFTR modulation.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0066955

    View details for Web of Science ID 000322838900003

    View details for PubMedID 23922647

  • Safety and early treatment effects of the CXCR2 antagonist SB-656933 in patients with cystic fibrosis. Journal of cystic fibrosis Moss, R. B., Mistry, S. J., Konstan, M. W., Pilewski, J. M., Kerem, E., Tal-Singer, R., Lazaar, A. L. 2013; 12 (3): 241-248


    It is hypothesized that a CXCR2 receptor antagonist would inhibit the recruitment and activation of neutrophils and other inflammatory cells into the lung in subjects with cystic fibrosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacodynamics of SB-656933, an oral CXCR2 antagonist.146 adult CF patients were randomized to receive either placebo or SB-656933 20mg or 50mg once daily for 28days. The primary endpoint was safety; secondary endpoints included pharmacokinetics, blood and sputum biomarkers, sputum microbiology, pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms.SB-656933 was generally well tolerated. The most frequent adverse event was headache. Five subjects were withdrawn due to adverse events. In subjects receiving SB-656933 50mg, sputum neutrophils and elastase were reduced compared to baseline (probability of a true reduction, 0.889 and 0.882 respectively), and free DNA reduced compared to placebo (probability of a true reduction, 0.967), while blood levels of fibrinogen, CRP and CXCL8 were increased. There were no changes in lung function or respiratory symptoms. Average plasma concentrations of SB-656933 were lower than predicted based on previous studies, only breaching IC50 for ~4h at the 50mg dose.SB-656933 was well-tolerated in adult patients with cystic fibrosis. Patients receiving a daily dose of 50mg showed trends for improvement in sputum inflammatory biomarkers despite potential blunting of effects by lower than expected plasma concentrations. Although the increase in systemic inflammatory markers requires further evaluation, CXCR2 antagonism may be a useful approach for modulating airway inflammation in patients with cystic fibrosis. Clinical trial registered with (NCT00903201).

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jcf.2012.08.016

    View details for PubMedID 22995323

  • Sputum Tobramycin Concentrations in Cystic Fibrosis Patients with Repeated Administration of Inhaled Tobramycin JOURNAL OF AEROSOL MEDICINE AND PULMONARY DRUG DELIVERY Ruddy, J., Emerson, J., Moss, R., Genatossio, A., McNamara, S., Burns, J. L., Anderson, G., Rosenfeld, M. 2013; 26 (2): 69-75


    Dosing of tobramycin solution for inhalation (TSI) in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients was based on single-dose pharmacokinetic studies. This investigation was prompted by evidence of possible antibiotic accumulation in respiratory secretions with repeated dosing. The objectives were to evaluate whether tobramycin accumulates in respiratory secretions with repeated inhalation, compare total and biologically active tobramycin concentrations in CF sputum, and evaluate sputum induction for obtaining secretions for drug concentration assay.Individuals with CF ≥10 years of age were enrolled at the beginning of a course of TSI, 300 mg twice daily for 28 days. Two study visits were conducted, 1-2 days and 24-28 days after initiation of TSI treatment. Induced sputum and expectorated sputum samples were collected for measurement of trough and peak tobramycin concentrations at each visit. Total tobramycin concentrations were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography and bioactive concentrations by bioassay.Twenty participants completed the study. Trough concentrations were similar at visits 1 and 2, as were peak concentrations. Trough bioactive and total tobramycin concentrations were similar (mean ratio 1.2, 95% CI 0.56, 1.87), but peak bioactive concentrations were significantly lower than peak total concentrations (mean ratio 0.33, 95% CI 0.23, 0.44). Sputum induction was well tolerated.No evidence of significant drug accumulation in respiratory secretions with repeat dosing of TSI was seen. Peak bioactive concentrations, although lower than peak total concentrations, were still generally well within the bactericidal range. Sputum induction as a method for determining airway drug concentrations appears safe and feasible.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/jamp.2011.0942

    View details for Web of Science ID 000317040000178

    View details for PubMedID 22620494

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3621259

  • Pitfalls of Drug Development: Lessons Learned from Trials of Denufosol in Cystic Fibrosis JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Moss, R. B. 2013; 162 (4): 676-680

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.11.034

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316728900008

    View details for PubMedID 23290508

  • Current Treatment Options for Invasive Aspergillosis Drugs of Today Batista MV, Costa SF, Shikanai-Yasuda MA, Moss RB 2013; 49 (3): 213-226
  • Blood basophils from cystic fibrosis patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis are primed and hyper-responsive to stimulation by aspergillus allergens JOURNAL OF CYSTIC FIBROSIS Gernez, Y., Dunn, C. E., Everson, C., Mitsunaga, E., Gudiputi, L., Krasinska, K., Davies, Z. A., Herzenberg, L. A., Tirouvanziam, R., Moss, R. B. 2012; 11 (6): 502-510


    Fifteen to sixty percent of cystic fibrosis patients harbor Aspergillus fumigatus (Af) in their airways (CF-AC) and some will develop allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (CF-ABPA). Since basophils play a key role in allergy, we hypothesized that they would display alterations in CF-ABPA patients compared to CF-AC or patients without Af colonization (CF).Using flow cytometry, we measured CD203c, CD63 and CD123 levels on basophils from CF-ABPA (N=11), CF-AC (N=14), and CF (N=12) patients before and after ex vivo stimulation with Af allergens.Baseline CD203c was increased in basophils from CF-ABPA compared to CF-AC and CF patients. Af extract and recombinant Aspf1 stimulated basophils from CF-ABPA patients to markedly upregulate CD203c, along with modest upregulation of CD63 and a CD123 downward trend. Plasma TARC/CCL17 at baseline and post-stimulation cell supernatant histamine levels were similar in the three groups.In CF-ABPA, blood basophils are primed and hyperresponsive to Af allergen stimulation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jcf.2012.04.008

    View details for Web of Science ID 000312115900004

    View details for PubMedID 22608296

  • Long term effects of denufosol tetrasodium in patients with cystic fibrosis JOURNAL OF CYSTIC FIBROSIS Ratjen, F., Durham, T., Navratil, T., Schaberg, A., Accurso, F. J., Wainwright, C., Barnes, M., Moss, R. B. 2012; 11 (6): 539-549


    Denufosol stimulates chloride secretion independent of the chloride channel which is dysfunctional in cystic fibrosis (CF) and therefore has the potential to benefit CF patients regardless of genotype.To assess the efficacy of denufosol in CF patients with mild lung function impairment age 5 years and older.This multicenter, randomized, parallel group double-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted at 102 CF care centers in Australia, Canada and the United States (NCT00625612) The active group (n=233) received 60 mg denufosol via inhalation three times daily The primary efficacy endpoint was change in FEV(1) in liters from Day 0 to week 48.685 patients were screened for the study and 466 patients (233 in each group) were randomized to study treatment. The adjusted mean change in FEV(1)was 40 mL for denufosol and 32 mL for placebo with a resulting treatment effect of 8 mL (95% CI -0.040, 0.056). The average rate of change in FEV(1) percent of predicted over 0 to 48 weeks was -3.04% for placebo vs. -2.30 for denufosol (a difference of 24% relative to placebo) among all patients. The incidence of pulmonary exacerbation was 26% vs. 21% for the placebo and denufosol groups with no differences in the time to first event. The study treatments were well tolerated and there was no evidence of systemic effects in any safety parameter assessed.In patients with CF treatment with denufosol for 48 weeks did not improve pulmonary function or reduce the incidence of pulmonary exacerbations.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jcf.2012.05.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000312115900009

    View details for PubMedID 22682898

  • Fungi and allergic lower respiratory tract diseases JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY Knutsen, A. P., Bush, R. K., Demain, J. G., Denning, D. W., Dixit, A., Fairs, A., Greenberger, P. A., Kariuki, B., Kita, H., Kurup, V. P., Moss, R. B., Niven, R. M., Pashley, C. H., Slavin, R. G., Vijay, H. M., Wardlaw, A. J. 2012; 129 (2): 280-291


    Asthma is a common disorder that in 2009 afflicted 8.2% of adults and children, 24.6 million persons, in the United States. In patients with moderate and severe persistent asthma, there is significantly increased morbidity, use of health care support, and health care costs. Epidemiologic studies in the United States and Europe have associated mold sensitivity, particularly to Alternaria alternata and Cladosporium herbarum, with the development, persistence, and severity of asthma. In addition, sensitivity to Aspergillus fumigatus has been associated with severe persistent asthma in adults. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is caused by A fumigatus and is characterized by exacerbations of asthma, recurrent transient chest radiographic infiltrates, coughing up thick mucus plugs, peripheral and pulmonary eosinophilia, and increased total serum IgE and fungus-specific IgE levels, especially during exacerbation. The airways appear to be chronically or intermittently colonized by A fumigatus in patients with ABPA. ABPA is the most common form of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM); other fungi, including Candida, Penicillium, and Curvularia species, are implicated. The characteristics of ABPM include severe asthma, eosinophilia, markedly increased total IgE and specific IgE levels, bronchiectasis, and mold colonization of the airways. The term severe asthma associated with fungal sensitization (SAFS) has been coined to illustrate the high rate of fungal sensitivity in patients with persistent severe asthma and improvement with antifungal treatment. The immunopathology of ABPA, ABPM, and SAFS is incompletely understood. Genetic risks identified in patients with ABPA include HLA association and certain T(H)2-prominent and cystic fibrosis variants, but these have not been studied in patients with ABPM and SAFS. Oral corticosteroid and antifungal therapies appear to be partially successful in patients with ABPA. However, the role of antifungal and immunomodulating therapies in patients with ABPA, ABPM, and SAFS requires additional larger studies.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jaci.2011.12.970

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299951700001

    View details for PubMedID 22284927

  • Results of a phase IIa study of VX-809, an investigational CFTR corrector compound, in subjects with cystic fibrosis homozygous for the F508del-CFTR mutation THORAX Clancy, J. P., Rowe, S. M., Accurso, F. J., Aitken, M. L., Amin, R. S., Ashlock, M. A., Ballmann, M., Boyle, M. P., Bronsveld, I., Campbell, P. W., De Boeck, K., Donaldson, S. H., Dorkin, H. L., Dunitz, J. M., Durie, P. R., Jain, M., Leonard, A., McCoy, K. S., Moss, R. B., Pilewski, J. M., Rosenbluth, D. B., Rubenstein, R. C., Schechter, M. S., Botfield, M., Ordonez, C. L., Spencer-Green, G. T., Vernillet, L., Wisseh, S., Yen, K., Konstan, M. W. 2012; 67 (1): 12-18


    VX-809, a cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulator, has been shown to increase the cell surface density of functional F508del-CFTR in vitro.A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the safety, tolerability and pharmacodynamics of VX-809 in adult patients with cystic fibrosis (n=89) who were homozygous for the F508del-CFTR mutation. Subjects were randomised to one of four VX-809 28 day dose groups (25, 50, 100 and 200 mg) or matching placebo.The type and incidence of adverse events were similar among VX-809- and placebo-treated subjects. Respiratory events were the most commonly reported and led to discontinuation by one subject in each active treatment arm. Pharmacokinetic data supported a once-daily oral dosing regimen. Pharmacodynamic data suggested that VX-809 improved CFTR function in at least one organ (sweat gland). VX-809 reduced elevated sweat chloride values in a dose-dependent manner (p=0.0013) that was statistically significant in the 100 and 200 mg dose groups. There was no statistically significant improvement in CFTR function in the nasal epithelium as measured by nasal potential difference, nor were there statistically significant changes in lung function or patient-reported outcomes. No maturation of immature F508del-CFTR was detected in the subgroup that provided rectal biopsy specimens.In this study, VX-809 had a similar adverse event profile to placebo for 28 days in F508del-CFTR homozygous patients, and demonstrated biological activity with positive impact on CFTR function in the sweat gland. Additional data are needed to determine how improvements detected in CFTR function secondary to VX-809 in the sweat gland relate to those measurable in the respiratory tract and to long-term measures of clinical benefit.NCT00865904.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2011-200393

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298369500005

    View details for PubMedID 21825083

  • The use of biological agents for the treatment of fungal asthma and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis 5th Advances Against Aspergillosis Conference Moss, R. B. BLACKWELL SCIENCE PUBL. 2012: 49–57


    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a virulent manifestation of the Th2 asthma endotype that includes asthma with fungal sensitization, raising the feasibility of biological therapies targeting Th2 pathway molecules or cells. The first molecule amenable to clinical intervention with a biological was IgE. Omalizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody (Mab), targets the same epitope on the IgE CH3 region that binds to and crosslinks high-affinity receptors on mast cells and basophils, thereby initiating the allergic inflammatory cascade. Omalizumab is licensed for allergic asthma and has been beneficial in uncontrolled studies of ABPA, reducing exacerbations and steroid requirements. Trials of several Mabs directed against the Th2 cytokine IL-5 show clinical benefit in patients with a severe refractory eosinophilic asthma phenotype, while a Mab against IL-13 is effective in asthma patients with a Th2-high endotype. Immunodulation is also feasible with small molecule biologicals, such as antisense oligodeoxynucleotides and cholecalciferol. Controlled trials of Th2-inhibiting biologicals in patients with ABPA and severe asthma with fungal sensitization appear warranted.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06810.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000312501200008

    View details for PubMedID 23231714

  • A CFTR Potentiator in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis and the G551D Mutation NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Ramsey, B. W., Davies, J., McElvaney, N. G., Tullis, E., Bell, S. C., Drevinek, P., Griese, M., McKone, E. F., Wainwright, C. E., Konstan, M. W., Moss, R., Ratjen, F., Sermet-Gaudelus, I., Rowe, S. M., Dong, Q., Rodriguez, S., Yen, K., Ordonez, C., Elborn, J. S. 2011; 365 (18): 1663-1672


    Increasing the activity of defective cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein is a potential treatment for cystic fibrosis.We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate ivacaftor (VX-770), a CFTR potentiator, in subjects 12 years of age or older with cystic fibrosis and at least one G551D-CFTR mutation. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive 150 mg of ivacaftor every 12 hours (84 subjects, of whom 83 received at least one dose) or placebo (83, of whom 78 received at least one dose) for 48 weeks. The primary end point was the estimated mean change from baseline through week 24 in the percent of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)).The change from baseline through week 24 in the percent of predicted FEV(1) was greater by 10.6 percentage points in the ivacaftor group than in the placebo group (P<0.001). Effects on pulmonary function were noted by 2 weeks, and a significant treatment effect was maintained through week 48. Subjects receiving ivacaftor were 55% less likely to have a pulmonary exacerbation than were patients receiving placebo, through week 48 (P<0.001). In addition, through week 48, subjects in the ivacaftor group scored 8.6 points higher than did subjects in the placebo group on the respiratory-symptoms domain of the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-revised instrument (a 100-point scale, with higher numbers indicating a lower effect of symptoms on the patient's quality of life) (P<0.001). By 48 weeks, patients treated with ivacaftor had gained, on average, 2.7 kg more weight than had patients receiving placebo (P<0.001). The change from baseline through week 48 in the concentration of sweat chloride, a measure of CFTR activity, with ivacaftor as compared with placebo was -48.1 mmol per liter (P<0.001). The incidence of adverse events was similar with ivacaftor and placebo, with a lower proportion of serious adverse events with ivacaftor than with placebo (24% vs. 42%).Ivacaftor was associated with improvements in lung function at 2 weeks that were sustained through 48 weeks. Substantial improvements were also observed in the risk of pulmonary exacerbations, patient-reported respiratory symptoms, weight, and concentration of sweat chloride. (Funded by Vertex Pharmaceuticals and others; VX08-770-102 number, NCT00909532.).

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296424200005

    View details for PubMedID 22047557

  • Socioeconomic Status and the Likelihood of Antibiotic Treatment for Signs and Symptoms of Pulmonary Exacerbation in Children with Cystic Fibrosis JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Schechter, M. S., McColley, S. A., Regelmann, W., Millar, S. J., Pasta, D. J., Wagener, J. S., Konstan, M. W., Morgan, W. J. 2011; 159 (5): 819-U158


    To determine whether socioeconomic status (SES) influences the likelihood of antibiotic treatment of pulmonary exacerbations in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF).We used data on 9895 patients ≤ 18 years old from the Epidemiologic Study of CF. After establishing an individual baseline of clinical signs and symptoms, we ascertained whether antibiotics were prescribed when new signs/symptoms suggested a pulmonary exacerbation, adjusting for sex, presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the number of new signs/symptoms, and baseline disease severity.In a 12-month period, 20.0% of patients <6 years of age, 33.8% of patients 6 to 12 years of age, and 41.4% of patients 13 to 18 years of age were treated with any (oral, intravenous (IV), or inhaled) antibiotics; the percentage receiving IV antibiotics was 7.3%, 15.2%, and 20.9%, respectively. SES had little effect on treatment for pulmonary exacerbation with any antibiotics, but IV antibiotics were prescribed more frequently for patients with lower SES.SES-related disparities in CF health outcomes do not appear to be explained by differential treatment of pulmonary exacerbations.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2011.05.005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296581100025

    View details for PubMedID 21705017

  • Comparative Efficacy and Safety of 4 Randomized Regimens to Treat Early Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection in Children With Cystic Fibrosis ARCHIVES OF PEDIATRICS & ADOLESCENT MEDICINE Treggiari, M. M., Retsch-Bogart, G., Mayer-Hamblett, N., Khan, U., Kulich, M., Kronmal, R., Williams, J., Hiatt, P., Gibson, R. L., Spencer, T., Orenstein, D., Chatfield, B. A., Froh, D. K., Burns, J. L., Rosenfeld, M., Ramsey, B. W. 2011; 165 (9): 847-856


    To investigate the efficacy and safety of 4 antipseudomonal treatments in children with cystic fibrosis with recently acquired Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.Randomized controlled trial.Multicenter trial in the United States.Three hundred four children with cystic fibrosis aged 1 to 12 years within 6 months of P aeruginosa detection.Participants were randomized to 1 of 4 antibiotic regimens for 18 months (six 12-week quarters) between December 2004 and June 2009. Participants randomized to cycled therapy received tobramycin inhalation solution (300 mg twice a day) for 28 days, with oral ciprofloxacin (15-20 mg/kg twice a day) or oral placebo for 14 days every quarter, while participants randomized to culture-based therapy received the same treatments only during quarters with positive P aeruginosa cultures.The primary end points were time to pulmonary exacerbation requiring intravenous antibiotics and proportion of P aeruginosa -positive cultures.The intention-to-treat analysis included 304 participants. There was no interaction between treatments. There were no statistically significant differences in exacerbation rates between cycled and culture-based groups (hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54-1.66) or ciprofloxacin and placebo (hazard ratio, 1.45; 95% CI, 0.82-2.54). The odds ratios of P aeruginosa- positive culture comparing the cycled vs culture-based group were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.49-1.23) and 1.10 (95% CI, 0.71-1.71) comparing ciprofloxacin vs placebo. Adverse events were similar across groups.No difference in the rate of exacerbation or prevalence of P aeruginosa positivity was detected between cycled and culture-based therapies. Adding ciprofloxacin produced no Identifier: NCT00097773.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294537100012

    View details for PubMedID 21893650

  • Denufosol Tetrasodium in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis and Normal to Mildly Impaired Lung Function AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Accurso, F. J., Moss, R. B., Wilmott, R. W., Anbar, R. D., Schaberg, A. E., Durham, T. A., Ramsey, B. W. 2011; 183 (5): 627-634


    Intervention for cystic fibrosis lung disease early in its course has the potential to delay or prevent progressive changes that lead to irreversible airflow obstruction. Denufosol is a novel ion channel regulator designed to correct the ion transport defect and increase the overall mucociliary clearance in cystic fibrosis lung disease by increasing chloride secretion, inhibiting sodium absorption, and increasing ciliary beat frequency in the airway epithelium independently of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator genotype.To evaluate the efficacy and safety of denufosol in patients with cystic fibrosis who had normal to mildly impaired lung function characteristic of early cystic fibrosis.A total of 352 patients greater than or equal to 5 years old with cystic fibrosis who had FEV(1) greater than or equal to 75% of predicted normal were randomized to receive inhaled denufosol, 60 mg, or placebo three times daily in a Phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 24-week trial.Main outcome measures included change in FEV(1) from baseline to Week 24 endpoint and adverse events. Mean change from baseline to Week 24 endpoint in FEV(1) (primary efficacy endpoint) was 0.048 L for denufosol (n = 178) and 0.003 L for placebo (n = 174; P = 0.047). No significant differences between groups were observed for secondary endpoints including exacerbation rate and other measures of lung function. Denufosol was well tolerated with adverse event and growth profiles similar to placebo.Denufosol improved lung function relative to placebo in cystic fibrosis patients with normal to mildly impaired lung function. Clinical trial registered with (NCT00357279).

