Current Role at Stanford
Biomechanist in the Human Performance Lab
Education & Certifications
PhD, University of Western Ontario, Kinesiology (2009)
B.Eng, McGill University, Mechanical Engineering (2005)
Biomechanist in the Human Performance Lab
Morbidity and mortality from preventable, non-communicable chronic disease (NCD) threatens the health of our populations and our economies. The accumulation of vast amounts of scientific knowledge has done little to change this. New and innovative thinking is essential to foster new creative approaches that leverage and integrate evidence through the support of big data, technology and design thinking. The purpose of this paper is to summarise the results of a consensus meeting on NCD prevention sponsored by the IOC in April 2013. Within the context of advocacy for multifaceted systems change, the IOC's focus is to create solutions that gain traction within healthcare systems. The group of participants attending the meeting achieved consensus on a strategy for the prevention and management of chronic disease that includes the following: (1) Focus on behavioural change as the core component of all clinical programmes for the prevention and management of chronic disease. (2) Establish actual centres to design, implement, study and improve preventive programmes for chronic disease. (3) Use human-centred design in the creation of prevention programmes with an inclination to action, rapid prototyping and multiple iterations. (4) Extend the knowledge and skills of Sports and Exercise Medicine (SEM) professionals to build new programmes for the prevention and treatment of chronic disease focused on physical activity, diet and lifestyle. (5) Mobilise resources and leverage networks to scale and distribute programmes of prevention. True innovation lies in the ability to align thinking around these core strategies to ensure successful implementation of NCD prevention and management programmes within healthcare. The IOC and SEM community are in an ideal position to lead this disruptive change. The outcome of the consensus meeting was the creation of the IOC Non-Communicable Diseases ad hoc Working Group charged with the responsibility of moving this agenda forward.
View details for DOI 10.1136/bjsports-2013-093034
View details for Web of Science ID 000325530900002
View details for PubMedID 24115479
Morbidity and mortality from preventable, non-communicable chronic disease (NCD) threatens the health of our populations and our economies. The accumulation of vast amounts of scientific knowledge has done little to change this. New and innovative thinking is essential to foster new creative approaches that leverage and integrate evidence through the support of big data, technology, and design thinking. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the results of a consensus meeting on NCD prevention sponsored by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in April, 2013. Within the context of advocacy for multifaceted systems change, the IOC's focus is to create solutions that gain traction within health care systems. The group of participants attending the meeting achieved consensus on a strategy for the prevention and management of chronic disease that includes the following: 1. Focus on behavioural change as the core component of all clinical programs for the prevention and management of chronic disease. 2. Establish actual centres to design, implement, study, and improve preventive programs for chronic disease. 3. Use human-centered design in the creation of prevention programs with an inclination to action, rapid prototyping and multiple iterations. 4. Extend the knowledge and skills of Sports and Exercise Medicine (SEM) professionals to build new programs for the prevention and treatment of chronic disease focused on physical activity, diet and lifestyle. 5. Mobilize resources and leverage networks to scale and distribute programs of prevention. True innovation lies in the ability to align thinking around these core strategies to ensure successful implementation of NCD prevention and management programs within health care. The IOC and SEM community are in an ideal position to lead this disruptive change. The outcome of the consensus meeting was the creation of the IOC Non-Communicable Diseases ad-hoc Working Group charged with the responsibility of moving this agenda forward.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s40279-013-0104-3
View details for PubMedID 24129783
To describe the variability in the return-to-play (RTP) decisions of experienced team clinicians and to assess their clinical opinion as to the relevance of 19 factors described in a RTP decision-making model.Survey questionnaire.Advanced Team Physician Course.Sixty seven of 101 sports medicine clinicians completed the questionnaire.Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. For categorical variables, we report percentage and frequency. For continuous variables, we report mean (SD) if data were approximately normally distributed and frequencies for clinically relevant categories for skewed data.The average number of years of clinical sports medicine experience was 13.6 (9.8). Of the 62 clinicians who responded fully, 35% (n = 22) would "clear" (vs "not clear") an athlete to participate in sport even if the risk of an acute reinjury or long-term sequelae is increased. When respondents were given 6 different RTP options rather than binary choices, there were increased discrepancies across some injury risk scenarios. For example, 8.1% to 16.1% of respondents who chose to clear an athlete when presented with binary choices, later chose to "not clear" an athlete when given 6 graded RTP options. The respondents often considered factors of potential importance to athletes as nonimportant to the RTP decision process if risk of reinjury was unaffected (range, n = 4 [10%] to n = 19 [45%]).There is a high degree of variability in how different clinicians weight the different factors related to RTP decision making. More precise definitions decrease but do not eliminate this variability.
View details for DOI 10.1097/JSM.0b013e318295bb17
View details for PubMedID 23797160
The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel instrumented mouthguard as a research device for measuring head impact kinematics. To evaluate kinematic accuracy, laboratory impact testing was performed at sites on the helmet and facemask for determining how closely instrumented mouthguard data matched data from an anthropomorphic test device. Laboratory testing results showed that peak linear acceleration (r (2) = 0.96), peak angular acceleration (r (2) = 0.89), and peak angular velocity (r (2) = 0.98) measurements were highly correlated between the instrumented mouthguard and anthropomorphic test device. Normalized root-mean-square errors for impact time traces were 9.9 ± 4.4% for linear acceleration, 9.7 ± 7.0% for angular acceleration, and 10.4 ± 9.9% for angular velocity. This study demonstrates the potential of an instrumented mouthguard as a research tool for measuring in vivo impacts, which could help uncover the link between head impact kinematics and brain injury in American football.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s10439-013-0801-y
View details for Web of Science ID 000323736800015
View details for PubMedID 23604848
This study examined the influence of a 6-week gait retraining program on the knee adduction moment (KAM) and knee pain and function. Ten subjects with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis and self-reported knee pain participated in weekly gait retraining sessions over 6 weeks. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores and a 10-point visual-analog pain scale score were measured at baseline, post-training (end of 6 weeks), and 1 month after training ended. Gait retraining reduced the first peak KAM by 20% (p?0.01) post-training as a result of a 7° decrease in foot progression angle (i.e., increased internal foot rotation), compared to baseline (p?0.01). WOMAC pain and function scores were improved at post-training by 29% and 32%, respectively (p?0.05) and visual-analog pain scale scores improved by two points (p?0.05). Changes in WOMAC pain and function were approximately 75% larger than the expected placebo effect (p?0.05). Changes in KAM, foot progression angle, WOMAC pain and function, and visual-analog pain score were retained 1 month after the end of the 6-week training period (p?0.05). These results show that a 6-week gait retraining program can reduce the KAM and improve symptoms for individuals with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis and knee pain. © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 31:1020-1025, 2013.
View details for DOI 10.1002/jor.22340
View details for PubMedID 23494804
Context: The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is a popular test to evaluate the degree of painful, dysfunctional, and asymmetric movement patterns. Despite great interest in the FMS, test-retest reliability data have not been published. Objective: To assess the test-retest and interrater reliability of the FMS and to compare the scoring by 1 rater during a live session and the same session on video. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Human performance laboratory in the sports medicine center. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 21 female (age = 19.6 ± 1.5 years, height = 1.7 ± 0.1 m, mass = 64.4 ± 5.1 kg) and 18 male (age = 19.7 ± 1.0 years, height = 1.9 ± 0.1 m, mass = 80.1 ± 9.9 kg) National Collegiate Athletic Association Division IA varsity athletes volunteered. Intervention(s): Each athlete was tested and retested 1 week later by the same rater who also scored the athlete's first session from a video recording. Five other raters scored the video from the first session. Main Outcome Measure(s): The Krippendorff ? (K ?) was used to assess the interrater reliability, whereas intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to assess the test-retest reliability and reliability of live-versus-video scoring. Results: Good reliability was found for the test-retest (ICC = 0.6), and excellent reliability was found for the live-versus-video sessions (ICC = 0.92). Poor reliability was found for the interrater reliability (K ? = .38). Conclusions: The good test-retest and high live-versus-video session reliability show that the FMS is a usable tool within 1 rater. However, the low interrater K ? values suggest that the FMS within the limits of generalization should not be used indiscriminately to detect deficiencies that place the athlete at greater risk for injury. The FMS interrater reliability may be improved with better training for the rater.