    View details for DOI 10.1164/rccm.201008-1267OC

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288296000015

    View details for PubMedID 21169471

  • Lessons learned from the denufosol trials Pediatric Pulmonology Moss RB 2011; Suppl 34: 177-178
  • METABOLITE PROFILING OF CF AIRWAY FLUID SUGGESTS A ROLE FOR CATECHOLAMINES IN EARLY AND CHRONIC DISEASE Gudiputi, L., Aronov, P., Makam, M., Zirbes, J., Conrad, C., Milla, C., Herzenberg, L., Moss, R., Tirouvanziam, R. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 2011: 240–240
  • Effect of VX-770 in Persons with Cystic Fibrosis and the G551D-CFTR Mutation NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Accurso, F. J., Rowe, S. M., Clancy, J. P., Boyle, M. P., Dunitz, J. M., Durie, P. R., Sagel, S. D., Hornick, D. B., Konstan, M. W., Donaldson, S. H., Moss, R. B., Pilewski, J. M., Rubenstein, R. C., Uluer, A. Z., Aitken, M. L., Freedman, S. D., Rose, L. M., Mayer-Hamblett, N., Dong, Q., Zha, J., Stone, A. J., Olson, E. R., Ordonez, C. L., Campbell, P. W., Ashlock, M. A., Ramsey, B. W. 2010; 363 (21): 1991-2003


    A new approach in the treatment of cystic fibrosis involves improving the function of mutant cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). VX-770, a CFTR potentiator, has been shown to increase the activity of wild-type and defective cell-surface CFTR in vitro.We randomly assigned 39 adults with cystic fibrosis and at least one G551D-CFTR allele to receive oral VX-770 every 12 hours at a dose of 25, 75, or 150 mg or placebo for 14 days (in part 1 of the study) or VX-770 every 12 hours at a dose of 150 or 250 mg or placebo for 28 days (in part 2 of the study).At day 28, in the group of subjects who received 150 mg of VX-770, the median change in the nasal potential difference (in response to the administration of a chloride-free isoproterenol solution) from baseline was -3.5 mV (range, -8.3 to 0.5; P=0.02 for the within-subject comparison, P=0.13 vs. placebo), and the median change in the level of sweat chloride was -59.5 mmol per liter (range, -66.0 to -19.0; P=0.008 within-subject, P=0.02 vs. placebo). The median change from baseline in the percent of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second was 8.7% (range, 2.3 to 31.3; P=0.008 for the within-subject comparison, P=0.56 vs. placebo). None of the subjects withdrew from the study. Six severe adverse events occurred in two subjects (diffuse macular rash in one subject and five incidents of elevated blood and urine glucose levels in one subject with diabetes). All severe adverse events resolved without the discontinuation of VX-770.This study to evaluate the safety and adverse-event profile of VX-770 showed that VX-770 was associated with within-subject improvements in CFTR and lung function. These findings provide support for further studies of pharmacologic potentiation of CFTR as a means to treat cystic fibrosis. (Funded by Vertex Pharmaceuticals and others; number, NCT00457821.).

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284310000004

    View details for PubMedID 21083385

  • Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and Aspergillus infection in cystic fibrosis CURRENT OPINION IN PULMONARY MEDICINE Moss, R. B. 2010; 16 (6): 598-603


    Recent literature on Aspergillus fumigatus infection and allergy in cystic fibrosis have expanded our understanding of many aspects of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, and bring new attention to A. fumigatus airways infection and A. fumigatus allergy without allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA).ABPA, A. fumigatus infection and A. fumigatus allergy without ABPA all likely worsen cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. Studies examining utility of new serologic assays for diagnosing ABPA include evaluations of standardized measurement of A. fumigatus-specific IgG, serum chemokine TARC levels, and recombinant A. fumigatus allergens; as yet, none appear ideal. Although oral glucocorticoids remain primary therapy, toxicity and incomplete control have led to an ongoing search for further safe and effective agents including itraconazole and voriconazole, intravenous pulse methylprednisolone, nebulized amphotericin B and omalizumab. Little controlled treatment data is available.Diagnosis of CF-ABPA remains difficult, but improvements in serologic assays are occurring. Treatment remains in many cases unsatisfactory, and new agents offer promise but await proper controlled trials of safety and efficacy. A. fumigatus airway infection and A. fumigatus allergy without ABPA are emerging as further complications of A. fumigatus respiratory colonization in patients with CF, but prospective studies are needed to corroborate largely retrospective findings.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/MCP.0b013e32833e24a6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000282367400012

    View details for PubMedID 20720494

  • Baseline Characteristics and Factors Associated With Nutritional and Pulmonary Status at Enrollment in the Cystic Fibrosis EPIC Observational Cohort PEDIATRIC PULMONOLOGY Rosenfeld, M., Emerson, J., McNamara, S., Joubran, K., Retsch-Bogart, G., Graff, G. R., Gutierrez, H. H., Kanga, J. F., Lahiri, T., Noyes, B., Ramsey, B., Ren, C. L., Schechter, M., Morgan, W., Gibson, R. L. 2010; 45 (9): 934-944


    The EPIC Observational Study is an ongoing prospective cohort study investigating risk factors for and clinical outcomes associated with early Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) acquisition in young children with cystic fibrosis (CF).To describe the baseline characteristics of the cohort and evaluate associations between potential risk factors and nutritional and respiratory characteristics at enrollment. We hypothesized that distinct demographic and environmental risk factors could be identified for poorer nutritional status and lung function at enrollment.During 2004-2006, 1,700 children with CF were enrolled at 59 US CF centers. Children

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ppul.21279

    View details for Web of Science ID 000281628700013

    View details for PubMedID 20597081

  • Safety, Tolerability, and Efficacy of High-Frequency Chest Wall Oscillation in Pediatric Patients With Cerebral Palsy and Neuromuscular Diseases: An Exploratory Randomized Controlled Trial JOURNAL OF CHILD NEUROLOGY Yuan, N., Kane, P., Shelton, K., Matel, J., Becker, B. C., Moss, R. B. 2010; 25 (7): 815-821


    Airway secretions and infections are common in cerebral palsy and neuromuscular diseases. Chest physiotherapy is standard therapy but effort is substantial. High-frequency chest wall oscillation is used in cystic fibrosis but tolerability and safety data in cerebral palsy and neuromuscular disease are limited. A prospective, randomized, controlled trial of high-frequency chest wall oscillation and standard chest physiotherapy was performed in participants with neuromuscular disease or cerebral palsy. Outcome measures included respiratory-related hospitalizations, antibiotic therapy, chest radiographs, and polysomnography. Care-givers were questioned regarding therapy adherence. A total of 28 participants enrolled, 23 completed (12 chest physiotherapy, mean study period 5 months). No adverse outcomes were reported. Adherence to prescribed regimen was higher with high-frequency chest wall oscillation (P = .036). Our data suggest safety, tolerability, and better compliance with high-frequency chest wall oscillation. Improvement in airway clearance may help prevent hospitalizations. Larger controlled trials are required to confirm these results.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0883073809350223

    View details for Web of Science ID 000279409100002

    View details for PubMedID 20357238

  • Cystic Fibrosis Pathophysiology and Therapeutic Targets. Johns Hopkins Advanced Studies in Medicine. Moss RB 2010; 10: 9-13
  • SURVEY TO ASSESS RESEARCH SATISFACTION AT STANFORD (STARS) DAVIES, Z., Dunn, C. E., Hernandez, C., Zirbes, J. M., Milla, C., Moss, R. B. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 2010: 401–401
  • Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis eCysticFibrosis Review ( Moss RB 2010
  • SMALL METABOLITE PROFILING OF AIRWAY FLUID UNCOVERS SPECIFIC ALTERATIONS IN CF Tirouvanziam, R., Aronov, P., Laval, J., Makam, M., Liu, C., Chien, A., Herzenberg, L., Gronert, K., Moss, R. B. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 2010: 243–243
  • Cystic Fibrosis HRCT Scores Correlate Strongly With Pseudomonas Infection PEDIATRIC PULMONOLOGY Robinson, T. E., Leung, A. N., Chen, X., Moss, R. B., Emond, M. J. 2009; 44 (11): 1107-1117


    In order to establish a valid surrogate outcome measure, it must be shown that the outcome measure (chest HRCT scores in cystic fibrosis [CF] patients) demonstrates strong statistical association with established endpoints of disease, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) airway acquisition, acute exacerbations, or mortality.We estimated and tested the association between Pa infection status (Pa+ vs. Pa-) and baseline chest HRCT scores in 25 children with mild-to-moderate CF lung disease. For comparison, we estimated the association between Pa status and pulmonary function tests (PFTs), chest X-rays (CXR) scores, and BMI. Pa acquisition was determined from respiratory culture results and systematic review of clinic notes.All subjects had respiratory cultures performed prior to or at baseline with a median of 19 months of retrospective culture observation (SD = 15.7 months, range: 0-52.5 months). The difference between age-adjusted mean total HRCT score for Pa+ versus Pa- was highly significant (P < 0.00001) with a near-perfect separation between scores in Pa+ versus Pa- patients. Similar results were found for several HRCT sub-scores. Among PFTs, only residual volume-to-total lung capacity (RV/TLC) had a significant difference between group means (P = 0.03), but the overlap between groups in RV/TLC measurements was large.CF HRCT scores correlate highly with Pa acquisition, a clinically meaningful measure of progressing CF lung disease. HRCT scores are highly sensitive at predicting Pa acquisition status, while most PFT measures, chest radiograph (CXR) scores, and body mass index are not. These results provide further evidence that HRCT is appropriate for use in patient care and as an outcome measure in clinical trials.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ppul.21107

    View details for Web of Science ID 000271602200009

    View details for PubMedID 19824046

  • Genetic Modifiers of Liver Disease in Cystic Fibrosis JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Bartlett, J. R., Friedman, K. J., Ling, S. C., Pace, R. G., Bell, S. C., Bourke, B., Castaldo, G., Castellani, C., Cipolli, M., Colombo, C., Colombo, J. L., Debray, D., Fernandez, A., Lacaille, F., Macek, M., Rowland, M., Salvatore, F., Taylor, C. J., Wainwright, C., Wilschanski, M., Zemkova, D., Hannah, W. B., Phillips, M. J., Corey, M., Zielenski, J., Dorfman, R., Wang, Y., Zou, F., Silverman, L. M., Drumm, M. L., Wright, F. A., Lange, E. M., Durie, P. R., Knowles, M. R. 2009; 302 (10): 1076-1083


    A subset (approximately 3%-5%) of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) develops severe liver disease with portal hypertension.To assess whether any of 9 polymorphisms in 5 candidate genes (alpha(1)-antitrypsin or alpha(1)-antiprotease [SERPINA1], angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE], glutathione S-transferase [GSTP1], mannose-binding lectin 2 [MBL2], and transforming growth factor beta1 [TGFB1]) are associated with severe liver disease in patients with CF.Two-stage case-control study enrolling patients with CF and severe liver disease with portal hypertension (CFLD) from 63 CF centers in the United States as well as 32 in Canada and 18 outside of North America, with the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill as the coordinating site. In the initial study, 124 patients with CFLD (enrolled January 1999-December 2004) and 843 control patients without CFLD were studied by genotyping 9 polymorphisms in 5 genes previously studied as modifiers of liver disease in CF. In the second stage, the SERPINA1 Z allele and TGFB1 codon 10 genotype were tested in an additional 136 patients with CFLD (enrolled January 2005-February 2007) and 1088 with no CFLD.Differences in distribution of genotypes in patients with CFLD vs patients without CFLD.The initial study showed CFLD to be associated with the SERPINA1 Z allele (odds ratio [OR], 4.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.31-9.61; P = 3.3 x 10(-6)) and with TGFB1 codon 10 CC genotype (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.16-2.03; P = 2.8 x 10(-3)). In the replication study, CFLD was associated with the SERPINA1 Z allele (OR, 3.42; 95% CI, 1.54-7.59; P = 1.4 x 10(-3)) but not with TGFB1 codon 10. A combined analysis of the initial and replication studies by logistic regression showed CFLD to be associated with SERPINA1 Z allele (OR, 5.04; 95% CI, 2.88-8.83; P = 1.5 x 10(-8)).The SERPINA1 Z allele is a risk factor for liver disease in CF. Patients who carry the Z allele are at greater risk (OR, approximately 5) of developing severe liver disease with portal hypertension.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000269616200025

    View details for PubMedID 19738092

  • Infection, inflammation and the downward spiral of cystic fibrosis lung disease Journal of Pediatrics Moss RB 2009; 154: 162-163
  • Highlights of a workshop to discuss targeting inflammation in cystic fibrosis JOURNAL OF CYSTIC FIBROSIS Banner, K. H., de Jonge, H., Elborn, S., Growcott, E., Gulbins, E., Konstan, M., Moss, R., Poll, C., Randell, S. H., Rossi, A. G., Thomas, L., Waltz, D. 2009; 8 (1): 1-8


    A workshop to discuss anti-inflammatory approaches in the treatment of CF was held at Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research (NIBR, Horsham, UK) in March 2008. Key opinion leaders in the field (Hugo De Jonge, Stuart Elborn, Erich Gulbins, Mike Konstan, Rick Moss, Scott Randell and Adriano Rossi), and NIBR scientists were brought together to collectively address three main aims: (i) to identify anti-inflammatory targets in CF, (ii) to evaluate the pros and cons of targeting specific cell types and (iii) to discuss model systems to profile potential therapeutic agents. The highlights of the workshop are captured in this review.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jcf.2008.10.002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262553800001

    View details for PubMedID 19022708

  • Activation of critical, host-induced, metabolic and stress pathways marks neutrophil entry into cystic fibrosis lungs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A Makam M, Diaz D, Laval J, Gernez Y, Conrad CK, Dunn CE, Davies ZA, Moss RB, Herzenberg LA, Herzenberg LA, Tirouvanziam R 2009; 106: 5779-5783
  • Highlights of a workshop to discuss targeting inflammation in cystic fibrosis J Cystic Fibrosis Banner K, De Jonge H, Elborn S, Growcott E, Gulbins E, Konstan M, Moss R, Poll C, Randell SH, Rossi AG, Thomas 2009; 8 (1): 1-9
  • Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis In Latge JP, Steinbach WJ, Eds. Aspergillus Fumigatus and Aspergillosis. American Society of Microbiology Press Moss RB 2009: 332-350
  • Management of allergic aspergillosis CURRENT ALLERGY AND ASTHMA REPORTS Moss, R. B. 2008; 8 (5): 433-439
  • Profound functional and signalling changes in viable neutrophils homing to cystic fibrosis airways Proceed Natl Acad Sci USA Tirouvanziam R, Gernez Y, Conrad CK, Moss RB, Schrijver I, Dunn CE, Davies ZA, Herzenberg LA, Herzenberg LA 2008; 105: 4335-4339
  • The role of fungi in chronic airways infection Commentaries on Chronic Airway Infection Moss RB 2008; 2 (14): 2-8
  • Management of allergic aspergillosis Current Fungal Infection Reports Moss RB 2008; 2: 87-93
  • Chest imaging in cystic fibrosis Commentaries on Chronic Airway Infection Robinson TE, Moss RB 2008; 2 (3): 2-8
  • Duration of treatment effect after tobramycin solution for inhalation in young children with cystic fibrosis PEDIATRIC PULMONOLOGY Gibson, R. L., Emerson, J., Mayer-Hamblett, N., Burns, J. L., McNamara, S., Accurso, F. J., Konstan, M. W., Chatfield, B. A., Retsch-Bogart, G., Waltz, D. A., Acton, J., Zeitlin, P., Hiatt, P., Moss, R., Williams, J., Ramsey, B. W., Grp, T. I. 2007; 42 (7): 610-623


    Among young children with cystic fibrosis (CF), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) airway infection is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Early intervention strategies include tobramycin solution for inhalation (TSI), which can eradicate lower airway Pa from cultures obtained at the end of 28 days of treatment in young children.We conducted an open label, sequential cohort study of TSI in young children with CF to investigate duration of antimicrobial treatment effect. The primary outcome was lower airway Pa eradication per bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid culture. Sequential treatment cohorts varied by duration of treatment (28 or 56 days) and timing of follow-up BAL (at Days 56, 84, or 112). Subjects (N = 36) were treated with TSI, 300 mg twice daily, for 28 days or 56 days per cohort assignment.Among 31 evaluable subjects, culture based, lower airway Pa eradication was observed in the majority of subjects for up to 1-3 months following TSI treatment: 75% in Cohort 28/56 (days of treatment/day of follow-up BAL), 63% in Cohort 28/84, 82% in Cohort 56/112, and 75% in Cohort 28/112. Non-mucoid Pa at baseline and/or exotoxin A seronegativity were associated with higher rates of eradication. There was a less pronounced effect of TSI treatment on Pa eradication from oropharyngeal cultures in all cohorts. TSI treatment was associated with reduced neutrophilic airway inflammation and was not related to any serious adverse events.TSI monotherapy is safe and can eradicate lower airway Pa for up to 3 months after treatment in young children with CF.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ppul.20625

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247648300008

    View details for PubMedID 17534969

  • No detectable improvements in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator by nasal aminoglycosides in patients with cystic fibrosis with stop mutations AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY Clancy, J. P., Rowe, S. M., Bebok, Z., Aitken, M. L., Gibson, R., Zeitlin, P., Berclaz, P., Moss, R., Knowles, M. R., Oster, R. A., Mayer-Hamblett, N., Ramsey, B. 2007; 37 (1): 57-66


    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by many types of genetic defects, including premature stop codons. Gentamicin can suppress stop mutations in CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in vitro and in vivo, leading to improvements in CFTR-dependent ion transport and protein localization to the apical surface of respiratory epithelial cells. The primary objective of this study was to test whether nasally administered gentamicin or tobramycin could suppress premature stop mutations in CFTR, resulting in full-length, functional protein. A secondary objective was to obtain data to aid in the design of multicenter trials using the nasal potential difference as a study endpoint. A multicenter study was conducted in two cohorts of patients with CF, those heterozygous for stop mutations in the CFTR gene and those without nonsense mutations, to investigate the effects of both gentamicin and tobramycin administered over a 28-d period on sequential nasal potential difference and airway cell immunofluorescence endpoints. Eleven patients with CF with stop mutations were enrolled in a randomized, double-blinded, crossover fashion to receive each drug, while 18 subjects with CF without stop mutations were randomized 1:1 in a parallel fashion to receive one drug. After demonstration of drug delivery, neither aminoglycoside produced detectable changes in nasal ion transport or CFTR localization in brushed cells from either study group. These results with first-generation suppressive agents suggest the need for improved drug delivery methods and/or more potent suppressors of nonsense mutations to confer CFTR correction in subjects with CF heterozygous for nonsense mutations. The study provides valuable information on parameters of the nasal potential difference measurements for use in future multicenter clinical trials.

    View details for DOI 10.1165/rcmb.2006-0173OC

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247661500008

    View details for PubMedID 17347447

  • Aggressive treatment strategies in the fight against cystic fibrosis Johns Hopkins Advanced Studies in Medicine Mogayzel PJ, C. M. 2007; 7 (14): 426-458
  • Repeated aerosolized AAV-CFTR for treatment of cystic fibrosis: a randomized placebo controlled trial. Human Gen Ther Moss RB, Milla C, Colombo J, Accurso F, Zeitlin PL, Clancy JP, Spencer LT, Pilewski J 2007; 18: 726-732
  • Duration of treatment effect after tobramycin solution for inhalation in young children with cystic fibrosis. Pediatric Pulmonology Gibson RL, Emerson J, Hamblett N, Burns JL, McNamara S, Accurso F, Konstan MW, Chatfield BA, Retsch-Bogart G, W 2007; 42: 610-623
  • No detectable improvements in CFTR by nasal aminoglycosides in CF patients heterozygous for stop mutations. Am J Resp Molec Cell Biol Clancy JP, Rowe SM, Bebok Z, Aitken ML, Gibson RL, Zeitlin P, Berclaz Y, Moss R, Knowles M, Oster RA, Mayer-Ham 2007; 37: 57-66
  • Critique of trials in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and fungal allergy 2nd Advances against Aspergillosis Conference Moss, R. B. OXFORD UNIV PRESS. 2006: S269–S272
  • Safety and preliminary clinical activity of a novel pancreatic enzyme preparation in pancreatic insufficient cystic fibrosis patients PANCREAS Borowitz, D., Goss, C. H., Stevens, C., Hayes, D., Newman, L., O'Rourke, A., Konstan, M. W., Wagener, J., Moss, R., Hendeles, L., Orenstein, D., Ahrens, R., Oermann, C. M., Aitken, M. L., Mahl, T. C., Young, K. R., Dunitz, J., Murray, F. T. 2006; 32 (3): 258-263


    Currently available pancreatic enzyme products are crude porcine products with few data available regarding their efficacy, safety, and manufacture. We conducted a phase 1 study of a novel pancreatic enzyme product, TheraCLEC-Total (TCT), a proprietary formulation of microbial-derived lipase, protease, and amylase, to determine its safety and preliminary efficacy in cystic fibrosis.We conducted an open-label, dose-ranging study in 23 subjects diagnosed with pancreatic insufficiency with cystic fibrosis. The subjects received TCT containing lipase dose of 100, 500, 1000, 2500, or 5000 USP U/kg per meal with each meal or snack for 3 days. The clinical and laboratory parameters and adverse events (AEs) were monitored.There were no serious AEs. Most AEs were mild, although gastrointestinal complaints were common. TCT increased the coefficient of fat and nitrogen absorption in all groups except in the low-dose group. At the other dosing levels, the mean coefficient of fat and nitrogen absorption increases were 19.1% +/- 24.9% and 17.8% +/- 13.6%, respectively, whereas the mean stool weight decreased by 517 +/- 362 g.TCT was well tolerated in this short-term exposure study. The preliminary efficacy data demonstrate lipase and protease activity with little difference seen with lipase doses greater than 500 USP U/kg per meal. These data support a larger randomized phase 2 trial.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241710500004

    View details for PubMedID 16628080

  • High-dose oral N-acetylcysteine, a glutathione prodrug, modulates inflammation in cystic fibrosis PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Tirouvanziam, R., Conrad, C. K., Bottiglieri, T., Herzenberg, L. A., Moss, R. B., Herzenberg, L. A. 2006; 103 (12): 4628-4633


    Neutrophilic airway inflammation is a hallmark of cystic fibrosis (CF). As high oxidant producers, airway neutrophils contribute largely to the systemic redox imbalance seen in CF. In turn, this chronic and profound imbalance can impact circulating neutrophils before their migration into airways. Indeed, in 18 CF patients with stable disease, blood neutrophils were readily deficient in the pivotal antioxidant glutathione (P = 0.003, compared with 9 healthy controls). In a phase 1 study, this deficiency was improved (P = 0.025) by the glutathione prodrug N-acetylcysteine, given orally in high doses (0.6 to 1.0 g three times daily, for 4 weeks). This treatment was safe and markedly decreased sputum elastase activity (P = 0.006), the strongest predictor of CF pulmonary function. Consistently, neutrophil burden in CF airways was decreased upon treatment (P = 0.003), as was the number of airway neutrophils actively releasing elastase-rich granules (P = 0.005), as measured by flow cytometry. Pulmonary function measures were not improved, as expected with short-term treatment. After excluding data from subjects without baseline airway inflammation, positive treatment effects were more pronounced and included decreased sputum IL-8 levels (P = 0.032). Thus, high-dose oral N-acetylcysteine has the potential to counter the intertwined redox and inflammatory imbalances in CF.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0511304103

    View details for Web of Science ID 000236362600055

    View details for PubMedID 16537378

  • Gene therapy for cystic fibrosis: the rise and fall of a viral vector US Respiratory Disease Moss RB 2006: 40
  • Specific antibodies to recombinant allergens of Aspergillus fumigatus in cystic fibrosis patients with ABPA. Clin Molec Allergy Kurup VP, Knutsen AP, Moss RB, Bansal N 2006; 4 (1): 11 [EPub]
  • Specific antibodies to recombinant allergens of Aspergillus fumigatus in cystic fibrosis patients with ABPA. Clinical and molecular allergy : CMA Kurup, V. P., Knutsen, A. P., Moss, R. B., Bansal, N. K. 2006; 4: 11-?


    Aspergillus fumigatus, a widely distributed fungus, has been implicated in causing life threatening infections as well as severe asthma and allergic diseases in man. Allergic affliction like allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a disabling lung disease frequently seen in patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis. Immunodiagnosis of the former is comparatively easier due to the availability of purified antigens and sensitive methods. However, this is not true with cystic fibrosis patients where the prevalence of ABPA is fairly high and the morbidity and mortality are significant.In the present study, we have evaluated purified recombinant allergens from A. fumigatus, namely Asp f 1, f 2, f 3, f 4, and f 6 using ELISA and a semi-automated method (ImmunoCAP). We studied 17 patients each from cystic fibrosis with ABPA, and cystic fibrosis with asthma, 22 cystic fibrosis with no ABPA or asthma, and 11 age matched controls.The results indicate that no antigen, antibody or method is capable of differentiating cystic fibrosis (CF) with ABPA from other CF patients, although some allergens showed strong reaction or showed more prevalence among the patients studied.When results of several allergens such as Asp f 1, f 2, f 3, f 4, and f 6 in their binding to IgA, IgG, and IgE antibodies were analyzed, a more strong discrimination of CF patients with ABPA was possible from the other groups studied.

    View details for PubMedID 16859543

  • The urokinase type plasminogen activator system in induced sputum of patients with asthma Chinese J TB Resp Dis Wang L, Xiao W, Moss RB, Hsu YP 2006; 29: 124-7
  • Dornase alfa reduces air trapping in children with mild cystic fibrosis lung disease - A quantitative analysis CHEST Robinson, T. E., Goris, M. L., Zhu, H. J., Chen, X. R., Bhise, F., Sheikh, F., Moss, R. B. 2005; 128 (4): 2327-2335


    To evaluate quantitative air trapping measurements in children with mild cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease during a 1-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled, recombinant human deoxyribonuclease (rhDNase) [dornase alfa] intervention trial and compare results from quantitative air trapping with those from spirometry or visually scored high-resolution CT (HRCT) scans of the chest.Twenty-five children with CF randomized to either daily rhDNase or placebo aerosol were evaluated at baseline, and at 3 months and 12 months by spirometer-triggered HRCT and spirometry. Outcome variables were percentage of predicted FVC, FEV1, and forced expiratory flow, midexpiratory phase (FEF(25-75%)); total and subcomponent visual HRCT scores; and quantitative air trapping measurements derived from chest HRCT images.At baseline, there were no statistical differences between groups in any of the variables used as an outcome. After 3 months of treatment, both groups had improvements in percentage of predicted FEV1 and FEF(25-75%), and total HRCT visual scores. In contrast, the rhDNase group had a 13% decrease in quantitative air trapping from baseline (severe air trapping [A3]), compared to an increase of 48% in the placebo group (p = 0.023). After 12 months, both groups had declines in percentage of predicted FVC and FEV1, but the rhDNase group retained improvements in percentage of predicted FEF(25-75%) and quantitative air trapping. The mucus plugging and total HRCT visual scores were also improved in the rhDNase group after 12 months of treatment, with and without significant differences between groups (p = 0.026 and p = 0.676). Quantitative air trapping (A3) remained improved in the rhDNase group (- 15.4%) and worsened in the placebo group (+61.3%) with nearly significant differences noted between groups (p = 0.053) after 12 months of treatment.Quantitative air trapping is a more consistent sensitive outcome measure than either spirometry or total HRCT scores, and can discriminate differences in treatment effects in children with minimal CF lung disease.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000232679400063

    View details for PubMedID 16236891

  • Sputum cathelicidin, urokinase plasminogen activation system components, and cytokines discriminate cystic fibrosis, COPD, and asthma inflammation CHEST Xiao, W., Hsu, Y. P., Ishizaka, A., Kirikae, T., Moss, R. B. 2005; 128 (4): 2316-2326


    Interest in airways inflammatory disease has increasingly focused on innate immunity. We investigated several components of innate immunity in induced sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), COPD, and asthma, and healthy control subjects.Twenty eight patients with mild CF lung disease (age > or = 12 years; FEV1, 74 +/- 3% predicted [mean +/- SE]), 74 adults with COPD (FEV1, 55 +/- 2% of predicted), 34 adults with persistent asthma (FEV1, 66 +/- 2% of predicted), and 44 adult control subjects (FEV1, 85 +/- 1% of predicted) were studied while in stable clinical condition. Levels of sputum interleukin (IL)-8, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, human cationic antimicrobial protein 18 (CAP18), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), uPA receptor (uPAR), and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 were determined. Cell sources were investigated by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Spirometry was performed prior to sputum induction.CF patient sputum showed greatest increase in IL-8 compared to that of patients with COPD and asthma (which were also greater than control subjects), and elevated levels of TNF-alpha and IL-10 compared to other groups. There were no differences in IFN-gamma. CAP18 levels were elevated in CF and COPD patients compared to control subjects, while asthma patients had reduced CAP18 levels. uPA levels were similar but uPAR was elevated in CF and COPD patients more so than in asthma patients, while PAI-1 levels were elevated in all three disease groups. CAP18 localized to neutrophil secondary granules; neutrophils were also sources of IL-8 and PAI-1. CAP18 and PAI-1 negatively correlated with pulmonary function.Induced-sputum innate immune factor levels discriminate inflammatory changes in CF, COPD, and asthma, suggesting potential roles in pathophysiology and as well as providing disease-specific biomarker patterns.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000232679400062

    View details for PubMedID 16236890

  • Pathophysiology and immunology of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis Advances Against Aspergillosis Conference Moss, R. B. INFORMA HEALTHCARE. 2005: S203–S206


    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a complication of persistent asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF), diseases in part characterized by excessive viscous mucus and compromised mucociliary clearance. Inhaled conidia of Aspergillus fumigatus are able to persist and germinate, releasing exoproteases and other fungal products that further compromise clearance, breach the epithelium, and activate immune responses. Chemotactic cytokines (e.g. IL-8, RANTES, eotaxin) in particular have been implicated in murine models. Chemokine-mediated recruitment of CD4+TH2 lymphocytes specific for A. fumigatus is a crucial feature of ABPA. Susceptibility also appears to involve immunogenetic factors including atopy and defined major histocompatibility complex-restricted allelic expression on antigen-presenting cells that are permissive for a TH2-predominant immune response. Certain A. fumigatus allergens appear more associated with ABPA rather than simple A. fumigatus allergy. ABPA is characterized by marked local and systemic eosinophilia, an adaptive immune response with elevated levels of A. fumigatus-specific IgG, IgA and IgE antibodies, and a profound nonspecific IL-4-dependent elevation in total IgE. Clinically, ABPA manifests with recurring episodes of asthma, pulmonary infiltrates, and central bronchiectasis that may progress to fibrosis. It is treated with systemic glucocorticoids and azoles. Monitoring clinical, radiographic and serologic responses (especially total IgE) is essential for successful management.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/13693780500052255

    View details for Web of Science ID 000230896300033

    View details for PubMedID 16110813

  • Fungal allergy in cystic fibrosis Kurup VS, Ed. Mold Allergy, Biology and Pathogenesis. Research Signpost. Moss RB 2005; 37/661 (2): 93-104
  • Aspergillus antigens and immunodiagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. In Kurup VS, Ed. Mold Allergy, Biology and Pathogenesis. Research Signpost. Kurup VP, Knutsen AP, Moss RB. 2005; 37/661 (2): 137-146
  • Fully automated system for three-dimensional bronchial morphology analysis using volumetric multidetector computed tomography of the chest J Digital Imaging Venkatraman R, Raman R, Raman B, Moss RB, Rubin GD, Mathers LH, Robinson TE 2005: Dec 13 Epub
  • Novel contributions to the Asian CFTR mutation spectrum: genotype and phenotype in Thai patients with cystic fibrosis. Am J Med Genet Schrijver I, Karnsakul W, Ramalingam S, Sankaran R, Moss R, Gardner P 2005; 133: 103-5.
  • Diagnostic testing by comprehensive mutation analysis in a large group of Hispanics: novel mutations and assessment of a population-specific mutation spectrum J Molec Diagnostics Schrijver I, Ramalingam S, Sankaran R, Swanson S, Dunlop CLM, Keiles S, Wassman EF, Moss R, Oehlert J, Gardner P, Kammesheidt. 2005; 7 (2): 289-99
  • Sputum cathelicidin, plasmin activation system components and cytokine patterns discriminate cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma from each other and healthy subjects Chest Xiao W, Hsu YP, Ishizaka A, Kirikae, Moss RB 2005; 28: 2316-2326
  • Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating study of aerosolized interferon gamma-1b in patients with mild to moderate cystic fibrosis lung disease. Pediatr Pulmonol Moss RB., Mayer-Hamblett N, Wagener J, Daines C, Hale K, Ahrens R, Gibson RL, Anderson P, Retsch-Bogart G, Nasr SZ, Noth I, Waltz D, Zeitlin P, Ramsey B, Starko K. 2005; 39 (3): 209-18
  • Quantitative air-trapping analysis in children with mild cystic fibrosis lung disease PEDIATRIC PULMONOLOGY Bonnel, A. S., Song, S. M., Kesavarju, K., Newaskar, M., Paxton, C. J., Bloch, D. A., Moss, R. B., Robinson, T. E. 2004; 38 (5): 396-405


    The purpose of this study was to compare quantitative computed tomography air trapping (AT) and pulmonary function measurements between subjects with mild cystic fibrosis lung disease (MCF; forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) > 70% predicted) and normal age-matched controls. Quantitative AT measurements at different levels of expiration were evaluated. Ten subjects from the MCF group and 10 normal subjects underwent inspiratory and expiratory spirometer-triggered chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function tests. Six matched CT images were obtained at full inflation and at a lung volume near residual volume (nRV). Quantitative measurements of AT were determined by evaluating expiratory CT lung density and by the percent of segmented lung which demonstrated AT on expiratory scans. Percent AT was evaluated for all lung slices combined (global AT), and also by regional assessment. Additional comparisons of lung density and percent air trapping were made in 10 CF subjects with three matched axial HRCT images at lung volumes corresponding to full inflation, near functional residual capacity (nFRC), and nRV. All measurements of expiratory lung density in CF subjects were significantly lower and % AT significantly higher than normal controls. Significant correlations for all subjects were observed between % global AT and RV/TLC as well as forced expiratory flow between 25-75% of forced vital capacity (FEF(25-75)) % predicted. Pulmonary density measurements and % AT better discriminated differences between groups than PFTs. Measurements made on expiratory scans near FRC showed significantly higher values for AT than those made near RV.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ppul.20091

    View details for Web of Science ID 000224625500004

    View details for PubMedID 15390349

  • Lymphocytes in cystic fibrosis lung disease: a tale of two immunities CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL IMMUNOLOGY Moss, R. B. 2004; 135 (3): 358-360
  • Repeated adeno-associated virus serotype 2 aerosol-mediated cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene transfer to the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis - A multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial CHEST Moss, R. B., Rochman, D., Spencer, L. T., Aitken, M. L., Zeitlhi, P. L., Waltz, D., Milla, C., Brody, A. S., Clancy, J. P., Ramsey, B., Hamblett, N., Heald, A. E. 2004; 125 (2): 509-521


    The primary objective was to determine the safety and tolerability of repeated doses of aerosolized adeno-associated serotype 2 vector containing cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) complementary DNA (cDNA) [tgAAVCF], an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector encoding the complete human CFTR cDNA. Secondary objectives included evaluation of pulmonary function assessed by spirometry, lung abnormalities by high-resolution CT (HRCT), airway cytokines, vector shedding, serum neutralizing antibody to AAV serotype 2 (AAV2), and gene transfer and expression in a subset of subjects undergoing bronchoscopy with bronchial brushings.Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase II trial.Eight cystic fibrosis (CF) centers in the United States.CF patients with mild lung disease, defined as FEV(1) > or =60% predicted.Subjects were randomized to inhale three aerosolized doses of 1 x 10(13) deoxyribonuclease-resistant particles of tgAAVCF or matching placebo at 30-day intervals using the Pari LC Plus nebulizer (PARI; Richmond, VA). Measurements and results: Of 42 subjects randomized, 20 subjects received at least one dose of tgAAVCF and 17 subjects received placebo. No difference in the pattern of adverse events or laboratory abnormalities was noted between the two treatment groups. Improvements in induced-sputum interleukin-8 (p = 0.03) and FEV(1) (p = 0.04) were observed at day 14 and day 30, respectively, in the group receiving tgAAVCF when compared to those receiving placebo. No significant differences in HRCT scans were noted. Vector shedding in sputum was observed at low levels up to 90 days after the third dose of vector. All subjects receiving tgAAVCF exhibited an increase (by at least fourfold) in serum AAV2-neutralizing antibodies and detectable levels in BAL fluid from five of six treated subjects undergoing BAL. Gene transfer but not gene expression was detected in a subset of six tgAAVCF subjects who underwent bronchoscopy.Repeat doses of aerosolized tgAAVCF were safe and well tolerated, and resulted in encouraging trends in improvement in pulmonary function in patients with CF and mild lung disease.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000188978400026

    View details for PubMedID 14769732

  • Cystic Fibrosis: Treatment Practice Guidelines Pocket Guide. Professional Resources in Management Education, Inc Bloch EA, Germana J, Konstan M, Kuhn R, Llewellyn A, Moss R, Nickerson B, Rinker K, Sufian BS, VanDevanter D, Wagener J 2004
  • Inhalational antibiotics for airways infection Experimental Lung Research Moss RB 2004; 30 (Suppl 1): 58-61
  • Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis with normal serum IgE in a child with cystic fibrosis Ped Asthma Allergy Immunol Dorsaneo D, Borowitz D, Sharp J, Moss R 2004; 17: 146-150
  • Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in cystic fibrosis - State of the art: Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Consensus Conference CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES Stevens, D. A., Moss, R. B., Kurup, V. P., Knutsen, A. P., Greenberger, P., Judson, M. A., Denning, D. W., Crameri, R., Brody, A. S., Light, M., Skov, M., Maish, W., Mastella, G. 2003; 37: S225-S264


    Because of the difficulties of recognizing allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in the context of cystic fibrosis (because of overlapping clinical, radiographic, microbiologic, and immunologic features), advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic aspergillosis, new possibilities in therapy, and the need for agreed-upon definitions, an international consensus conference was convened. Areas addressed included fungal biology, immunopathogenesis, insights from animal models, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, the use of new immunologic and genetic techniques in diagnosis, imaging modalities, pharmacology, and treatment approaches. Evidence from the existing literature was graded, and the consensus views were synthesized into this document and recirculated for affirmation. Virulence factors in Aspergillus that could aggravate these diseases, and particularly immunogenetic factors that could predispose persons to ABPA, were identified. New information has come from transgenic animals and recombinant fungal and host molecules. Diagnostic criteria that could provide a framework for monitoring were adopted, and helpful imaging features were identified. New possibilities in therapy produced plans for managing diverse clinical presentations.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000186262900004

    View details for PubMedID 12975753

  • Advances against aspergillosis CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES Steinbach, W. J., Stevens, D. A., Denning, D. W., Moss, R. B. 2003; 37: S155-S156

    View details for Web of Science ID 000186262900001

    View details for PubMedID 12975750

  • Composite spirometric-computed tomography outcome measure in early cystic fibrosis lung disease AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Robinson, T. E., Leung, A. N., Northway, W. H., Blankenberg, F. G., Chan, F. P., Bloch, D. A., Holmes, T. H., Moss, R. B. 2003; 168 (5): 588-593


    With the advent of therapies aimed at young patients with cystic fibrosis, who have mildly reduced pulmonary function, the need for improved outcome measures that discriminate treatment effects has become important. Pulmonary function measurements or chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scores have been separately used to assess interventions. We evaluated these modalities separately and together during a treatment study to develop a more sensitive outcome measure. In a 1-year trial, 25 children randomized either to daily Pulmozyme or to normal saline aerosol were evaluated at randomization and at 3 and 12 months. Outcome variables were pulmonary function test (PFT) results, a global HRCT score, and a composite score incorporating PFTs and HRCT scoring. Regression analyses with generalized estimating equations permitted estimation of the difference in treatment effect between groups over time for each outcome. The largest difference in treatment effects observed at 12 months, measured by the percentage change from baseline, were with the composite total and maximal CT/PFT scores (35.4 and 30.4%), compared with mean forced expiratory flow during the middle half of the FVC (FEF25-75%) (13.0%) and total and maximal global HRCT scores (6.2%, 7.2%). The composite total and maximal CT/PFT scores were the most sensitive outcome measures for discriminating a treatment effect in children with cystic fibrosis with normal or mildly reduced pulmonary function during a 1-year trial of Pulmozyme.

    View details for DOI 10.1164/rccm.200209-1093OC

    View details for Web of Science ID 000185039000015

    View details for PubMedID 12746252

  • Significant microbiological effect of inhaled tobramycin in young children with cystic fibrosis AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Gibson, R. L., Emerson, J., McNamara, S., Burns, L. L., Rosenfeld, M., Yunker, A., Hamblett, N., Accurso, F., Dovey, M., Hiatt, P., Konstan, M. W., Moss, R., Retsch-Bogart, G., Wagener, J., Waltz, D., Wilmott, R., Zeitlin, P. L., Ramsey, B. 2003; 167 (6): 841-849


    We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, randomized trial to test the hypothesis that 300 mg of tobramycin solution for inhalation administered twice daily for 28 days would be safe and result in a profound decrease in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) density from the lower airway of young children with cystic fibrosis. Ninety-eight subjects were to be randomized; however, the trial was stopped early because of evidence of a significant microbiological treatment effect. Twenty-one children under age 6 years were randomized (8 active; 13 placebo) and underwent bronchoalveolar lavage at baseline and on Day 28. There was a significant difference between treatment groups in the reduction in Pa density; no Pa was detected on Day 28 in 8 of 8 active group patients compared with 1 of 13 placebo group patients. We observed no differences between treatment groups for clinical indices, markers of inflammation, or incidence of adverse events. No abnormalities in serum creatinine or audiometry and no episodes of significant bronchospasm were observed in association with active treatment. We conclude that 28 days of tobramycin solution for inhalation of 300 mg twice daily is safe and effective for significant reduction of lower airway Pa density in young children with cystic fibrosis.