View details for DOI 10.4085/1062-6050-48.2.11
View details for PubMedID 23675792
The first peak of the knee adduction moment has been linked to the presence, severity, and progression of medial compartment knee osteoarthritis. The objective of this study was to evaluate toe-in gait (decreased foot progression angle from baseline through internal foot rotation) as a means to reduce the first peak of the knee adduction moment in subjects with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis. Additionally, we examined whether the first peak in the knee adduction moment would cause a concomitant increase in the peak external knee flexion moment, which can eliminate reductions in the medial compartment force that result from lowering the knee adduction moment. We tested the following hypotheses: (a) toe-in gait reduces the first peak of the knee adduction moment, and (b) toe-in gait does not increase the peak external knee flexion moment. Twelve patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis first performed baseline walking trials and then toe-in gait trials at their self-selected speed on an instrumented treadmill in a motion capture laboratory. Subjects altered their foot progression angle from baseline to toe-in gait by an average of 5° (p<0.01), which reduced the first peak of the knee adduction moment by an average of 13% (p<0.01). Toe-in gait did not increase the peak external knee flexion moment (p=0.85). The reduced knee adduction moment was accompanied by a medially-shifted knee joint center and a laterally-shifted center of pressure during early stance. These results suggest that toe-in gait may be a promising non-surgical treatment for patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2012.10.019
View details for Web of Science ID 000314258000021
This study investigated maximal cardiometabolic response while running in a lower body positive pressure treadmill (antigravity treadmill (AG)), which reduces body weight (BW) and impact. The AG is used in rehabilitation of injuries but could have potential for high-speed running, if workload is maximally elevated.Fourteen trained (nine male) runners (age 27 ± 5 yr; 10-km personal best, 38.1 ± 1.1 min) completed a treadmill incremental test (CON) to measure aerobic capacity and heart rate (VO(2max) and HR(max)). They completed four identical tests (48 h apart, randomized order) on the AG at BW of 100%, 95%, 90%, and 85% (AG100 to AG85). Stride length and rate were measured at peak velocities (V(peak)).VO(2max) (mL.kg(-1).min(-1)) was similar across all conditions (men: CON = 66.6 (3.0), AG100 = 65.6 (3.8), AG95 = 65.0 (5.4), AG90 = 65.6 (4.5), and AG85 = 65.0 (4.8); women: CON = 63.0 (4.6), AG100 = 61.4 (4.3), AG95 = 60.7 (4.8), AG90 = 61.4 (3.3), and AG85 = 62.8 (3.9)). Similar results were found for HR(max), except for AG85 in men and AG100 and AG90 in women, which were lower than CON. V(peak) (km.h(-1)) in men was 19.7 (0.9) in CON, which was lower than every other condition: AG100 = 21.0 (1.9) (P < 0.05), AG95 = 21.4 (1.8) (P < 0.01), AG90 = 22.3 (2.1) (P < 0.01), and AG85 = 22.6 (1.6) (P < 0.001). In women, V(peak) (km.h(-1)) was similar between CON (17.8 (1.1) ) and AG100 (19.3 (1.0)) but higher at AG95 = 19.5 (0.4) (P < 0.05), AG90 = 19.5 (0.8) (P < 0.05), and AG85 = 21.2 (0.9) (P < 0.01).The AG can be used at maximal exercise intensities at BW of 85% to 95%, reaching faster running speeds than normally feasible. The AG could be used for overspeed running programs at the highest metabolic response levels.