    View details for DOI 10.1164/rccm.200208-855OC

    View details for Web of Science ID 000181439100008

    View details for PubMedID 12480612

  • AAV-CFTR gene therapy for cystic fibrosis: retrospect and prospect Pediatr Pulmonol Carter BJ, Munson K, Burstein H, Peluso R, Gerard C, Guggino W, Engelhardt J, Flotte T, Moss R 2003; Suppl 25: 159-60
  • Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Consensus Conference recommendations on diagnosis and treatment of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in cystic fibrosis: executive summary CFF Consensus Conferences Moss RB, Stevens DA 2003; X Sect 3
  • AAV-CFTR gene therapy for cystic fibrosis: retrospect and prospect. Pediatric Pulmonology Carter BJ, Munson K, Burstein H, Peluso R, Gerard C, Guggino W, Engelhardt J, Flotte T, Moss R. 2003; Suppl 25: 159-160
  • Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis CLINICAL REVIEWS IN ALLERGY & IMMUNOLOGY Moss, R. B. 2002; 23 (1): 87-104


    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a common complication of cystic fibrosis (CF), occurring in approximately 10% of patients and accompanying/accounting for approximately 10% of pulmonary exacerbations. ABPA pathogenesis is dependent upon impaired clearance and dense respiratory epithelial exposure to A fumigatus (Af) spores with subsequent chemotactic recruitment of CD4+ Th2 lymphocytes specific for Af to lung tissue. Susceptibility to ABPA appears to involve risk factors including atopy and defined major histocompatibility complex-restricted alleles. Distinct cytoplasmic Af molecules (Af2, 4, and 6), now available as recombinant allergen reagents, appear to be associated with ABPA. Minimal criteria for diagnosis of ABPA in CF include clinical deterioration, elevated total serum IgE, positive immediate Af skin test or serum IgE antibodies, and Af serum precipitins/IgG antibodies or radiographic changes. Annual screening of total serum IgE is recommended from age 6 yr. Systemic glucocorticosteroids remain the mainstay of treatment. Itraconazole has an established role as a steroid-sparing agent if the patient has a slow or poor response to steroids, relapses, or is at risk for or develops steroid toxicity. Monitoring of clinical, radiographic and laboratory responses (especially total serum IgE) is essential.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000176913200007

    View details for PubMedID 12162109

  • A phase II, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of tgAAVCF using maxillary sinus delivery in patients with cystic fibrosis with antrostomies HUMAN GENE THERAPY Wagner, J. A., Nepomuceno, I. B., Messner, A. H., Moran, M. L., Batson, E. P., DiMiceli, S., Brown, B. W., Desch, J. K., Norbash, A. M., Conrad, C. K., Guggino, W. B., Flotte, T. R., Wine, J. J., Carter, B. J., Reynolds, T. C., Moss, R. B., Gardner, P. 2002; 13 (11): 1349-1359


    tgAAVCF, an adeno-associated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) viral vector/gene construct, was administered to 23 patients in a Phase II, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. For each patient, a dose of 100,000 replication units of tgAAVCF was administered to one maxillary sinus, while the contralateral maxillary sinus received a placebo treatment, thereby establishing an inpatient control. Neither the primary efficacy endpoint, defined as the rate of relapse of clinically defined, endoscopically diagnosed recurrent sinusitis, nor several secondary endpoints (sinus transepithelial potential difference [TEPD], histopathology, sinus fluid interleukin [IL]-8 measurements) achieved statistical significance when comparing treated to control sinuses within patients. One secondary endpoint, measurements of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in sinus fluid, was significantly (p < 0.03) increased in the tgAAVCF-treated sinus relative to the placebo-treated sinus at day 90 after vector instillation. The tgAAVCF administration was well tolerated, without adverse respiratory events, and there was no evidence of enhanced inflammation in sinus histopathology or alterations in serum-neutralizing antibody titer to adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsid protein after vector administration. In summary, this Phase II trial confirms the safety of tgAAVCF but provides little support of its efficacy in the within-patient controlled sinus study. Various potentially confounding factors are discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000177015400009

    View details for PubMedID 12162817

  • Long-term benefits of inhaled tobramycin in adolescent patients with cystic fibrosis 13th North American Cystic Fibrosis Conference Moss, R. B. AMER COLL CHEST PHYSICIANS. 2002: 55–63


    To determine the effect of long-term suppression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on lung function and other clinical end points in adolescent patients with cystic fibrosis (CF).Two identical, randomized, placebo-controlled trials followed by three open-label follow-on trials.Sixty-nine CF study centers in the United States.Active drug consisting of a 300-mg tobramycin solution for inhalation (TSI).One hundred twenty-eight adolescent CF patients (aged 13 to 17 years) with P aeruginosa and mild-to-moderate lung disease (FEV(1) percent predicted > or = 25% and < or = 75%).Pulmonary function, P aeruginosa colony forming unit density, incidence of hospitalization and IV antibiotic use, weight gain, and aminoglycoside toxicity were monitored.At the end of the first three 28-day cycles of TSI treatment, patients originally randomized to TSI and placebo treatments exhibited improvements in FEV(1) percent predicted of 13.5% and 9.4%, respectively. FEV(1) percent predicted was maintained above the value at initiation of TSI treatment in both groups. At the end of the last "on-drug" period (92 weeks), patients originally randomized to TSI and placebo treatments showed improvements of 14.3% and 1.8%, respectively. Improvement in pulmonary function was significantly correlated with reduction in P aeruginosa colony forming unit density (p = 0.0001). The average number of hospitalizations and IV antibiotic courses did not increase over time. TSI treatment was associated with increased weight gain and body mass index. P aeruginosa susceptibility to tobramycin decreased slightly over time, but this was not correlated with clinical response.TSI treatment improved pulmonary function and weight gain in adolescent patients with CF over a 2-year period of long-term, intermittent use.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000173431400014

    View details for PubMedID 11796432

  • A phase I study of aerosolized administration of tgAAVCF to cystic fibrosis subjects with mild lung disease HUMAN GENE THERAPY Aitken, M. L., Moss, R. B., Waltz, D. A., Dovey, M. E., Tonelli, M. R., McNamara, S. C., Gibson, R. L., Ramsey, B. W., Carter, B. J., Reynolds, T. C. 2001; 12 (15): 1907-1916


    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common autosomal recessive disorders in North America, leading to significant morbidity and early mortality. The defect in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR) function can be corrected in vitro by gene replacement with a wild-type gene. A Phase I, single administration, dose escalation trial was designed and executed to assess safety and delivery of tgAAVCF, an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector encoding the human CFTR cDNA, by nebulization to the lungs of CF subjects. Four cohorts of three subjects each were administered increasing doses of the study agent, beginning with 10(10) DNase-resistant particles (DRP) and escalating in log increments up to 10(13) DRP. Sequential bronchoscopies were performed to gather analytical samples throughout the study. All 12 subjects completed the study. There were a total of 242 adverse events (AEs), six of which were defined as serious and three of which were defined as possibly being related to the study drug. A clear dose-response relationship was observed in vector gene transfer. A maximum of 0.6 and 0.1 vector copies per brushed cell were observed 14 days and 30 days, respectively, following nebulization of 10(13) DRP tgAAVCF, and this declined to nearly undetectable levels by day 90. Vector gene transfer was evenly distributed throughout the fourth airway generation following single-dose administration. RNA-specific PCR did not detect vector-derived mRNA. This Phase I trial shows that aerosolized tgAAVCF is safe and widely delivered to the proximal airways of CF subjects by nebulization.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000171398700007

    View details for PubMedID 11589832

  • Administration of aerosolized antibiotics in cystic fibrosis patients CHEST Moss, R. B. 2001; 120 (3): 107S-113S


    High rates of colonization and the challenge of managing Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have necessitated a search for safe and effective antibiotics. Currently, therapy with an aminoglycoside in combination with a beta-lactam or a quinolone antibiotic is the standard. Unfortunately, it is difficult to deliver high doses of these antibiotics via the IV route without significant systemic adverse events (AEs) (eg, ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity). Recently, a reformulation of the aminoglycoside antibiotic tobramycin has become available in a preservative-free, pH-adjusted solution for inhalation by jet nebulizer. A 96-week series of clinical studies including 520 patients, aged > or = 6 years, with moderate-to-severe CF has evaluated the long-term safety and effectiveness of this formulation. Patients received tobramycin solution for inhalation (TSI) or placebo, which was administered in alternating cycles of 28-days-on and 28-days-off therapy, plus their usual CF care for 6 months with open-label follow-up extended to 2 years. Most AEs declined in frequency with increasing TSI exposure. Patients receiving TSI spent 25 to 33% fewer days in the hospital. Following the initiation of TSI treatment, patients experienced significant increases in FEV(1). FEV(1) values were maintained above baseline for the duration of the study series. Antibiotic susceptibility of the bacterial isolates did not predict clinical response. TSI was safe, well-tolerated, and effective for long-term treatment (96 weeks) of P aeruginosa colonization and infection in CF patients.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000171037700005

    View details for PubMedID 11555564

  • Abstract

    To evaluate a high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scoring system, clinical parameters, and pulmonary function measurements in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) before and after therapy for a pulmonary exacerbation.Patients (n = 17) were evaluated by spirometer-triggered HRCT imaging, clinical parameters, and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) before and after treatment. HRCT scans were reviewed by 3 radiologists using a modified Bhalla scoring system.Bronchiectasis, bronchial wall thickening, and air trapping were identified in all subjects on initial evaluation. The initial total HRCT score correlated significantly with the Brasfield score (r = -.91, P <.001) and several PFT measures. After treatment, there were improvements in the acute change clinical score (ACCS) (P <.001), most pulmonary function measurements, and total HRCT score (P <.05). Bronchiectasis, bronchial wall thickening, and air trapping did not significantly change. Mucus plugging subcomponent HRCT score, slow vital capacity (SVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)), and forced vital capacity (FVC) (percent predicted) and reversible and total HRCT scores were most sensitive to change by effect size analysis.Improvements occurred with treatment in total and reversible HRCT scores, PFTs, and ACCS. Total and reversible HRCT scores and percent predicted SVC, FEV1, and FVC were the most sensitive to change. The greatest change was seen in the mucus plugging subcomponent HRCT score.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000168175400024

    View details for PubMedID 11295720

  • Comprehensive mutation screening in a cystic fibrosis center PEDIATRICS Wine, J. J., Kuo, E., Hurlock, G., Moss, R. B. 2001; 107 (2): 280-286


    The identities of a cystic fibrosis (CF) patient's CFTR mutations can influence therapeutic strategies, but because >800 CFTR mutations exist, cost-effective, comprehensive screening requires a multistage approach. Single-strand conformation polymorphism and heteroduplex analysis (SSCP/HA) can be an important part of mutation detection, but must be calibrated within each laboratory. The sensitivity of a combined commercial-SSCP/HA approach to genotyping in a large, ethnically diverse US center CF population has not been established.We screened all 27 CFTR exons in 10 human participants who had an unequivocal CF diagnosis including a positive sweat chloride test and at least 1 unknown allele after commercial testing for the 70 most common mutations by SSCP/HA. These participants were compared with 7 participants who had negative sweat tests but at least 1 other CF-like symptom meriting complete genotyping.For the 10 CF participants, we detected 11 of 16 unknown alleles (69%) and all 4 of the known alleles (100%), for an overall rate of 75% inpatients not fully genotyped by conventional 70 mutation screen. For 7 participants with negative sweat tests, we confirmed 1 identified mutation in 14 alleles and detected 3 additional mutations. Mutations detected in both groups included 7 missense mutations (S13F, P67L, G98R, S492F, G970D, L1093P, N1303K) and 9 deletion, frameshift, nonsense or splicing mutations (R75X, G542X, DeltaF508, 451-458Delta8 bp, 5T, 663DeltaT, exon 13 frameshift, 1261+1G-->A and 3272-26A-->G). Three of these mutations were novel (G970D, L1093P, and 451-458Delta8 bp(1)). Thirteen other changes were detected, including the novel changes 1812-3 ins T, 4096-278 ins T, 4096-265 ins TG, and 4096-180 T-->G.When combined with the 70 mutation Genzyme test, SSCP/HA analysis allows for detection of >95% of the mutations in an ethnically heterogeneous CF center population. We discuss 5 possible explanations that could account for the few remaining undetected mutations.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000166714000025

    View details for PubMedID 11158459

  • New approaches to cystic fibrosis HOSPITAL PRACTICE Moss, R. B. 2001; 36 (1): 25-?

    View details for Web of Science ID 000166315000003

    View details for PubMedID 11197941

  • Cystic fibrosis: new insights and treatments Hospital Practice, online at Moss RB 2001: 25-37
  • Cystic fibrosis: new insights and treatments Hospital Practice Moss RB 2001; 36: 25-37
  • Cytokine dysregulation in activated cystic fibrosis (CF) peripheral lymphocytes CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL IMMUNOLOGY Moss, R. B., Hsu, Y. P., Olds, L. 2000; 120 (3): 518-525


    Recent studies demonstrate in vivo and in vitro cytokine dysregulation in CF epithelial cells. To see if these abnormalities may be generalized to other cells expressing cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) but not directly exposed to local inflammation, we studied mRNA transcription, intracellular protein production and extracellular secretion of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) from freshly isolated blood mononuclear and CD4+ T cells from CF patients and controls. Cells were activated by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and anti-CD3, PMA-ionomycin, or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and assessed for cytokine mRNA transcription by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, intracellular protein production by flow cytometry, and secretion by supernatant ELISA. Cytokine expression was highly stimulus-dependent. CF cells showed higher IL-10 transcription than control cells after maximal activation by LPS (P = 0.01); despite this, cytokine production and secretion were equivalent to controls. CF cells showed lower cellular IL-10 production after PMA-anti-CD3 activation (P = 0.002). CF cells secreted less IFN-gamma than control cells after maximal activation by PMA-anti-CD3 (1836 +/- 273 pg/ml versus 9635 +/- 3437 pg/ml, P = 0.04). IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5 regulation was similar to controls. We conclude that CF mononuclear cells show selective cytokine dysregulation after maximal activation, namely reduced IFN-gamma secretion and increased IL-10 mRNA without increased production or secretion. These findings extend defects described in respiratory epithelial cells to circulating immunoregulatory cells, suggesting a link between CF genotype and cytokine dysregulation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000087554900018

    View details for PubMedID 10844532

  • Pulmonary sequelae of bronchopulmonary dysplasia survivors: High-resolution CT findings AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY Howling, S. J., Northway, W. H., Hansell, D. M., Moss, R. B., Ward, S., Muller, N. L. 2000; 174 (5): 1323-1326


    OBJECTIVE. We examined the high-resolution CT findings of adult survivors of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. CONCLUSION. The cardinal CT features of bronchopulmonary dysplasia survivors include multifocal areas of reduced lung attenuation and perfusion, bronchial wall thickening, and decreased bronchus-to-pulmonary artery diameter ratios.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000086649700027

    View details for PubMedID 10789786

  • Novel Cystic Fibrosis mutation L1093P: functional analysis and possible Native American origin. Human mutation Yee, K., Robinson, C., Hurlock, G., Moss, R. B., Wine, J. J. 2000; 15 (2): 208-?


    A novel mutation was detected using single-strand conformation polymorphism and heteroduplex analysis in a cystic fibrosis subject of mixed ancestry. Mutation 3410T-->C in exon 17b caused the novel missense mutation L1093P; the other chromosome has mutation N1303K. The 31-year-old subject is pancreatic insufficient, had an FEV(1) score that was 33% of normal prior to a heart/lung transplant, and sweat chloride values of 116 and 95 mM when tested at ages 1 and 11. Functional analysis using forskolin-stimulated efflux of (125)I in HEK cells transfected with an ABCC7 construct harboring the L1093P mutation confirmed that cAMP-mediated anion efflux was abnormal, but some function was preserved. Analysis of parental DNA established that N1303K was of English origin, while L1093P was of Greek, Irish or Native American (Cherokee) origin. Given the intensive screening for CF mutations in European populations, we hypothesize that L1093P is of Native American origin. Hum Mutat 15:208, 2000.

    View details for PubMedID 10649505

  • Anti-arthropod saliva antibodies among residents of a community at high risk for Lyme disease in California AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE Lane, R. S., Moss, R. B., Hsu, Y. P., Wei, T., Mesirow, M. L., Kuo, M. M. 1999; 61 (5): 850-859


    The role of the western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus) versus that of other potential arthropod vectors in the epidemiology of Lyme disease was evaluated by determining the prevalence of anti-arthropod saliva antibodies (AASA) among residents (n = 104) of a community at high-risk (CHR). Salivary gland extracts prepared from I. pacificus, the Pacific Coast tick (Dermacentor occidentalis), the western cone-nose bug (Triatoma protracta), and the western tree-hole mosquito (Aedes sierrensis) were used as antigens in an ELISA. Sera from 50 residents of the San Francisco Bay region in northern California and 51 residents of Imperial County in southern California served as comparison groups. The prevalence of AASA ranged from 2% for A. sierrensis to 79% for I. pacificus in study subjects, 0% for D. occidentalis to 36% for I. pacificus among residents of the San Francisco Bay region, and 6% for I. pacificus to 24% for A. sierrensis in residents of Imperial County. The associations between AASA and demographic factors, potential risk factors, probable Lyme disease, and seropositivity for Borrelia burgdorferi were assessed for 85 members of the CHR. Seropositivity for I. pacificus and B. burgdorferi were significantly correlated, the relative risk of seropositivity to B. burgdorferi was about 5 (31% versus 6%) for subjects who were seroreactive to I. pacificus, nearly every individual who was seropositive for B. burgdorferi had elevated levels of antibodies to I. pacificus, and the mean titer for antibodies to I. pacificus was significantly higher for subjects seropositive versus those seronegative for B. burgdorferi. Together, these findings support the widely held belief that I. pacificus is the primary vector of B. burgdorferi for humans in northern California, and they demonstrate the utility of the AASA method as an epidemiologic tool for studying emerging tick-borne infections.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000083894300031

    View details for PubMedID 10586924

  • Defective function of the cystic fibrosis-causing missense mutation G551D is recovered by genistein AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-CELL PHYSIOLOGY Illek, B., Zhang, L., Lewis, N. C., Moss, R. B., Dong, J. Y., Fischer, H. 1999; 277 (4): C833-C839


    The patch-clamp technique was used to investigate the effects of the isoflavone genistein on disease-causing mutations (G551D and DeltaF508) of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). In HeLa cells recombinantly expressing the trafficking-competent G551D-CFTR, the forskolin-stimulated Cl currents were small, and average open probability of G551D-CFTR was P(o) = 0.047 +/- 0.019. Addition of genistein activated Cl currents approximately 10-fold, and the P(o) of G551D-CFTR increased to 0.49 +/- 0.12, which is a P(o) similar to wild-type CFTR. In cystic fibrosis (CF) epithelial cells homozygous for the trafficking-impaired DeltaF508 mutation, forskolin and genistein activated Cl currents only after 4-phenylbutyrate treatment. These data suggested that genistein activated CFTR mutants that were present in the cell membrane. Therefore, we tested the effects of genistein in CF patients with the G551D mutation in nasal potential difference (PD) measurements in vivo. The perfusion of the nasal mucosa of G551D CF patients with isoproterenol had no effect; however, genistein stimulated Cl-dependent nasal PD by, on average, -2.4 +/- 0.6 mV, which corresponds to 16.9% of the responses (to beta-adrenergic stimulation) found in healthy subjects.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000083919100026

    View details for PubMedID 10516113

  • Standardized high-resolution CT of the lung using a spirometer-triggered electron beam CT scanner AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY Robinson, T. E., Leung, A. N., Moss, R. B., Blankenberg, F. G., Al-Dabbagh, H., Northway, W. H. 1999; 172 (6): 1636-1638

    View details for Web of Science ID 000080427900034

    View details for PubMedID 10350305

  • Two novel mutations in a cystic fibrosis patient of Chinese origin HUMAN GENETICS Wagner, J. A., Vassilakis, A., Yee, K., Li, M., Hurlock, G., Krouse, M. E., Moss, R. B., Wine, J. J. 1999; 104 (6): 511-515


    Cystic fibrosis is rare in non-Caucasian populations, and in such populations little is known about the spectrum of mutations and polymorphisms in the CFTR gene. We studied a 23-year-old patient of Chinese ethnicity with sweat chloride values of 104 mM/l, pancreatic sufficiency, an FEV1 60% of normal, sputum cultures positive for Staphylococcus aureus and Burkholderia cepacia, and a history of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Genetic screening for 31 common CFTR mutations was negative, leading us to search for unknown mutations using single-strand conformation polymorphism and heteroduplex analysis (SSCP/HA). Two novel mutations were detected. In exon 4, a deletion of 8 bp (451458, deltaGCTTCCTA) causes a frameshift and immediately creates a stop codon. In exon 16, mutation 3041G-->A causes the missense change G970D. Functional analysis using an isotopic flux assay indicated that the G970D mutation retains partial function; western blotting indicated that the protein is glycosylated. The patient is heterozygous for the common polymorphisms (2694T/G) in exon 14a and (GATT)6/7 in intron 6a, indicating that these variants arose in ancestors common to Caucasians and Chinese.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000081854000012

    View details for PubMedID 10453741

  • Comparison of a beta-lactam alone versus beta-lactam and an aminoglycoside for pulmonary exacerbation in cystic fibrosis JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Smith, A. L., Doershuk, C., Goldmann, D., Gore, E., Hilman, B., Marks, M., Moss, R., Ramsey, B., Redding, G., Rubio, T., Williams-Warren, J., Wilmott, R., Wilson, H. D., YOGEV, R. 1999; 134 (4): 413-421


    We determined whether a beta-lactam and an aminoglycoside have efficacy greater than a beta-lactam alone in the management of a pulmonary exacerbation in patients with cystic fibrosis. Study design: Azlocillin and placebo or azlocillin and tobramycin were administered to 76 patients with a pulmonary exacerbation caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a randomized double-blind, third-party monitored protocol. Improvement was assessed by standardized clinical evaluation, pulmonary function testing, sputum bacterial density, sputum DNA content, and time to the next pulmonary exacerbation requiring hospitalization.No significant difference was seen between the 2 treatment groups in clinical evaluation, sputum DNA concentration, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in second 1, or peak expiratory flow rate at the end of treatment (33 receiving azlocillin alone and 43 both antibiotics); adverse reactions were equivalent in each group. Sputum P. aeruginosa density decreased more with combination therapy (P =.034). On follow-up evaluation, an average of 26 days after the end of treatment, all outcome indicators had worsened in both groups. Time to readmission for a new pulmonary exacerbation was significantly longer in the group receiving azlocillin plus tobramycin (P <.001). Treatment-emergent tobramycin resistance occurred in both groups and was more frequent with combination therapy.We conclude that the combination of a beta-lactam and an aminoglycoside produces a longer clinical remission than a beta-lactam alone and slightly better initial improvement.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000079648400006

    View details for PubMedID 10190914

  • Safety and biological efficacy of an adeno-associated virus vector cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (AAV-CFTR) in the cystic fibrosis maxillary sinus 11th Annual North American Cystic Fibrosis Conference Wagner, J. A., Messner, A. H., Moran, M. L., DAIFUKU, R., Kouyama, K., Desch, J. K., Manley, S., Norbash, A. M., Conrad, C. K., Friborg, S., Reynolds, T., Guggino, W. B., Moss, R. B., Carter, B. J., Wine, J. J., Flotte, T. R., Gardner, P. JOHN WILEY & SONS INC. 1999: 266–74


    The host immune response and low vector efficiency have been key impediments to effective cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene transfer for cystic fibrosis (CF). An adeno-associated virus vector (AAV-CFTR) was used in a phase I dose-escalation study to transfer CFTR cDNA into respiratory epithelial cells of the maxillary sinus of 10 CF patients.A prospective, randomized, unblinded, dose-escalation, within-subjects, phase I clinical trial of AAV-CFTR was conducted.Ten patients with previous bilateral maxillary antrostomies were treated.Safety, gene transfer as measured by semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and sinus transepithelial potential difference (TEPD) were measured.The highest level of gene transfer was observed in the range of 0.1-1 AAV-CFTR vector copy per cell in biopsy specimens obtained 2 weeks after treatment. When tested, persistence was observed in one patient for 41 days and in another for 10 weeks. Dose-dependent changes in TEPD responses to pharmacologic intervention were observed following treatments. Little or no inflammatory or immune responses were observed.AAV-CFTR administration to the maxillary sinus results in successful, dose-dependent gene transfer to the maxillary sinus and alterations in sinus TEPD suggestive of a functional effect, with little or no cytopathic or host immune response. Further study is warranted for AAV vectors as they may prove useful for CFTR gene transfer and other in vivo gene transfer therapies. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects, phase II clinical trial of the effect AAV-CFTR on clinical recurrence of sinusitis will determine the clinical efficacy of AAV gene therapy for CF.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000078432500017

    View details for PubMedID 10890777

  • Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in cystic fibrosis - Role of atopy and response to itraconazole 1997 International Conference of the American-Thoracic-Society / American-Lung-Association Nepomuceno, I. B., Esrig, S., Moss, R. B. AMER COLL CHEST PHYSICIANS. 1999: 364–70


    (1) To determine the relationship between IgE levels and the prevalence of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, (2) to establish the usefulness of assessing atopy as an identifying risk factor for ABPA, (3) to evaluate the clinical course of patients receiving and not receiving itraconazole as reflected in oral steroid dose requirements and number of acute episodes of ABPA, and (4) to determine the role of acute episodes of ABPA in pulmonary exacerbations of CF.Retrospective review of online clinical database and medical records.CF clinic and inpatient services of Lucile Salter Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford.One hundred seventy-two patients with CF for whom serial serum total IgE levels were measured over a 5-year study period, 1992 to 1996.We reviewed records of patients followed up at the CF Center at Stanford who had serum total IgE measured between January 1, 1992, and December 31, 1996. Total IgE and Aspergillus fumigatus (Af) specific IgE antibodies were measured by commercial fluorometric solid-phase immunoassay. Precipitating antibodies to Af were measured by double immunodiffusion. Patients who were diagnosed as having ABPA were treated with itraconazole unless significant liver dysfunction was present. Oral steroid dosing requirements and acute episodes of ABPA for days with vs days without itraconazole were compared.Serum total IgE was elevated (> 1 SD > geometric mean for age) in 51% of patients tested. IgE > 500 IU/mL, chosen as a screening cutoff for evaluating possible ABPA, was present in 19% of patients at some time during the study period. Atopy (defined as > or = 1 IU/mL IgE antibody to > or = 1 allergen) was present in 61% of 104 patients tested for specific allergen sensitization. ABPA was diagnosed in 16 patients (9%). ABPA occurred in 22% of atopic CF patients but only in 2% of nonatopic patients (p = 0.001). Six percent of pulmonary exacerbations requiring hospitalization were associated with acute episodes of ABPA. Over the study period, itraconazole use was associated with a reduced average daily oral steroid dose of 47% (p = 0.05) and a reduction in the number of acute ABPA episodes by 55% (p < 0.001).Screening for atopy may be a cost-effective way to select CF patients for periodic monitoring with total serum IgE levels, since there is an increased risk of ABPA developing in atopic CF patients. Itraconazole treatment of ABPA is safe and associated with fewer acute episodes of ABPA despite reduction in average daily oral steroid dose.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000078556200014

    View details for PubMedID 10027433

  • Maxillary sinusitis as a surrogate model for CF gene therapy clinical trials in patients with antrostomies JOURNAL OF GENE MEDICINE Wagner, J. A., Nepomuceno, I. B., Shah, N., Messner, A. H., Moran, M. L., Norbash, A. M., Moss, R. B., Wine, J. J., Gardner, P. 1999; 1 (1): 13-21


    Assessing the biological activity and clinical efficacy of gene therapy is critically important in cystic fibrosis (CF). It is widely accepted that clinical testing using surrogate markers including pulmonary function will be useful in assessing clinical efficacy. One problem with pulmonary surrogate markers of CF disease is the large number of patients and length of time required to demonstrate clinical efficacy. An alternative to pulmonary testing of new CF treatments is use of the maxillary sinuses as a surrogate model of CF lung disease. Using CF sinusitis as a surrogate model for testing clinical efficacy of new treatments is attractive because CF upper respiratory disease is similar to the lower respiratory disease with respect to electrophysiology and microbiology.Sinusitis recurrence in untreated sinuses was analyzed during a prospective, randomized, unblinded, dose-escalation, within-subjects, phase I clinical trial of the adeno-associated virus mediated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (AAV-CFTR) gene transfer.Clinical symptoms combined with sinus endoscopy proved useful in the diagnosis of unilateral and bilateral sinusitis recurrence. Sinusitis recurred at a rate of 45% during one month of follow-up. IL-8 concentration rose in sinus fluids from affected sinuses. Bacterial cultures and increased sinus leukocytes corroborated recurrent sinusitis. Sinus CT scans were also useful in diagnosing recurrent sinusitis in this surrogate model of CF infectious exacerbations.CF sinusitis as a surrogate for lung disease is particularly well-suited for phase II clinical trials of gene transfer agents, with the potential for measuring clinical efficacy in relatively small numbers of patients over relatively short periods of time.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000083463500002

    View details for PubMedID 10738581

  • Safety and biological efficacy of an adeno-associated virus vector-cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (AAV-CFTR) in the cystic fibrosis maxillary sinus Laryngoscope Wagner JA, Moran ML, Messner AH, Diafuku R, Kouyama D, Desch JK, Manley S, Norbash AM, Conrad CK, Friborg S, Reynolds T, Guggino WB, Moss RB, Carter BJ, Wine JJ, Flotte TR, Gardner 1999; 109: 266-74
  • Chronic intermittment administration of inhaled tobramycin in patients with cystic fibrosis N Engl J Med Ramsey BW, Pepe MS, Quan JM, Otto KL, Montgomery AB, Williams-Warren J, Vasiljev M, et al for the Cystic Fibrosis Inhaled Tobramycin Study Group (member). 1999; 340: 23-30
  • BioMedNet Interview 1 Oct 1999 HMS Beagle (on-line, site closed 30 June 2004) Moss RB 1999
  • Maxillary sinusitis as a surrogate model for CF gene therapy clinical trials J Gene Med Wagner JA, Nepumuceno IB, Shah N, Messner AH, Moran ML, Norbash AM, Moss RB, Wine JJ, Gardner P 1999; 109: 13-21
  • Bone acquisition and loss in children and adults with cystic fibrosis: A longitudinal study JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Bhudhikanok, G. S., Wang, M. C., Marcus, R., Harkins, A., Moss, R. B., Bachrach, L. K. 1998; 133 (1): 18-27


    To determine patterns of bone mineral acquisition in children and young adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) and to identify clinical and laboratory correlates of change in bone mineral density (BMD).Bone mineral and clinical status were assessed in 41 patients with CF (26 female, aged 9 to 50 years) at baseline and 1.5 years later. Bone mineral content of the lumber spine, femoral neck, and whole body was determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and expressed as BMD and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD). Changes in weight, height, pubertal status, glucocorticoid use, physical activity, disease severity, and biochemical markers of bone turnover were examined for associations with changes BMD and BMAD.Mean BMD Z-scores (adjusted for age and sex) were reduced at the spine, hip, and whole body at baseline in both adults and youths, and decreased further at all sites among youths at follow-up (-0.4 at spine, p < 0.05; -0.3 at hip, p < 0.10; -0.5 for whole body, p < 0.0005). These data indicate failure to gain bone mineral at the expected rate. BMAD was also reduced at follow-up, suggesting that the observed osteopenia could not be explained by small bone size. Bone loss at multiple sites was observed in four youths and two adults. In general glucocorticoid use, change in body mass, physical activity, and disease severity were the most significant correlates for change in BMD and in BMD Z-score.Osteopenia in CF generally reflects inadequate gains in bone mineral, although bone loss may occur, particularly in patients requiring glucoc therapy. Late gains in bone mineral may accompany weight gain and pubertal development, but the catch-up appears to be incomplete.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000074728700006

    View details for PubMedID 9672505

  • Efficient and persistent gene transfer of AAV-CFTR in maxillary sinus LANCET Wagner, J. A., Reynolds, T., Moran, M. L., Moss, R. B., Wine, J. J., Flotte, T. R., Gardner, P. 1998; 351 (9117): 1702-1703

    View details for Web of Science ID 000074088900015

    View details for PubMedID 9734891

  • A phase I/II study of tgAAV-CF for the treatment of chronic sinusitis in patients with cystic fibrosis HUMAN GENE THERAPY Wagner, J. A., Moran, M. L., Messner, A. H., DAIFUKU, R., Conrad, C. K., Reynolds, T., Guggino, W. B., Moss, R. B., Carter, B. J., Wine, J. J., Flotte, T. R., Gardner, P. 1998; 9 (6): 889-909

    View details for Web of Science ID 000073201700014

    View details for PubMedID 9581911

  • A mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene associated with elevated sweat chloride concentrations in the absence of cystic fibrosis HUMAN MOLECULAR GENETICS Mickle, J. E., Macek, M., Fulmer-Smentek, S. B., Egan, M. M., Schwiebert, E., Guggino, W., Moss, R., Cutting, G. R. 1998; 7 (4): 729-735


    Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) have been shown to cause cystic fibrosis (CF) and male infertility due to congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens. We report the identification of a 6.8 kb deletion (del14a) and a nonsense mutation (S1455X) in the CFTR genes of a mother and her youngest daughter with isolated elevated sweat chloride concentrations. Detailed clinical evaluation of both individuals found no evidence of pulmonary or pancreatic disease characteristic of CF. A second child in this family with classic CF was homozygous for the del14a mutation, indicating that this mutation caused severe CFTR dysfunction. CFTR mRNA transcripts bearing the S1455X mutation were stable in vivo , implying that this allele encoded a truncated version of CFTR missing the last 26 amino acids. Loss of this region did not affect processing of transiently expressed S1455X-CFTR compared with wild-type CFTR. When expressed in CF airway cells, this mutant generated cAMP-activated whole-cell chloride currents similar to wild-type CFTR. Preservation of chloride channel function of S1455X-CFTR was consistent with normal lung and pancreatic function in the mother and her daughter. These data indicate that mutations in CFTR can be associated with elevated sweat chloride concentrations in the absence of the CF phenotype, and suggest a previously unrecognized functional role in the sweat gland for the C-terminus of CFTR.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000072885700018

    View details for PubMedID 9499426

  • Activation of eosinophils in the airways of lung transplantation patients CHEST Dosanjh, A. K., Elashoff, D., Kawalek, A., Moss, R. B., Esrig, S. 1997; 112 (5): 1180-1183


    Eosinophils are important inflammatory cells involved in liver and renal allograft rejection. The role of these cells is less well defined in lung allograft rejection. Eosinophils may be activated in lung rejection and release cytotoxic eosinophil cationic protein (ECP). Other states of disease in lung transplant recipients, such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) and bacterial infection, may also be associated with activated eosinophils. We postulated that ECP may be detectable and elevated in the airway lavage samples obtained from lung transplant patients and may contribute to disease pathogenesis.Fifty BAL samples were collected from 38 lung transplant patients. Their most recent pulmonary function test results within 1 week of collection were noted. The samples were analyzed for the concentration of ECP, WBC count and differential cell count, and total protein level. The results were analyzed to identify the presence of disease or abnormal lung function associated with a positive ECP test. Student's t test was used and a p value of <0.05 was considered significant.We found that ECP levels were elevated in 36% (n=14) of the patients. Those patients with a positive test result were more likely to have acute rejection, CMV disease, or the presence of a cultured pathogen in BAL compared to patients with a negative test result (p<0.01).The presence of BAL ECP is associated with disease in lung transplant patients. Since ECP is directly cytotoxic, it may contribute to disease pathogenesis.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997YF05200008

    View details for PubMedID 9367454

  • A comparison of peak sputum tobramycin concentration in patients with cystic fibrosis using jet and ultrasonic nebulizer systems CHEST Eisenberg, J., Pepe, M., WILLIAMSWARREN, J., Vasiliev, M., Montgomery, A. B., Smith, A. L., Ramsey, B. W., Borowitz, D., Eigen, H., Hiatt, P., Moss, R., Konstan, M., SCHIDLOW, D., Wilmott, R., Yee, W., Crist, D., Joy, P., McNamara, S., Gray, D., PITLICK, W. 1997; 111 (4): 955-962
  • A comparison of peak sputum tobramycin concentration in patients with cystic fibrosis using jet and ultrasonic nebulizer systems Chest Eisenberg J, Aerosolized Tobramycin Study Group (member). 1997; 1112: 955-62
  • Reduced IL-10 secretion by T cells expressing mutant CFTR: A role for Ca2+ and Cl- channels. Moss, R. B., Hsu, Y., Olds, L. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 1997: 1347–47
  • Reduced IL-10 secretion by CD4(+) T lymphocytes expressing mutant cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL IMMUNOLOGY Moss, R. B., BOCIAN, R. C., Hsu, Y. P., Dong, Y. J., Kemna, M., Wei, T., Gardner, P. 1996; 106 (2): 374-388


    Expression of the CFTR protein is thought to be physiologically important only in exocrine epithelial cells. However, chronic respiratory inflammation and infection remain unexplained phenomena in disease pathogenesis. Non-transformed, antigen-responsive CD4+ T cells cloned from healthy controls and CF patients homozygous or heterozygous for the delta F508 mutation transcribed CFTR mRNA and expressed immunoreactive cytoplasmic CFTR protein. T cell clones (TCC) from controls and CF patients displayed equivalent Ca(2+)-mediated Cl- current; however, TCC from patients with CF but not controls displayed defective cAMP-mediated Cl-current. Although CF-derived TCC preserved mitogen and antigen proliferative responses and specificity to tetanus toxoid epitopes, they selectively secreted approximately 45% less IL-10 compared with control TCC after activation with concanavalin A (Con A) (624 +/- 101 versus 1564 +/- 401 pg/ml per 10(6) cells, respectively; P = 0.04) or anti-CD3/phorbol ester (5148 +/- 1634 versus 11788 +/- 2390 pg/ml; P = 0.05). This difference was independent of atopy. Secretion of interferon-gamma, IL-2, and IL-4 was comparable in CF and control TCC after both forms of activation, while IL-5 was reduced in CF TCC following anti-CD3/phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) but not after Con A. We conclude that expression of mutant CFTR in human TCC is accompanied by ion channel dysfunction characteristic of the CF phenotype, and is accompanied by a reduction in IL-10 secretion after polyclonal activation. It is possible that disruption of IL-10-mediated anti-inflammatory homeostasis may contribute to early onset sustained inflammation in CF airways.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VQ33800028

    View details for PubMedID 8918588

  • Aerosolized recombinant human DNase in hospitalized cystic fibrosis patients with acute pulmonary exacerbations AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Wilmott, R. W., Amin, R. S., Colin, A. A., Devault, A., Dozor, A. J., Eigen, H., Johnson, C., Lester, L. A., McCoy, K., MCKEAN, L. P., Moss, R., Nash, M. L., Jue, C. P., Regelmann, W., Stokes, D. C., Fuchs, H. J. 1996; 153 (6): 1914-1917


    The goal of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of recombinant human DNase (rhDNase) in hospitalized patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) experiencing acute pulmonary exacerbations. Eighty patients with documented CF were enrolled at 11 CF centers when admitted for antibiotic therapy. Patients were at least 5 yr old with a forced vital capacity (FVC) > or = 35% of predicted and an oxygen saturation > or = 90% on a fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2) < 0.5. Patients were randomized to receive rhDNase 2.5 mg in 2.5 ml excipient twice a day (n = 43) or 2.5 ml excipient alone twice daily (n = 37) along with conventional treatment for exacerbations. Administration of rhDNase was not associated with acute adverse events or deaths, and no patients experienced allergic or anaphylactic reactions. Although forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and FVC improved in both treatment groups during the double-blind period, there were no statistically significant differences in the mean change from baseline in FEV1 or FVC between the two groups. rhDNase therapy is safe and well tolerated in CF patients with acute exacerbations requiring hospitalization, but the study did not demonstrate a statistically significant therapeutic effect of rhDNase when added to a regimen of antibiotics and chest physical therapy.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UR22300027

    View details for PubMedID 8665055

  • Clinical protocol: AAV-CFTR for the treatment of chronic sinusitis in CF patients. Wagner, J. A., Moran, M. L., Kouyama, K., Moss, R. B., Wine, J. J., Gardner, P. NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. 1996: PII63–PII63
  • When to use a HEPA filter for atopic childhood asthma J Respir Dis Moss RB 1996; 17: 806
  • Correlates of osteopenia in patients with cystic fibrosis PEDIATRICS Bhudhikanok, G. S., Lim, J., Marcus, R., Harkins, A., Moss, R. B., Bachrach, L. K. 1996; 97 (1): 103-111


    As the expected survival improves for individuals with cystic fibrosis, these individuals face myriad medical complications. The goals of this study were to examine the prevalence of osteopenia in children and adults with cystic fibrosis and to elucidate the risk factors associated with deficits in bone mineral.We compared bone mineral levels in 49 patients (30 female and 19 male) ages 8 through 48 years with those of age- and sex-matched control subjects. Lumbar spine, femoral neck, and whole-body bone mineral were measured by dual-energy radiographic absorptiometry and expressed in terms of bone mineral content, areal bone density (BMD), and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD), which corrects for differences in bone size. Clinical variables were evaluated as potential correlates of bone mineral.Patients with cystic fibrosis had significantly less bone mineral than did control subjects at all sites using all expressions of bone mass. Mean BMD z scores were -1.7 (lumbar spine), -1.9 (femoral neck), and -1.2 (whole body). BMAD z scores also were significantly low for age and gender. Twenty-six of the 49 patients (8 adolescents) had significant osteopenia according to their BMD z scores; 14 of the 45 patients (5 adolescents) with available BMAD z scores had significantly low values at one or more sites. Age, pubertal stage, body mass, caloric expenditure, illness severity, glucocorticoid therapy, and gonadal function predicted bone mineral status. Serum parathyroid hormone and calcium, carbohydrate intake, and weight-bearing activity had limited predictive value. Daily calcium intake and cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator genotype did not predict bone mineral status.Osteopenia is common at all ages in cystic fibrosis, suggesting that inadequate bone mineral accretion as well as increased bone loss contribute to the deficits in bone mineral observed. Several clinical factors seem to contribute to these deficits.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996TQ42400019