View details for DOI 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31825a5d1f
View details for Web of Science ID 000309110700014
View details for PubMedID 22543742
To characterise the nature of the sport injury prevention literature by reviewing published articles that evaluate specific clinical interventions designed to reduce sport injury risks.PubMed, Cinahl, Web of Science and Embase.Only 139 of 2525 articles retrieved met the inclusion criteria. Almost 40% were randomised controlled trials and 30.2% were cohort studies. The focus of the study was protective equipment in 41%, training in 32.4%, education in 7.9%, rules and regulations in 4.3%, and 13.3% involved a combination of the above. Equipment research studied stability devices (42.1%), head and face protectors (33.3%), attenuating devices (17.5%) as well as other devices (7%). Training studies often used a combination of interventions (eg, balance and stretching); most included balance and coordination (63.3%), with strength and power (36.7%) and stretching (22.5%) being less common. Almost 70% of the studies examined lower extremity injuries, and a majority of these were joint (non-bone)-ligament injuries. Contact sports were most frequently studied (41.5%), followed by collision (39.8%) and non-contact (20.3%).The authors found only 139 publications in the existing literature that examined interventions designed to prevent sports injury. Of these, the majority investigated equipment or training interventions whereas only 4% focused on changes to the rules and regulations that govern sport. The focus of intervention research is on acute injuries in collision and contact sports whereas only 20% of the studies focused on non-contact sports.
View details for DOI 10.1136/bjsm.2010.081182
View details for Web of Science ID 000300458100006
View details for PubMedID 21471144
To analyse published articles that used interventions aimed at investigating biomechanical/physiological outcomes (ie, intermediate risk factors) for sport injury prevention in order to characterise the state of the field and identify important areas not covered in the literature.PubMed, Cinahl, Web of Science and Embase were searched using a broad search strategy.Only 144 of 2525 articles retrieved by the search strategy met the inclusion criteria. Crossover study designs increased by 175% in the late 1980s until 2005 but have declined 32% since then. Randomised controlled trial (RCT) study designs increased by 650% since the early 1980s. Protective equipment studies (61.8% of all studies) declined by 35% since 2000, and training studies (35.4% of all studies) increased by 213%. Equipment research studied stability devices (83.1%) and attenuating devices (13.5%) whereas training research studied balance and coordination (54.9%), strength and power (43.1%) and stretching (15.7%). Almost all (92.1%) studies investigated the lower extremity and 78.1% were of the joint (non-bone)-ligament type. Finally, 57.5% of the reports studied contact sports, 24.2% collision and 25.8% non-contact sports.The decrease in crossover study design and increase in RCTs over time suggest a shift in study design for injury prevention articles. Another notable finding was the change in research focus from equipment interventions, which have been decreasing since 2000 (35% decline), to training interventions, which have been increasing (213% increase). Finally, there is very little research on overuse or upper extremity injuries.
View details for DOI 10.1136/bjsm.2010.080929
View details for Web of Science ID 000300458100005
View details for PubMedID 21508076
Measuring individual foot joint motions requires a multi-segment foot model, even when the subject is wearing a shoe. Each foot segment must be tracked with at least three skin-mounted markers, but for these markers to be visible to an optical motion capture system holes or 'windows' must be cut into the structure of the shoe. The holes must be sufficiently large avoiding interfering with the markers, but small enough that they do not compromise the shoe's structural integrity. The objective of this study was to determine the maximum size of hole that could be cut into a running shoe upper without significantly compromising its structural integrity or changing the kinematics of the foot within the shoe. Three shoe designs were tested: (1) neutral cushioning, (2) motion control and (3) stability shoes. Holes were cut progressively larger, with four sizes tested in all. Foot joint motions were measured: (1) hindfoot with respect to midfoot in the frontal plane, (2) forefoot twist with respect to