    View details for PubMedID 8545201

  • Aerosolized recombinant human DNase in hospitalized cystic fibrosis patients with acute pulmonary exacerbations Am J Respir Crit Care Med Wilmott RW, Amin RS, Colin A, Devault A, Dozor AJ, Eigen H, Johnson C, Lester LA, McCoy K, McKean LP, Moss R, Nash ML, Pagel Jue C, Regelmann W, Stokes DC, Fuchs HJ 1996; 153: 1914-7
  • Immune therapies for lung infection in cystic fibrosis IACFA Newsletter Moss RB 1996; 46: 8-13

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995RZ13900001

    View details for PubMedID 8645828

  • COMPARISON OF 3 JET NEBULIZER AEROSOL DELIVERY SYSTEMS USED TO ADMINISTER RECOMBINANT HUMAN DNASE-I TO PATIENTS WITH CYSTIC-FIBROSIS CHEST Fiel, S. B., Fuchs, H. J., Johnson, C., Gonda, I., Clark, A. R., CIPOLLA, C. C., Colin, A., Colombo, J., Denning, C., Dozor, A., Eigen, H., Eisenberg, J., Fink, R., Geller, D., Gerstle, R., Glasser, L., Green, C., HERNRIED, L., Johnson, G., Jone, K., Kaslovsky, R., Kirchner, K., Light, M., LLOYDSTILL, J. D., Majure, M., Marshall, B., McCoy, K., MCKEAN, L. P., Moss, R., Nasr, S., Nickerson, B., Ramsey, B., Regelmann, W., Rock, M. J., Rosenstein, B. J., SCHIDLOW, D., Schnapf, B., Shay, G., Sindel, L., Spiritus, E., Stokes, D. C., Stone, R., Swartz, D. R. 1995; 108 (1): 153-156
  • ACTIVATION OF CFTR CHLORIDE CURRENT BY NITRIC-OXIDE IN HUMAN T-LYMPHOCYTES EMBO JOURNAL Dong, Y. J., Chao, A. C., Kouyama, K., Hsu, Y. P., BOCIAN, R. C., Moss, R. B., Gardner, P. 1995; 14 (12): 2700-2707


    Nitric oxide, which is produced by cytokine-activated mononuclear cells, is thought to play an important role in inflammation and immunity. While the function of nitric oxide as a direct cytotoxic effector molecule is well established, its function as a transducer molecule in immune cells is not. By use of whole-cell patch clamp recordings, we show that nitric oxide activates cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator CI- currents in normal human cloned T cells by a cGMP-dependent mechanism. This pathway is defective in cystic fibrosis-derived human cloned T cells. These findings not only delineate a novel transduction mechanism for nitric oxide but also support the hypothesis that an intrinsic immune defect may exist in cystic fibrosis.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995RF90000002

    View details for PubMedID 7540975



    An effective treatment program for refractory chronic sinusitis in patients with cystic fibrosis has not been achieved. We developed a long-term management approach by combining endoscopic surgery with serial antimicrobial lavage (ESSAL).In a before and after trial, results of ESSAL in 32 patients were compared with those of conventional sinus surgery without serial antimicrobial lavage in 19 patients. At least 1 year follow-up was available in all but one patient.Patients attending the Stanford (Calif) Cystic Fibrosis Center were consecutively referred for otolaryngologic evaluation for symptoms and signs of refractory sinusitis. Those subjects who were evaluated before 1990 were treated conventionally and afterward by ESSAL.Conventionally treated patients underwent one or more of the following procedures: polypectomy, ethmoidectomy, antrostomy, or Caldwell-Luc operation. The ESSAL approach incorporated preoperative rhinosinuscopy and computed tomography, endoscopic surgery, a postoperative course of antral antimicrobial lavage, and monthly maintenance antimicrobial lavage via brief antral catheterization.Intensity and frequency of sinus surgery after initial presentation.The two groups were similar demographically and in clinical presentation, including the presence of nasal polyposis in 34% and 42%, respectively. The ESSAL group had fewer operations per patient, Caldwell-Luc procedures, and a decrease in repeated surgery at 1-year (10% vs 47%) and 2-year (22% vs 72%) follow-ups.The ESSAL is a successful approach to treatment of sinusitis in cystic fibrosis that reduces recurrence requiring further surgery for at least 2 years.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995QX41600011

    View details for PubMedID 7727092


    View details for Web of Science ID A1995QT56900008

    View details for PubMedID 7747502


    View details for Web of Science ID A1995QL46000042

    View details for PubMedID 7874959

  • Inflammatory response in cystic fibrosis lung disease New Insights into Cystic Fibrosis Moss RB 1995; 324: 1-6
  • Sinus disease in cystic fibrosis Gershwin EM and Incaudo GA, Eds. Diseases of the Sinuses: A Comprehensive Textbook of Diagnosis and Treatment. Humana Press, Inc., Totowa NJ Light M, Moss RB, Davidson TM 1995: 357-65
  • Practice parameters for the diagnosis and treatment of asthma J Allergy Clin Immunol Spector SL, Nicklas RA, Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters (member). 1995; 96: 707-870
  • Aerosolized recombinant human DNase reduces respiratory exacerbations and improves pulmonary function in patients with cystic fibrosis N Engl J Med Fuchs HJ, Borowitz DS, Christiansen DH, et al for the Pulmozyme Study Group (member). 1994; 331: 637-42
  • Differential diagnosis of asthma in children Gershwin ME and Halpern GM, Eds. Bronchial Asthma. Principles of Diagnosis and Treatment, 3rd Ed, The Humana Press Inc., Totowa NJ Moss RB 1994: 141-69


    To examine the frequency and severity of osteopenia in adults with cystic fibrosis and the clinical variables associated with reduced bone mineral.The bone mineral status of 22 white adults (14 women) with cystic fibrosis was compared with normative data from healthy white control subjects in a university medical center. Lumbar spine, femoral neck, and whole-body bone mineral was determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and expressed as bone mineral content (g), bone mineral density (g/cm2), and bone mineral apparent density (g/cm3). Bone mass was related to age, body mass, gonadal function, pulmonary status, and glucocorticoid exposure to identify variables associated with reduced bone mineral in cystic fibrosis.Bone mineral in adults with cystic fibrosis was significantly below expected values for age and sex at all sites using all expressions of bone mass. The mean Z-score was -2.8 for the lumbar spine bone density, -2.5 for the femoral neck, and -2.0 for the whole body. Bone mineral apparent density (a term that minimizes the influence of bone dimensions) was also significantly reduced in patients at the lumbar spine (p < 0.0001) and femoral neck (p < 0.001 to p < 0.0001), indicating that the bone mineral deficit seen in adults with cystic fibrosis could not be attributed to differences in bone size. Age, weight, height, and body mass index were significantly correlated with bone mineral. Pulmonary status, glucocorticoid use, and gonadal function failed to predict bone mineral status.Osteopenia and osteoporosis occur commonly in young adults with cystic fibrosis. Age and body mass are predictive of bone mineral, although the pathogenesis of this bone mineral deficit is likely multifactorial.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994MU31300006

    View details for PubMedID 8304359

  • Outcome measures for clinical trials in cystic fibrosis J Pediatr Ramsey BW, Boat T, Accurso F, Bennett W, Boucher R, Brody A, Crystal R, Cutting G, Davis P, Dorkin H, Fleming T. Kaplan R, Knowles M, Konstan M, Laube B, McElvaney G, Morgan W, Moss R, Orenstein R, Pencharz P, Rosenstein B, Schidlow D, Smith A, Spino M, Stallings V, Stecenko A, Terrin M, Weatherly M, Wilmott R, Wilson C, Wood 1994; 124: 177-92


    We have recently established a rhesus monkey model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) endobronchitis by bronchoscopic instillation of PA-embedded agar beads. All experimental animals developed chronic neutrophilic endobronchitis similar to chronic PA endobronchitis in cystic fibrosis (CF). Histopathologic studies further confirmed similarities to chronic PA endobronchitis in CF, including marked peribronchial inflammation, epithelial damage, presence of degraded cilia and ciliary abnormalities, appearance of PA bacterial clusters, mucosal hyperplasia, goblet cell hypertrophy/hypersecretion, airway obstruction, alveolar abnormalities, bronchiectasis, and fibrosis.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993MH76800005

    View details for PubMedID 8230177



    Chronic endobronchial infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major clinical problem in cystic fibrosis, a genetic disorder of epithelial ion transport and mucus secretion. Functional defects in the opsonic antibody response to critical surface antigens of P. aeruginosa, including lipopolysaccharide and mucoid exopolysaccharide (alginate), have been implicated in the initial colonization and/or persistence of infection of the respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis patients with this bacterium. These defects are correctable in vitro with functional opsonic antibodies against P. aeruginosa present in intravenously administered immunoglobulins (ivIg). Moreover, functional opsonic polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against P. aeruginosa are protective in animal models of chronic pseudomonal endobronchitis. Two pilot studies on passive immunotherapy with ivIg--one with standard ivIg and one with hyperimmune globulin enriched with anti-Pseudomonas lipopolysaccharide antibodies (Psomaglobin N)--have demonstrated safety and short-term efficacy in terms of improved pulmonary function. Multicenter placebo-controlled trials of passive immunotherapy with conventional ivIg and hyperimmune globulin enriched with antibodies against P. aeruginosa alginate are planned in the United States.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LC93800007

    View details for PubMedID 8499750

  • Immunopathogenesis of cystic fibrosis lung disease Hillman B (ed). Pediatric Respiratory Diseases: Diagnosis and Treatment. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia Moss RB 1993: 674-87
  • Pulmonary defenses Hillman B (ed). Pediatric Respiratory Diseases: Diagnosis and Treatment. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, Hillman B (ed). Pediatric Respiratory Diseases: Diagnosis and Treatment. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia Moss RB 1993: 36-46
  • Sinusitis and polyposis in cystic fibrosis Druce HM, Ed. Sinusitis--Pathophysiology and Treatment. Marcel Dekker, New York Moss RB 1993: 247-81


    Host defense abnormalities in cystic fibrosis (CF) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) lead to excessive neutrophil influx into the infected lungs, resulting in pulmonary complications. We have developed a rhesus monkey model of chronic PA endobronchitis by intrabronchial instillation of PA-embedded agar beads, utilizing flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Treatment of infected monkeys with pentoxifylline suppressed neutrophil influx and ameliorated pulmonary damage. The results suggest a method by which neutrophil influx and pulmonary damage in CF patients can be managed or prevented.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992LH16500004

    View details for PubMedID 1307753



    A family including three children with DiGeorge syndrome is described. One child died in the neonatal period from cardiac anomalies accompanying complete DiGeorge syndrome. The two surviving siblings shared a common set of pharyngeal pouch anomalies and immunodeficiency consistent with partial DiGeorge syndrome, and other morphologic anomalies characteristic of the velocardiofacial syndrome with which familial DiGeorge syndrome is associated (reviewed in reference 1). Both had normal karyotypes. Both presented with recurrent otitis media and sinopulmonary infections, CD4+ T cell lymphopenia, and defective DCH skin test responses to recall T cell antigens. Both had low serum IgM levels and IgG4 levels at the lower limits of normal. Immunization with bacterial polysaccharides resulted in impaired IgG antibody responses to the same set of antigens (H. influenzae polyribophosphate and S. pneumoniae capsular serotypes 9N and 14), while responses to protein antigens were intact. Both siblings were treated successfully with intravenous gamma globulin. The pattern of selective antibody deficiency in these patients with familial DiGeorge syndrome suggests a heritable lesion in certain regulatory antipolysaccharide CD4+ T cell subpopulations.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JP90300014

    View details for PubMedID 1524280



    To study the relationship between serum IgG subclass deficiency and clinical host defense impairment, we reviewed the clinical and immunologic features of 123 patients with a history of recurrent infection who had been examined for immunodeficiency in our laboratory (group 1). We then compared immunoglobulin isotype levels with those in sera from 127 age-matched control subjects without recurrent infection from whom blood had been drawn for evaluation of atopy (group 2). There was a significantly higher prevalence of IgG4 deficiencies among patients with recurrent infections (17% vs 7%; p less than 0.02), solely because of a higher prevalence of isolated IgG4 deficiency (n = 9; 7.3%) than in atopic control subjects (n = 1; 0.8%; p less than 0.05); there was a comparable prevalence of multiple isotype deficiencies that included low levels of IgG4 (9.8% and 6.3%, respectively). All nine group 1 patients with isolated IgG4 deficiency had severe recurrent respiratory tract infections requiring multiple hospitalizations; in addition, five were atopic, five had asthma, and one had chronic diahrrea. Antibody responses to bacterial polysaccharide antigens were normal for age in all patients with isolated IgG4 deficiency; two had defective antibody responses to protein antigens. Isolated IgG4 deficiency appears to be associated with impaired respiratory tract defenses and may occur in the absence of an easily definable antibody deficiency state. This association suggests a physiologic defense role for mucosal IgG4.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992GZ89500003

    View details for PubMedID 1731015

  • Gastroesophageal reflux-associated lung disease Prober CG, Behrman RE (eds). Nelson Self-Assessment in Pediatrics, CME Supplement Test No. ZN9212 Moss RB 1992
  • The role of sinus surgery in chronic sinusitis in children Am J Allergy Asthma Pediatr King VV, Moss RB 1992; 5: 203-8

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GW26200021

    View details for PubMedID 1744369



    The immunogenicity, allergenicity, and cross-reactivity of aztreonam were investigated in 19 patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) who are allergic to beta-lactam antibiotics. Skin tests with benzyl-penicilloyl polylysine (BPO), minor determinant mixture, and the drug responsible for the previous allergic reaction were positive for 26%, 53%, and 79% of the patients, respectively. Serum IgG, but not IgE, antibodies to BPO were detected in nine of 14 patients. Eighteen patients whose skin tests with aztreonam were negative were treated. One developed bronchospasm. The others tolerated aztreonam, with an improvement in clinical score greater than or equal to 1 month after treatment (P less than .001). One patient without previous exposure had positive aztreonam skin tests and was later treated uneventfully after iv desensitization. Treatment with aztreonam did not result in IgG or IgE antibody responses in vitro. However, two patients had anaphylactic reactions on reexposure. In patients with CF, allergy to beta-lactam antibiotics is primarily drug-specific. But despite reduced immunogenicity and cross-reactivity, aztreonam should be administered cautiously to patients with CF who are allergic to other beta-lactam antibiotics because it is potentially allergenic with repeated use.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FM96700006

    View details for PubMedID 2068466


    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FF86200012

    View details for PubMedID 1877188


    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GK55600012

    View details for PubMedID 1884325

  • ANAPHYLAXIS FROM A TICK BITE NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE VANWYE, J. E., Hsu, Y. P., Terr, A. I., Moss, R. B., Lane, R. S. 1991; 324 (11): 777-778

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FB55600028

    View details for PubMedID 1997849

  • Anaphylaxis from a tick bite N Engl J Med Van Wye JE, Hsu YP, Lane RS, Terr AI, Moss RB 1991; 324: 777-8


    The immunogenicity, allergenicity, and cross-reactivity of aztreonam were investigated in 21 patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) (aged 5 to 39 years) with well-documented histories of allergic systemic reactions (SRs) to penicillin and/or cephalosporin antipseudomonal beta-lactam antibiotics (BLAs). Skin tests (STs) with penicilloyl-polylysine (PPL), penicillin minor determinant mixture, and antipseudomonal BLA were positive in 19 patients (90%). The BLA causing the most recent allergic reaction, minor determinant mixture, or PPL, was positive in 89%, 53%, and 32% of ST-positive patients, respectively. Serum PPL-specific IgE antibodies were not detectable, although PPL-specific IgG antibodies were found in 64% of patients tested. STs to aztreonam reagents were performed and were initially negative in 20 patients. One patient was ST positive to the polylysine conjugate of hydrolyzed aztreonam (SQ 27629), despite no prior exposure to aztreonam, and was not treated. Of 20 patients treated with aztreonam, four were demonstrated to be sensitized by exposure (one had an SR during initial treatment course, two had SRs on reexposure, and one patient was asymptomatic after intravenous desensitization) by positive aztreonam reagent skin responses on repeat testing. Aztreonyl-specific IgE and IgG serum antibodies were not detected in any patients, including patients with allergic reactions to aztreonam. Thus, aztreonam is generally well tolerated in high-risk patients with CF allergic to other BLAs and appears to have reduced immunogenicity by serologic testing. However, caution should be exercised with aztreonam in BLA-allergic patients with CF in light of 5% preexisting ST cross-reactivity and 20% sensitization rates found in this study.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991EX98500010

    View details for PubMedID 1991925

  • LATE PULMONARY SEQUELAE OF BRONCHOPULMONARY DYSPLASIA NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Northway, W. H., Moss, R. B., Carlisle, K. B., Parker, B. R., Popp, R. L., Pitlick, P. T., Eichler, I., Lamm, R. L., Brown, B. W. 1990; 323 (26): 1793-1799


    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is a chronic lung disease that often develops after mechanical ventilation in prematurely born infants with respiratory failure. It has become the most common form of chronic lung disease in infants in the United States. The long-term outcome for infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia has not been determined.We studied the pulmonary function of 26 adolescents and young adults, born between 1964 and 1973, who had bronchopulmonary dysplasia in infancy. We compared the results with those in two control groups: 26 age-matched adolescents and young adults of similar birth weight and gestational age who had not undergone mechanical ventilation, and 53 age-matched normal subjects.Sixty-eight percent of the subjects with bronchopulmonary dysplasia in infancy (17 of the 25 tested) had airway obstruction, including decreases in forced expiratory volume in one second, forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75 percent of vital capacity, and maximal expiratory flow velocity at 50 percent of vital capacity, as compared with both control groups (P less than 0.0001 for all comparisons). Twenty-four percent of the subjects with bronchopulmonary dysplasia in infancy had fixed airway obstruction, and 52 percent had reactive airway disease, as indicated by their responses to the administration of methacholine or a bronchodilator. Hyperinflation (an increased ratio of residual volume to total lung capacity) was more frequent in the subjects with a history of bronchopulmonary dysplasia than in either the matched cohort (P less than 0.0006) or the normal controls (P less than 0.0004). Six of the subjects who had bronchopulmonary dysplasia in infancy had severe pulmonary dysfunction or current symptoms of respiratory difficulty.Most adolescents and young adults who had bronchopulmonary dysplasia in infancy have some degree of pulmonary dysfunction, consisting of airway obstruction, airway hyperreactivity, and hyperinflation. The clinical consequences of this dysfunction are not known.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990EP37600003

    View details for PubMedID 2247118



    Four adult cystic fibrosis patients were selected for aggressive surgical management of sinus disease on the basis of severe pulmonary involvement, high frequency of hospital admission, chronic headache, and wheezing unresponsive to conventional treatment. They underwent bilateral Caldwell-Luc procedure with perioperative anti-Pseudomonas antimicrobials. There were substantial improvements in headache and respiratory symptoms and a significant reduction in the frequency of hospital admission after the operation. These findings suggest that sinus disease is associated with pulmonary exacerbation in patients with cystic fibrosis, and strengthens a similar observation in patients with asthma.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DC56800012

    View details for PubMedID 1970379



    We studied the effect of an intravenously administered gamma globulin [Ps-ivIG] enriched fivefold over conventional ivIG for Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide [PA LPS] antibodies on ten patients with cystic fibrosis [CF] aged 19-32 years during hospitalization for pulmonary deterioration. All were colonized with greater than or equal to 1 PA phenotype resistant to all antibiotics at the time of admission and they received 500 mg/kg Ps-ivIG intravenously as a single dose in addition to conventional treatment, including antibiotics and chest physiotherapy. No adverse effects occurred. Circulating immune complexes and complement levels remained unchanged from baseline. Serum levels of anti-PA LPS IgG, as measured by ELISA for eight PA LPS immunotypes, increased to 244 +/- 65% (mean +/- SE) of baseline levels 1 hour post-infusion (P less than 0.01), remained significantly elevated during a mean hospital stay of 17 days, and returned to near baseline by follow-up 4 weeks after hospital discharge. Plasma half-life and clearance values were similar to those of other subjects receiving conventional ivIG. Sputum PA density declined from 3.0 to 1.2 x 10(8) cfu/mL 1 week post-infusion (P approximately equal to 0.05), and returned to baseline at follow-up. Serum anti-PA opsonic activity increased after infusion (P less than 0.01), but returned to baseline by 72 hours. Clinical scores improved from admission to discharge (P less than 0.005) without decline at follow-up. Forced vital capacity [FVC] and forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1] increased from admission to discharge (P less than 0.01 and P less than 0.05, respectively) without decline at follow-up. Using autologous historical control data, standard hospital therapy without Ps-ivIG resulted in no improvement in FVC or FEV1, and a subsequent decline in these parameters (P less than 0.05 for each) during a similar follow-up period. This occurred despite the fact that half the patients did not have antibiotic-resistant PA on the control admission. We conclude that Ps-ivIG is a safe adjunctive therapy for pulmonary exacerbations in moderately ill cystic fibrosis patients colonized with resistant PA, and may be associated with both greater and more prolonged improvement in pulmonary function than standard therapy alone.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DP62600002

    View details for PubMedID 1697059

  • Cystic Fibrosis. Infection, Immunopathology, and Host Response. Humana Press, Clifton NJ Moss RB 1990: 1-251
  • Drug allergy in cystic fibrosis Moss RB (ed). Cystic Fibrosis. Infection, Immunopathology, and Host Response. Humana Press, Clifton NJ Moss RB 1990: 211-29
  • Antibody production in cystic fibrosis and possibilities for immunotherapy Pediatr Pulmonol Moss RB 1990; Suppl 5: 66-7


    Although asthma is a complex and multifactorial disease, a relationship between atopic allergic sensitization to common aeroallergens and asthma has been recognized for decades. This recognition has not led to a widespread immunologic orientation to asthma diagnosis and treatment. This review summarizes older epidemiologic evidence using historical data and skin tests that associate IgE-mediated events with asthma, and presents more recent studies utilizing in vitro testing to study new subject groups, to demonstrate that in certain situations up to 75% to 100% of the cases of chronic asthma, as well as many acute episodes, have an allergic etiology. Thus the old distinctions between intrinsic and extrinsic asthma should be discarded in favor of an aggressive search for allergic factors in virtually any patient with asthma. A theoretic basis for the allergic etiology of asthma has arisen from recent studies linking (1) IgE antibody production with cytophilic sensitization of mast cells and possibly other proinflammatory cell types bearing IgE receptors; (2) IgE-dependent, allergen-induced immediate bronchial reactions with late-phase reactions; and (3) occurrence of late-phase reactions with persistent local inflammation and increased nonspecific bronchial hyperreactivity. Understanding of the allergic etiology of asthma in turn gives rise to renewed emphasis upon immunomodulatory approaches to treatment. At present these include allergen avoidance measures that reduce natural exposure and conventional high-dose allergen injection immunotherapy, both of which have well-documented efficacy when properly applied. In the future, better understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of asthma, in particular the events of the late-phase reaction, are likely to lead to new approaches to treatment based upon rational modulation of these events, possibly with recombinant cytokine-based therapy or synthetic peptide antagonists of defined mediator molecules.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989CE57800005

    View details for PubMedID 2688495



    Antibody opsonins from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients were investigated using nonmucoid and mucoid lipopolysaccharide (LPS) immunotype 1 Pseudomonas aeruginosa as bacterial ligands and PMN phagocytes. CF sera were compared to normal sera, polyvalent PA LPS hyperimmune globulin, and isotype switch variant monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for type 1 PA LPS. Sera from PA-infected CF patients (CF PA+) had elevated levels of PA LPS and alginate IgG antibodies and promoted significantly greater antibody-dependent PMN chemiluminescence responses than sera from uninfected CF patients (CF PA-) or normal human sera (NHS). After adjustment for autologous IgG PA LPS antibody content, however, CF PA+ sera had less antibody-dependent opsonic activity than sera from CF PA- patients (P less than 0.025) or NHS (P less than 0.0025), suggesting qualitative opsonic defects of IgG PA LPS antibodies in CF PA+ sera. Antigen-specific immunoprecipitation of PA LPS antibodies enhanced opsonization by 40% of CF PA+ sera while uniformly reducing that from CF PA- sera (P less than 0.01), indicating LPS-specific nonopsonic antibodies in some CF PA+ sera. Alginate antibodies were not critical opsonins in most uninfected CF patient sera. PA LPS IgG antibodies isolated by immunoaffinity chromatography from NHS, hyperimmune globulin, and CF PA- sources were opsonic and had greater activity at equal antigen-binding concentration than identical antibodies isolated from infected CF patients (P less than 0.01-0.05); the majority of isolates from CF PA+ sera did not promote PMN oxidative responses above nonopsonic baseline. A potential isotypic basis for these findings was supported by differences in PMN responses to PA opsonized with MAbs of identical specificity but differing isotypes. PA LPS-specific IgG antibodies inhibiting PMN oxidative responses in infected patient sera demonstrate antigen-specific immunomodulation of host responses by chronic bacterial parasitism in CF, which may play a role in the pathophysiology of lung disease.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989CD76300014

    View details for PubMedID 2512330

  • Regarding article by Earl and Sullivan. journal of allergy and clinical immunology Moss, R. B. 1989; 83 (6): 1138-?

    View details for PubMedID 2732413

  • 23-YEAR FOLLOW-UP OF BRONCHOPULMONARY DYSPLASIA (BPD) Northway, W. H., Moss, R. B., Carlisle, K. B., Popp, R. L., Pitlick, P. T., Parker, B. R., Brown, B. W. NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. 1989: A370–A370
  • Bird fancier's disease in children Am J Asthma Allergy Pediatr Palmer J, Parker BR, Moss R, Lewiston NJ 1989; 3: 45-52


    In a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we examined the effect of mountain cedar (MC) immunotherapy on the MC-induced late cutaneous response (LCR). Fourteen MC-sensitive patients were intradermally skin tested before and after immunotherapy with MC extract. We measured the size of the wheal at 15 minutes and the area of tissue swelling at 6 hours. Patients were matched by the size of the LCR and started receiving either MC immunotherapy or placebo immunotherapy. MC-specific immunoglobulins (MC sIgG, MC sIgG1, MC sIgG4, and MC sIgE) were measured by ELISA. Symptom-medication scores (SMSs) were recorded on a daily basis during the MC season and tabulated at the end of the study. Comparison of the 14 paired patients revealed no significant differences between MC-treated and placebo-treated groups in preimmunotherapy MC sIgG1 and SIgG4. However, when MC immunotherapy was compared to placebo immunotherapy, patients receiving MC immunotherapy developed significantly higher MC sIgG1 (p less than 0.04) and MC sIgG4 (p less than 0.01) after immunotherapy. Patients receiving MC immunotherapy also demonstrated significantly greater suppression of the LCR after immunotherapy (p less than 0.005) with the postimmunotherapy LCR correlating significantly with both MC sIgG4 (rs = 0.715; p = 0.008) and cumulative dose of MC received (rs = 0.808; p = 0.004). MC sIgE was similar in both groups after immunotherapy. The reduction in SMSs in the MC-treated group did not reach significance, nor was there a correlation of SMSs with MC sIgE, sIgG, sIgG1, or sIgG4.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989T041900014

    View details for PubMedID 2913129

  • LATE SEQUELAE OF BRONCHOPULMONARY DYSPLASIA (BPD) Northway, W. H., Parker, B. R., Carlisle, K., Eichler, I., Popp, R. L., Tye, T., PITLICK, T. P., Brown, B. W., Halpern, J., Kelly, R., Moss, R. B. AMER ROENTGEN RAY SOC. 1988: 623–23


    Allergen extracts for skin prick testing (SPT) are available from several manufacturers. Although these solutions are specified according to well-defined internal company standards, there is no generally accepted overall standardization. To assess the comparability of skin prick test solutions of various manufacturers, we compared extracts of nine different allergens from four companies by SPT in 29 children sensitive to one or more of the allergens, in a double blind fashion. RAST (Pharmacia) and EAST (Kallestad) were determined in simultaneous blood samples. Allergen extracts were also examined by rocket immunoelectrophoresis for their content of major allergens. Skin reactions, assessed by mean diameter of wheals, to identical allergen extracts varied significantly between the four vendors (P less than 0.05-0.001). Correlation between RAST and EAST was good for all allergens except birch pollen and mugwort. Content of the major allergen in corresponding extracts varied significantly between the different companies (less than 1%-2000%). These data underline the need for international reference extracts as intracompany standardization of test solutions alone is not enough to yield general reproducibility of skin prick test results.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988Q082000012

    View details for PubMedID 3189725

  • LATE SEQUELAE OF BRONCHOPULMONARY DYSPLASIA (BPD) Northway, W. H., Parker, B. R., Carlisle, K., Eichler, I., Popp, R. L., Tye, T., PITLICK, T. P., Brown, B. W., Halpern, J., Kelly, R., Moss, R. B. SPRINGER VERLAG. 1988: 442–42


    In 1984 Ramirez postulated the existance of two subgroups of patients with Mountain Cedar (MC) pollinosis. One subgroup had a single positive skin test (SPST) to MC only, lacked other atopic diseases, and required prolonged MC exposure to develop the disease. The second subgroup had multiple positive skin tests (MPST) in addition to MC, had other atopic diseases, and developed clinical symptoms after a shorter period of MC exposure. To validate these findings, and to explore the clinical and immunologic differences between these two subgroups, 13 SPST and nine MPST patients underwent immunotherapy with MC pollen extract. Six SPST and ten non-allergic controls did not receive immunotherapy. MC specific IgE (sIgE), MC sIgG, and MC sIgG subclasses were measured by ELISA pre and intra season. Symptom Medication Score (SMS) were measured during the MC season. SPST patients had a significantly lower baseline sIgE than MPST patients, 2.1 IU/ml versus 22.3 IU/ml, p = 0.023, and were also older than MPST patients, 52.4 versus 32.2 years, p less than 0.001. Baseline MC sIgG and MC sIgG subclass antibody levels were similar in both patient groups. SMS were lower in treated SPST patients compared to treated MPST patients, p less than 0.01, but in vitro responses to immunotherapy were not significantly different between the two groups. MC sIgE, MC sIgG, MC sIgG1 and MC sIgG4 rose in both treated groups. MC sIgG1 (but not MC sIgG4) rose during the MC season in both non-immunotherapy groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988P363300007

    View details for PubMedID 3412291

  • SPUTUM CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH THERAPY FOR ENDOBRONCHIAL EXACERBATION IN CYSTIC-FIBROSIS JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Smith, A. L., Redding, G., Doershuk, C., Goldmann, D., Gore, E., Hilman, B., Marks, M., Moss, R., Ramsey, B., Rubio, T., SCHWARTZ, R. H., Thomassen, M. J., WILLIAMSWARREN, J., Weber, A., Wilmott, R. W., Wilson, H. D., YOGEV, R. 1988; 112 (4): 547-554


    We sought to define objective indicators of the resolution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa endobronchial infection in patients with cystic fibrosis. We prospectively studied 75 patients admitted for treatment of a pulmonary exacerbation and quantitated sputum bacterial density, DNA content, and the concentration of albumin and total protein in sputum, and compared these values with clinical evaluation. Eleven of the 75 patients had systemic signs, fever, and leukocytosis, which we arbitrarily defined as due to endobronchial infection. At the end of hospitalization, these 11 patients were afebrile, had peripheral leukocyte counts in the normal range, and were judged improved. Sputum P. aeruginosa density, DNA content, and total protein content on admission were similar in the two illness groups. Hospitalization and parenteral antibiotic administration for an average of 14.6 days were associated with improved pulmonary function in all 75 subjects (P values for forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume at 1 second, and peak expiratory flow rate were all less than 0.001). With improvement, there was a decrease in sputum P. aeruginosa density (mean of both groups decreased from 10(7.80) CFU/g on admission to 10(5.96) CFU/g; P less than 0.001), and a decreased DNA concentration (overall mean 4.73 +/- 4.75 on admission to 2.76 +/- 2.49 mg/g; P less than 0.002). The decrease in sputum total protein concentration for both groups was not significant (overall mean 60.5 +/- 48.4 to 43.9 +/- 38.2 mg/g; P = 0.06). Sputum albumin concentrations did not change in either group. We conclude that in cystic fibrosis subjects with a pulmonary exacerbation, bacterial density, sputum DNA and protein content decrease with hospitalization and parenteral antibiotic therapy. At the end of treatment, these indices of sputum infection and inflammation correlate with improved pulmonary function and clinical improvement. These changes are independent of the presence or absence of fever on admission.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988M892400006

    View details for PubMedID 3127569

  • Assessment of validity of allergen reactivity with multiple skin prick testing, RAST, EAST, and rocket immunoelectrophoresi Allergy Eichler I, Gotz M, Jarisch R, Moss R 1988; 43: 458-63


    Our studies have revealed that patients with Cystic Fibrosis CF who are infected with P. aeruginosa have grossly elevated serum levels of IgG antibodies to the opsonic immunodeterminant, type-specific LPS. Second, this elevation is distributed among all four IgG subclasses, with a significant shift towards IgG3. Third, sera from colonized CF patients shows diminished opsonic capacity, although complement dependent human neutrophil phagocytosis is not notably impaired. Fourth, functional polyclonal or monoclonal antibody opsonins exhibit prozone inhibition of phagocytosis at high concentrations. Fifth, sera from uninfected CF patients have lower levels and proportions of IgG2 antibodies to P. aeruginosa LPS, and higher levels and proportions of IgG4 antibodies, than normal controls. Finally, levels of IgG4 antibodies, but not IgG1, 2, or 3, correlate inversely with opsonic capacity. We therefore make several speculations. High levels of IgG4 antibodies to opsonic immunodeterminants may inhibit normal pulmonary clearance of P. aeruginosa by alveolar macrophages in vivo. Second, high levels of opsonic antibodies may also contribute to the problem in vivo by the phenomenon of prozone inhibition. Third, reduced levels of IgG2 antibodies in uninfected CF patients raises the intriguing possibility of an wider polysaccharide antigen-related isotype-restricted immunodeficiency, with an attempted compensatory shift to IgG4 doomed to failure.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988M514900007

    View details for PubMedID 3362109

  • Sputum changes associated with therapy for endobronchial exacerbation in cystic fibrosis J Pediatr Smith AL, Redding G, Doershuk C, Goldman D, Gore E, Hilman B, Marks M, Moss R, Ramsey B, Rubio T, Schwartz R, Thomassen MJ, Williams-Warren J, Weber A, Wilmott R, Wilson D, Yogev R. 1988; 1112: 547-54
  • Allergy evaluation in children: skin testing and RAST Am J Asthma Allergy Pediatr Moss RB 1988; 110: 101-8


    Thirteen patients with rheumatoid arthritis and four patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and nephritis were treated with total lymphoid irradiation because of severe disease refractory to other forms of treatment. Serum samples before and after irradiation were tested for changes in total serum IgE and for changes in specific IgE antibodies to ryegrass pollen, dust mite, cat dander, and Alternaria. There were no statistically significant changes in total or specific IgE from lymphoid irradiation in these patients. The therapy caused a significant decrease in circulating total lymphocyte and Leu-3 (helper/inducer) T-lymphocyte counts. Therefore, reduction in circulating levels of helper/inducer T cells does not appear to influence preexisting levels of IgE antibodies.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987L502000005

    View details for PubMedID 3320160



    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have impaired natural (preinfection) IgG2 antibody responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide. To investigate the basis for this defect, we measured natural IgG and IgG1-4 antibody levels to Haemophilus influenzae type b polyribophosphate (PRP) and tetanus toxoid by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 24 adult CF patients and 20 normal controls. Immunoglobulin heavy- and light-chain allotypes were determined on 146 Caucasian CF patients and 96 controls. The tetanus toxoid-specific IgG response was predominantly IgG1. CF and control subjects had similar IgG and IgG1 antibody levels. The PRP-specific IgG response was predominantly IgG2. In contrast to tetanus toxoid results, CF patients had lower geometric mean level of PRP-specific IgG compared to normal controls (p = 0.0036). ELISA results were confirmed by liquid-phase 3H-PRP-binding assay: CF patients had a geometric mean serum antibody level of 395 versus 922 ng/ml in controls (p = 0.0044). PRP-specific IgG2 levels were also depressed in CF patients (p = 0.03). CF patients had a lower prevalence of the A2m(2) allotype than the local racially matched control sample (p less than 0.025). Other allotype prevalences including G2m(n) and Km(1) were similar. Impaired IgG2 antibody responses to microbial polysaccharide surface antigens in CF patients might predispose them to persistent endobronchial infection and lead to production of nonopsonizing isotype responses. The potential role of A2m(2), coded for in the H chain locus on chromosome 14, is unknown, but could be related to mucosal IgA2 antibody responses.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987L170000019

    View details for PubMedID 3501565



    Rye grass immunotherapy was clinically effective in seasonal allergic asthma and induced serologic changes different from those of natural exposure. These included the blunting of the seasonal rise in IgE antibody and much greater increases in blocking IgG antibodies. Blocking antibody responses to rye grass antigens were restricted to the IgG1 and IgG4 subclasses. Nonatopic individuals had similar preseasonal levels of IgG1 antibodies, but low or undetectable levels of IgG4 or IgE, compared to allergic subjects. Immunotherapy induced increases in both IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies, but IgG4 was dominant and the rise was much more dramatic. Rye grass extract contained at least eight IgE binding allergens and 11 IgG binding antigens, by far the most important of which was antigen I. IgE and IgG binding antigens generally showed concurrence in individuals, but heterogeneity between individuals for non-Rye 1 antigens. Finally, while IgG4 quantitatively dominated the blocking response, early clinical benefits might involve IgG1 antibodies, suggested by an observed inverse correlation between individual symptom medication scores individuals and IgG1 antibody levels.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987M179800007

    View details for PubMedID 3325818



    Paper disc-based solid phase radioimmunoassays are widely used in vitro diagnostic test kits for measuring total IgE (Phadebas PRIST) and specific IgE antibodies (RAST). Recently, these kits have been modified by the substitution of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detection system (Phadezym PRIST/RAST). We studied the performance characteristics of Phadezym PRIST and RAST kits. Phadezym PRIST was sensitive to 0.5 IU/mL IgE. Reproducibility was excellent in the range of 5 to 200 IU/mL IgE and adequate in the range of 5 to 1000 IU/mL using 1:10 serum dilutions (average inter-assay coefficient of variation = 19%). Phadezym RAST was specific, but sensitivity was limited by absorbances in the RAST class 1/0 range indistinguishable from background values. Average inter-assay coefficient of variation was 29% for the semi-quantitative 'Phadezym RAST Unit' (PRU) reporting system. We modified the test kit procedure by disc incubations in microtiter plate wells with rotational agitation and use of ELISA-dedicated spectrophotometer and computer software. These microplate accelerated computerized assays ('MacPRIST' and 'MacRAST') were shown to perform similarly to the conventional Phadezym procedures with advantages in speed, ease, and handling of data.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987K033100006

    View details for PubMedID 3631654

  • INTEROBSERVER VARIANCE IN CLINICAL SCORING FOR CYSTIC-FIBROSIS CHEST LEWISTON, N., Moss, R., Hindi, R., Rubinstein, S., Sullivan, M. 1987; 91 (6): 878-882


    Multicenter clinical research would benefit from a simple, reliable scoring system for comparison of the clinical status of patients at different centers. In this study, five physicians performed simultaneous, independent scoring of 41 individuals with cystic fibrosis using the Doershuk modification of the Shwachman-Kulczycki scoring system for history, physical examination, and nutrition, and the Birmingham scoring system for chest roentgenograms. These were added together to obtain a clinical score. Interobserver variance of the scores was calculated. Mean individual observer variance from the consensus mean was 1.6-2.9 score points of a possible 25 for each category, 4.5-6.0 of a possible 100 for the total score. Coefficient of variance about the mean was approximately 10 percent for the individual categories, 6.7 percent for the total score. We concluded that the interobserver variance of this scoring system is within acceptable limit for most clinical studies. The total consensus score correlated with the NIH clinical score, chest roentgenogram score alone, and predicted values for forced vital capacity and FEV1 with a high degree of confidence.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987H591600020

    View details for PubMedID 3581936


    View details for Web of Science ID A1987H158300013

    View details for PubMedID 3572624



    Hypergammaglobulinemia, chronic endobronchial infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), and the resulting systemic humoral immune response to PA are each associated with worsened clinical status and prognosis in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Major serum immunoglobulin isotype levels (IgG, IgA, IgM, and IgG1-4 subclasses) were measured in 31 CF patients and ten control subjects. Immunoglobulin levels were related to airway infection with PA and the resulting IgG antibody response against PA lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Hyperimmunoglobulinemia G was present with elevated IgG1 and IgG2 in 48 percent, IgG3 in 52 percent, and IgG4 in 42 percent of CF patients. The PA infection was associated with striking increases in IgG2. IgG2 levels correlated well with IgG2 antibodies to PA LPS (r = +0.70, p less than 0.001). However, even CF patients who were not infected with PA had an increased prevalence of high IgG3 (p less than 0.05) and IgG4 (p less than 0.01). The PA infection thus appears to be a major, but not the only factor causing hypergammaglobulinemia in CF.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987G741000012

    View details for PubMedID 3829744



    To investigate the role of blocking antibodies in allergen immunotherapy (IT), we analyzed IgE, IgG, and IgG subclass 1 to 4 antibody responses to ryegrass group I antigen (RGGI) in a prospective double-blind, heterologous allergen, allergen-controlled trial of grass-pollen IT in 18 adults with seasonal rhinitis and asthma. Serum was assayed preseasonally before starting IT and again in midseason at time of documented highest natural exposure. Antibodies were measured by ELISA, and immunogenic specificities of ryegrass extract were examined by Western immunoblots. Nine subjects receiving grass-pollen IT and nine control subjects had similar clinical and immunologic status before IT. RGGI-specific IgE antibodies (sIgE) did not change from pretreatment levels in actively treated subjects but increased in control subjects (p less than 0.002). RGGI sIgG increased approximately thirteen-fold with active IT versus threefold during natural seasonal exposure (p less than 0.0005). The IgG-blocking response to RGGI was restricted to IgG1 and IgG4. Ten nonatopic subjects had similar RGGI sIgG1 but lower or undetectable sIgE and sIgG4 than the 18 atopic study subjects. Active IT dramatically increased RGGI sIgG4 (p less than 0.001) and to a lesser extent RGGI sIgG1 (p less than 0.01). Immunoblots demonstrated eight IgE-binding ryegrass-polypeptide allergens, with RGGI ubiquitous, and 11 IgG-binding polypeptides, including all eight allergens. A negative correlation between seasonal rhinitis symptom-medication scores and RGGI sIgG1 levels was found (r = -0.62, p less than 0.01), but no other immunologic parameters assayed were related to clinical improvement. Although RGGI sIgG4 predominates in the blocking response and is a useful marker of effective IT, early beneficial biologic effects may involve IgG1 antibodies.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987G179100015