midfoot in the frontal plane, (3) the height-to-length ratio of the medial longitudinal arch and (4) the hallux angle with respect to first metatarsal in the sagittal plane. A single subject performed level walking at her preferred pace in each of the three shoes with ten repetitions for each hole size. The largest hole that did not disrupt shoe integrity was an oval of 1.7cm×2.5cm. The smallest shoe deformations were seen with the motion control shoe. The least change in foot joint motion was forefoot twist in both the neutral shoe and stability shoe for any size hole. This study demonstrates that for a hole smaller than this size, optical motion capture with a cluster-based multi-segment foot model is feasible for measure foot in shoe kinematics in vivo.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.medengphy.2011.06.017
View details for Web of Science ID 000299853200014
View details for PubMedID 21890394
The trajectories of skin-mounted markers tracked with optical motion capture are assumed to be an adequate representation of the underlying bone motions. However, it is well known that soft tissue artifact (STA) exists between marker and bone. This study quantifies the STA associated with the hindfoot and midfoot marker clusters of a multi-segment foot model. To quantify STA of the hindfoot and midfoot marker clusters with respect to the calcaneus and navicular respectively, fluoroscopic images were collected on 27 subjects during four quasi-static positions, (1) quiet standing (non-weight bearing), (2) at heel strike (weight-bearing), (3) at midstance (weight-bearing) and (4) at toe-off (weight-bearing). The translation and rotation components of STA were calculated in the sagittal plane. Translational STA at the calcaneus varied from 5.9±7.3mm at heel-strike to 12.1±0.3mm at toe-off. For the navicular the translational STA ranged from 7.6±7.6mm at heel strike to 16.4±16.7mm at toe-off. Rotational STA was relatively smaller for both bones at all foot positions. For the calcaneus they varied between 0.1±2.2° at heel-strike to 0.2±0.6° at toe-off. For the navicular, the rotational STA ranged from 0.6±0.9° at heel-strike to 0.7±0.7° at toe-off. The largest translational STA found in this study (16mm for the navicular) was smaller than those reported in the literature for the thigh and the lower leg, but was larger than the STA of individual spherical markers affixed to the foot. The largest errors occurred at toe-off position for all subjects for both the hindfoot and midfoot clusters. Future studies are recommended to quantify true three-dimensional STA of the entire foot during gait.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2011.03.008
View details for Web of Science ID 000292237200008
View details for PubMedID 21498078
Return-to-play (RTP) decisions are a central component of the Team Physician's clinical work, yet there is little more than anecdotal reference to these in the literature. We recently published a 3-step model for return-to-play medical decision making and, in the current paper, undertook a systematic review of the literature to determine the level of evidence in support of this model.PubMed, Web of Science, and CINAHL electronic databases. Any article specifically related to concussion, head injuries, neck injuries, illness, medical conditions (including cardiovascular and renal), and preparticipation in sport or that reported RTP as a clinical outcome was excluded. Any article that contained a discussion on one of the components of the 3-step decision-based RTP model was included.We reviewed 148 articles that met the criteria for inclusion and found 98 review articles, 39 original articles, 6 case reports, and 5 editorials. Of these, 141 articles mentioned Step 1 of the medical decision-making process for RTP (Medical Factors), 26 mentioned Step 2 (Sport Risk Modifiers), and 20 mentioned Step 3 (Decision Modifiers). Of the 148 articles in total, only 13 focused on RTP as the main subject and the remaining 135 mentioned RTP anecdotally. Of these 13 articles, 5 were reviews, 4 were editorials, and 4 were original research.Although 148 articles we retrieved mention RTP in relation to a specific injury, medical condition, or specific topic, only 13 articles focused specifically on the RTP decision-making process, and 6 of 13 were restricted to Step 1 of the 3-step model (Medical Factors). Return-to-play is a fertile field for research and thought leadership beginning with a focus on the Team Physician's appropriate role in RTP decision making, particularly considering the factors identified in Step 3 (Decision Modification).
View details for DOI 10.1097/JSM.0b013e3182095f92
View details for Web of Science ID 000285866300005
View details for PubMedID 21200167
To identify the nature and extent of research in sport injury prevention with respect to 3 main categories: (1) training, (2) equipment, and (3) rules and regulations.We searched PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, Embase, and SPORTDiscus to retrieve all sports injury prevention publications. Articles were categorized according to the translating research into injury prevention practice model.We retrieved 11 859 articles published since 1938. Fifty-six percent (n = 6641) of publications were nonresearch (review articles and editorials). Publications documenting incidence (n = 1354) and etiology (n = 2558) were the most common original research articles (33% of total). Articles reporting preventive measures (n = 708) and efficacy (n = 460) were less common (10% of the total), and those investigating implementation (n = 162) and effectiveness (n = 32) were rare (1% of total). Six hundred seventy-seven studies focused on equipment and devices to protect against injury, whereas 551 investigated various forms of physical training related to injury prevention. Surprisingly, publications studying changes in rules and regulations aimed at increasing safety and reducing injuries were rare (<1%; n = 63) with a peak of only 20 articles over the most recent 5-year period and an average of 10 articles over the preceding 5-year blocks of time.Only 492 of 11 859 publications actually assessed the effectiveness of sports injury prevention interventions or their implementation. Research in the area of regulatory change is underrepresented and might represent one of the greatest opportunities to prevent injury.
View details for DOI 10.1097/JSM.0b013e3181f4a99c
View details for PubMedID 21079434
Return-to-play (RTP) decisions are fundamental to the practice of sports medicine but vary greatly for the same medical condition and circumstance. Although there are published articles that identify individual components that go into these decisions, there exists neither quantitative criteria nor a model for the sequence or weighting of these components within the medical decision-making process. Our objective was to develop a decision-based model for clinical use by sports medicine practitioners.English literature related to RTP decision making.We developed a 3-step decision-based RTP model for an injury or illness that is specific to the individual practitioner making the RTP decision: health status, participation risk, and decision modification. In Step 1, the Health Status of the athlete is assessed through the evaluation of Medical Factors related to how much healing has occurred. In Step 2, the clinician evaluates the Participation Risk associated with participation, which is informed by not only the current health status but also by the Sport Risk Modifiers (eg, ability to protect the injury with padding, athlete position). Different individuals are expected to have different thresholds for "acceptable level of risk," and these thresholds will change based on context. In Step 3, Decision Modifiers are considered and the decision to RTP or not is made.Our model helps clarify the processes that clinicians use consciously and subconsciously when making RTP decisions. Providing such a structure should decrease controversy, assist physicians, and identify important gaps in practice areas where research evidence is lacking.
View details for DOI 10.1097/JSM.0b013e3181f3c0fe
View details for Web of Science ID 000281559200012
View details for PubMedID 20818198
The weight-bearing in-vivo kinematics and kinetics of the talocrural joint, subtalar joint and joints of the foot were quantified using optical motion analysis. Twelve healthy subjects were studied during level walking and anticipated medial turns at self-selected pace. A multi-segment model of the foot using skin-mounted marker triads tracked four foot segments: the hindfoot, midfoot, lateral and medial forefoot. The lower leg and thigh were also tracked. Motion between each of the segments could occur in three degrees of rotational freedom, but only six inter-segmental motions were reported in this study: (1) talocrural dorsi-plantar-flexion, (2) subtalar inversion-eversion, (3) frontal plane hindfoot motion, (4) transverse plane hindfoot motion, (5) forefoot supination-pronation twisting and (6) the height-to-length ratio of the medial longitudinal arch. The motion at the subtalar joint during stance phase of walking (eversion then inversion) was reversed during a turning task (inversion then eversion). The external subtalar joint moment was also changed from a moderate eversion moment during walking to a larger inversion moment during the turn. The kinematics of the talocrural joint and the joints of the foot were similar between these two tasks. During a medial turn, the subtalar joint may act to maintain the motions in the foot and talocrural joint that occur during level walking. This is occurring despite the conspicuously different trajectory of the centre of mass of the body. This may allow the foot complex to maintain its function of energy absorption followed by energy return during stance phase that is best suited to level walking.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2009.09.016
View details for Web of Science ID 000274584800002
View details for PubMedID 19897368