    View details for PubMedID 3819220

  • IgG subclass antibody markers in grass pollen immunotherapy Allergy Proceed Moss RB 1987; 8: 409-15
  • Performance characteristics of immunoenzymatic testing for total and specific immunoglobulin E. Comparison of conventional assay with a microtiter plate accelerated computerized procedure Ann Allergy Moss RB, Hsu Y, Esrig S 1987; 59: 185-91
  • Antibody and immune complex production in cystic fibrosis Pediatr Pulmonol Moss RB 1987; Suppl 1: 95-8
  • Interobserver variance in clinical scoring for cystic fibrosis Chest Lewiston NJ, Moss RB, Hindi R, Rubinstein S, Sullivan MM 1987; 91: 878-92
  • IgE antibodies in young children with possible allergic symptoms J Pediatr Lewiston NJ, Hindi R, Hsu YP, Lewiston J, Moss RB 1987; 110: 738-40


    Inland areas of northern California have an intense grass pollination in the spring of each year. This is accompanied by a stirking rise in the incidence of asthma. We documented this relationship and designed a trial to test the efficacy of immunotherapy for grass-pollen asthma. Aeroallergen counts were performed on the roof of the allergy clinic of David Grant Medical Center from January 1981 to December 1984 by a gravity collector. These counts were compared to counts done on a Rotorod at a nearby hospital from July 1982 to September 1984. Climatologic factors were also tabulated. Visits for asthma and rhinitis to our emergency room and asthma admissions to our hospital were counted for the 4-year period. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of immunotherapy with grass-pollen extract was performed from November 1984 to June 1985. Two groups of clinically and immunologically well-matched subjects were started on an accelerated preseasonal trial of immunotherapy. One group received a standardized grass extract, and the other group did not. Both groups received other extracts of aeroallergens to which they were skin test positive that occur locally in the spring and summer. This was done because of our dissatisfaction with a histamine placebo used in a previous pilot study. Symptom medication scores (SMS) and immunologic parameters were followed. For the 4-year period, grass-pollen count (GPC) correlated strongly with asthma emergency room visits (r = 0.90; p less than 0.001) and for rhinitis (r = 0.92; p less than 0.001). Asthma admissions also correlated strongly with GPC (r = 0.72; p less than 0.001). Other aeroallergens either did not correlate significantly or occurred in such small numbers that they could not be seriously considered. Rotorod counts supported these conclusions with the exceptions of some Basidiomycetes. Climatologic factors demonstrated no relationship to the incidence of asthma. Asthma SMS were lower in the grass-treated group, p less than 0.05. Rhinitis SMS were also lower but did not reach significance, p = 0.11. RGGI sIgE did not rise significantly in the grass-treated group but did in the placebo-treated group. RGGI sIgE rose in both groups, although to significantly higher levels in the grass-treated group, p less than 0.001. The asthma SMS were inversely related to increasing RGGI cumulative dose, p less than 0.10. Linear regression analysis of the dose-response scattergram suggests that a cumulative dose of approximately 90 micrograms of RGGI may be desirable.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986E568200007

    View details for PubMedID 3771951



    Constipation and its complications, particularly meconium ileus equivalent, may become management problems in patients with cystic fibrosis. The medical records of 168 patients with cystic fibrosis were reviewed for the prevalence of constipation and meconium ileus equivalent. Of 168 patients, 54 (32%) had experienced at least one episode of constipation which responded to oral or rectal laxative therapy. In 16 of the study group (9%) meconium ileus equivalent developed. Patients younger than 5 years of age had a lower prevalence and those older than 30 years of age had a much higher prevalence of both conditions. Those with prolonged histories of inadequately controlled steatorrhea appeared to be at higher risk for the eventual development of meconium ileus equivalent. Recurrences and complications of constipation may be avoided by instituting early and aggressive therapy.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986G656000014

    View details for PubMedID 3748682



    Reports on arrhythmias in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are limited. Four CF patients treated at our center had recurrent supraventricular tachycardia (SVT). Three had cor pulmonale, as evidenced by echocardiogram, and all had baseline tachycardia. Twenty-four hour Holter monitoring in three patients showed ectopic atrial pacing and premature atrial and ventricular contractions in one patient, rare PVCs in another, and SVT in all three. All patients had significant bronchospasm requiring the use of theophylline, prednisone, and frequent daily doses of beta-2 adrenergic agonists; two also used nebulized atropine. Average theophylline level for the group was 13.4 micrograms/ml during SVT. There was no correlation between pulmonary obstruction and the frequency of SVT. Factors such as cor pulmonale, ectopy, hypoxia, infection, intensive combination bronchodilator therapy, and corticosteroids probably interacted to precipitate SVT. Altered autonomic responses and a myocardial infiltrative process noted in some patients with CF may also play a role in causing arrhythmias.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986D489000020

    View details for PubMedID 2426046



    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) whose respiratory tracts are colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) may develop a specific opsonic deficiency for alveolar macrophage phagocytosis of PA. We examined the possible role of altered antibody (Ab) isotype in this phenomenon by measuring serum levels and distribution of IgG and IgG subclass Ab (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) to the major opsonic immunodeterminant, serotype-specific lipopolysaccharide (LPS), by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays employing monoclonal secondary antibodies, and comparing these results to the serum opsonic capacity in an in vitro murine alveolar macrophage phagocytic assay. Twenty-one patients with CF who were colonized with PA had approximately a 30-fold elevation of PA LPS IgG Ab levels and higher IgG subclass 1-4 Ab compared to 10 uncolonized patients with CF and 11 healthy controls (p less than 0.05-0.0005 depending on the isotype). Colonized patients with CF had a shift in PA LPS Ab distribution toward IgG3 compared to uncolonized patients with CF (p less than 0.02). A surprising finding was that uncolonized patients with CF had lower levels (p less than 0.05) and proportion (p less than 0.002) of PA LPS IgG2 Ab than controls, with an apparent shift to higher levels and proportion of PA LPS IgG4 (p less than 0.01). Serum from colonized patients with CF showed diminished opsonic capacity for phagocytosis of PA compared to uncolonized patients and controls (p less than 0.005), with 42% showing inhibitory activity. Functional Ab was also found to be inhibitory at high (greater than 500 ng/ml) concentrations. Serum opsonic capacity appeared to include a noncomplement cofactor for optimal activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986C005200015

    View details for PubMedID 3714355



    The relevance of circulating immune complexes, plasma complement activation, and serum antibodies against discrete antigens of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to the clinical course in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is unknown. We related these factors to outcome in 49 patients with CF colonized by P. aeruginosa, comparing 14 who died of lung disease with 35 survivors of similar age and duration of colonization, as well as 9 uncolonized patients with CF, 24 patients with other bronchorrheic lung disease, and 10 healthy control subjects. The patients with CF colonized by P. aeruginosa who died had a higher incidence of immune complexes than did survivors (71 versus 40%, p less than 0.05). Moreover, C4 activation was highly associated with immune complexes and mortality (p less than 0.001 for each). Those who died also had much higher levels of IgG antibodies to P. aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and exotoxin A than did survivors colonized by P. aeruginosa (p less than 0.005 and p = 0.01, respectively), whereas both groups had similar levels of P. aeruginosa sonicate, elastase, alkaline protease, and endotoxin core antibodies. We conclude that increasing levels of serum IgG antibodies to P. aeruginosa LPS and exotoxin A and the presence of systemic immune complexes and complement activation are associated with poor prognosis in CF, and may provide useful noninvasive markers for studying the possible immunopathogenesis of CF lung disease.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986A740600026

    View details for PubMedID 3083745



    The protective effect of breast-feeding in allergy prophylaxis remains controversial despite many epidemiologic studies. One reason for confusion could be heterogeneity of breast milk with regard to its protective capacity. To clarify this issue, we studied 57 mother-infant pairs where breast-feeding was the sole source of infant nutrition. Family history and infant symptom scores suggestive of allergic disease were noted. The presence and quantity in breast milk of a prominent food allergen (beta-lactoglobulin), total IgA, and IgA antibodies to whole cow's milk and casein were measured serially. Eleven infants had symptom scores highly suggestive of allergic disease. The breast milk from mothers of these 11 infants was found to have lower total IgA (p less than 0.01) and IgA antibodies to both whole cow's milk and casein (p less than 0.001 and p less than 0.005, respectively) than milk from mothers whose infants had few or no symptoms. Beta-lactoglobulin was detectable in 45% of breast-milk specimens at concentrations up to 6.4 ng/ml and persisted up to 3 days after maternal dietary milk exclusion but was unrelated to antibody levels or symptom scores. Inadequate quantities of maternal IgA antibodies to food allergens appear to play a permissive role in development of infantile allergic disease in breast-fed infants and are more closely associated with symptoms than parental atopic history.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986A089900013

    View details for PubMedID 3484762


    View details for Web of Science ID A1986E550300019

    View details for PubMedID 3093848

  • IgG subclasses in respiratory disorders: cystic fibrosis Shakib F (ed), Basic and Clinical Aspects of IgG Subclasses. Monographs in Allergy, vol. 19. SW Karger, Basel Moss RB 1986: 202-9
  • Constipation and meconium ileus equivalent in cystic fibrosis Pediatrics Rubinstein S, Moss RB, Lewiston NJ 1986; 78: 473-9
  • Generation and characterization of human monoclonal anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa antibodies Strelkauskas A (ed), Human Hybridomas: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York Larrick JW, Hart SM, Lippman D, Glembourtt M, Hsu YP, Moss RB 1986: 65-80
  • Cow's milk allergy in breast fed infants. Role of allergen and breast milk secretory IgA antibody J Allergy Clin Immunol Machtinger S, Moss RB 1986; 77: 341-7
  • Immune complexes in CF: keys to new clinical insight J Respir Dis Lewiston NJ, Moss RB. 1986; 7: 60-6
  • In vitro expansion of human B cells for the production of human monoclonal antibodies Engleman EG, Foung SKH, Larrick JW, Raubitschek AA (eds), Human Hybridomas and Monoclonal Antibodies. Plenum Press, NY Larrick JW, Dyer BJ, Senyk G, Hart SM, Moss RB, Lippman D, Jahnsen MC, Wang J, Weintraub H, Raubitschek AA 1985: 149-65
  • CYSTIC-FIBROSIS AND NEURO-BLASTOMA PEDIATRICS Moss, R. B., BLESSINGMOORE, J., Bender, S. W., Weibel, A. 1985; 76 (5): 814-817


    Two cases of coexistent cystic fibrosis and infantile thoracic neuroblastoma are presented. In one patient, neuroblastoma was congenital, and diagnosis of cystic fibrosis was made at 3 months of age; in the other, the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis was made at 7 months of age, preceding that of neuroblastoma by 4 months. In both infants, surgical resection of the tumors have been successful. Recent advances in the genetic aspects of neuroblastoma, including translocation and activation of the oncogene N-myc, are discussed. Current recombinant DNA technology, which can identify translocation of N-myc and allow localization of the cystic fibrosis gene if the translocation occurs near the cystic fibrosis allele, is being applied to these cases.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985ATR5200017

    View details for PubMedID 4058992



    We developed an ELISA by use of monoclonal anti-IgE to measure allergen-specific IgE. We measured perennial ryegrass (PRG) specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) with conventional single incubations and with the recently reported transfer method to decrease interference in the assay. Paired sera in 10 patients before and during immunotherapy with PRG extract were analyzed for PRG sIgE with single serum incubations and with the sum of five serial serum incubations. A standardized reference serum and patient sera were incubated 12 hours and then transferred to a second well, incubated 12 hours more, and transferred again. The process was repeated until five pairs of wells had been incubated with each serum dilution. Color was developed, and optical density was measured. PRG sIgE was calculated by interpolation from the reference curve. Evidence of interference was inferred when less PRG sIgE was detected by single incubation than by transfer. Inhibition of 71.3% occurred in the sera drawn during immunotherapy. Inhibition of 32.9% was found before immunotherapy. Also, a late peaking of the well-to-well curve of optical density was observed in nine of 10 sera drawn during immunotherapy (the exception had not reached full strength), whereas all of the sera drawn before immunotherapy had normal curves. This suggests that sIgE determinations performed in microtiter plate format with single incubations will usually underestimate the sIgE level. This drawback needs to be kept in mind by the clinician interpreting the results of these assays.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985APE8800009

    View details for PubMedID 3894478

  • Allergic phenomena in cystic fibrosis Shapira E, Wilson GB (eds), Immunological Aspects of Cystic Fibrosis. CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton Lewiston NJ, Moss RB 1984: 125-47


    Allergic reactions to anti-Pseudomonal penicillin derivatives are an increasing problem in therapy of cystic fibrosis lung disease. We evaluated 15 patients, ages 12 to 37 years, with documented allergic reactions to carbenicillin, ticarcillin, or piperacillin. Intradermal skin test reactions were positive for benzylpenicillin in seven patients, penicilloyl-polylysine in one, and ticarcillin or piperacillin in eight, for a total of 11 of 11 tested. Results of radioallergosorbent testing to penicilloyl conjugates were positive in eight of 14 patients and equivocal in four others. Overall, skin tests or RAST results were positive in 13 of 15 patients. All patients were desensitized with a semisynthetic penicillin by continuous serial intravenous infusion of 10-fold dose increments, beginning with 10(-6) of the therapeutic dose. Desensitization was successful in 25 of 26 instances. After intravenously administered therapy, maintenance of desensitization with dicloxacillin orally was unsuccessful in four of six patients. We conclude that (1) allergy to semisynthetic penicillins in cystic fibrosis usually is IgE mediated; (2) such allergy can be evaluated by skin testing; (3) it can be safely and in most cases successfully treated by intravenous desensitization; and (4) allergic patients should be desensitized on each subsequent admission for intravenously administered therapy.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1984SH24800027

    View details for PubMedID 6323664



    Fifteen grass pollen--sensitive asthmatic patients were selected from 200 patients with grass pollenosis on the basis of positive SPTs and RASTs that were restricted to grass pollens (except Bermuda grass), no previous IT, and residence and occupation in an area monitored by serial pollen counts. They underwent a double-blind trial of specific IT with a mixture of three grass pollen--aqueous extracts (velvet, sweet vernal, and timothy) or placebo. After 10 mo, the mean maintenance dose of pollen extract (assayed by RAST inhibition) in eight actively treated patients was 6000 RAST units (range 3000 to 8000) and the mean total dose was 18,700 RAST units (range 10,200 to 30,000). Results were assessment done by the following clinical and immunological data: (1) during the pollen season, daily symptom scores; (2) PD 20% FEV1, IgE antibody to timothy by RAST in serum and in nasal secretions, serum IgG antibody to purified timothy allergen D by solid-phase radioimmunoassay, and the four IgG subclass antibodies by enzyme immunoassay were all measured before treatment and before and after the pollen season. Symptom scores of both treated patients and controls correlated with pollen counts (R = 0.88, p less than 0.05 and R = 0.71, p less than 0.05, respectively). There was a significant difference between the mean symptom score values of treated patients versus controls (Kruskal-Wallis test, p less than 0.001). No significant differences or changes either in the PD 20% FEV1 or IgE antibody to timothy in serum and nasal secretions were found in the two groups before or after IT.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    View details for Web of Science ID A1984SF02000011

    View details for PubMedID 6366027

  • Immunopathology of cystic fibrosis Shapira E, Wilson GB (eds), Immunological Aspects of Cystic Fibrosis. CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton Moss RB 1984: 5-27

    View details for Web of Science ID A1984TN36300004

    View details for PubMedID 6486527

  • Enzyme immunoassay for honeybee venom specific IgG4 Avrameas S (ed), Immunoenzymatic Techniques. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam Halpern GM, Moss RB, Hsu YP, Blessing J 1983: 395-401
  • A microtiter immunoenzymatic assay for antigen-specific IgG4 subclass antibodies Clin Rev Allergy Hsu YP, Moss RB. 1983; 1: 233-6
  • IgG4 antibody to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis Kerr JW, Ganderton MA (eds), Proceedings of Invited Symposia, XII International Congress of Allergology and Clinical Immunology, Macmillan, London Moss RB, Hsu YP, Leahy M, Halpern G 1983: 351-5

    View details for Web of Science ID A1983QQ10300007

    View details for PubMedID 6424924

  • Immunology of cystic fibrosis: immunity, immunodeficiency, and hypersensitivity. Lloyd-Still JD (ed), Textbook of Cystic Fibrosis. Wright-PSG Publishing Inc., Boston Moss RB 1983: 109-51


    A methodology for the isolation and immunologic characterization of IgG-containing circulating immune complexes (IgG-CIC) as detected by the 125IClq-binding assay (ClqBA) is described. We applied this methodology to sera from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), both positive and negative for IgG-CIC. We used latex-fixation-positive rheumatoid arthritis sera and normal human sera as positive and negative controls, respectively. All IgG-CIC-positive serum samples from CF patients were found to contain antibodies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the isolated complexes. Some patients also had antibodies in CIC specific for Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. CIC specificity corresponded to respiratory tract colonization for each patient.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1982MY86800011

    View details for PubMedID 6804143

  • ENZYME-IMMUNOASSAY FOR HONEY BEE VENOM SPECIFIC IGG4 Moss, R., Hsu, Y. P., Blessing, J., Halpern, G. SLACK INC. 1982: A165–A165


    We studied the incidence and levels of circulating immune complexes by the 125I-Clq-binding assay in patients with cystic fibrosis in relation to clinical respiratory status and specific IgG and IgE antibodies to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Candida albicans. Overall prevalence of CIC was 43%, but 86% of serially studied patients had evidence of CIC at some time. Patients with acute respiratory exacerbations and deteriorating pulmonary function had a higher incidence of CIC (76%) as compared to stable patients (36%, P less than 0.01), as well as significantly higher levels of CIC. Acute exacerbations were also associated with significant increases in IgG antibody to Pseudomonas (P less than 0.005) but not in other antibodies. CIC did not correlate with Pseudomonas-specific IgG nor with any other specific antibody studied. A variety of age-related differences in specific antibody levels were seen. The episodic appearance of CIC is common in CF and is usually associated with exacerbation of lung disease.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1981MB25400008

    View details for PubMedID 7252678



    We studied the humoral immune status of 51 patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) as compared to 25 patients with other respiratory diseases (RD). CF patients had higher serum concentrations of IgG and IgA (p less than 0.001), C5, and CH50 (p less than 0.05), than did RD patients. Twenty-three % of CF patients had increased IgE concentrations. Of 32 CF and 1 RD patients colonized with mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), 91% had serum precipitins to PA, whereas no precipients were found in patients not colonized with mucoid PA. Fifty-one % of CF patients had circulating immune complexes detected by 125I-C1q binding (for CF patients mean values +/- SD, 14.5 +/- 12% versus 7.5 +/- 3.4% for RD patients; p less than 0.005). Complexes were correlated with higher serum IgA concentrations but not other immunoglobulins, complement components, response to PA, or pulmonary function at time of assay. Extra vascular formation of complexes was suggested by uniform absence of plasma C3 activation in vivo.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1980JC52300004

    View details for PubMedID 6766286

  • Cuirass ventilation in childhood neuromuscular disease J Pediatr O'Leary J, Moss RB, King R, Liebhaber M, Lewiston N 1979; 94: 419-21


    A qualitative counterimmunoelectrophoretic assay for the complement activation products C3c and C3d was used to study plasma from children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and other rheumatic diseases. Positive tests for C3c,d were found in all patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 7 of 10 patients with active systemic JRA, 16 of 29 with active polyarticular JRA, 7 of 20 with active pauciarticular JRA, and in only 2 of 20 with inactive joint disease. The incidence of positive assays for C3c,d in JRA was increased in the presence of positive latex fixation tests, antinuclear antibody tests, or elevated values for antiglobulins as determined by affinity chromatography, but these associations were not statistically significant. Three joint fluids from children with pauciarticular JRA were negative for C3c,d. These studies show that the subgroups of JRA defined by clinical criteria are heterogeneous by current laboratory parameters and that evidence implicating antigen-antibody complexes in the pathogenesis of JRA is lacking in many patients.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1979GV95900010

    View details for PubMedID 312646



    Respiratory distress was the presenting feature in a 4-month-old male infant suffering from Déjérine-Sottas disease, an inherited sensory-motor polyneuropathy. This unusual but potentially benign disorder can be diagnosed upon peripheral nerve biopsy by noting extensive demyelination with "onion bulb" formation. Polyneuropathy should be considered in the differential diagnosis of infantile neuromuscular weakness including or solely involving bulbar and respiratory muscles.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1979HQ25900012

    View details for PubMedID 492811

  • The immunologic and clinical associations of the split products of C'3 in plasma in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis Arth Rheum Miller JJ, Hsu YP, Moss RB, Olds L 1979; 22: 502-7