Clinical Focus

  • Pediatric Hospital Medicine
  • Pediatrics

Academic Appointments

Administrative Appointments

  • Associate Chair, Education, Department of Pediatrics (2016 - Present)
  • Program Director, Pediatric Residency Program (2012 - Present)
  • Program Director, Combined Pediatrics and Anesthesia Residency Programs (2012 - Present)
  • Associate Chair, Education, Residency Programs, Department of Pediatrics (2014 - 2016)
  • Fellowship Co-Director, Pediatric Hospital Medicine Fellowship (2013 - 2016)
  • Associate Program Director, Advising and Career Development, Pediatric Residency Program (2007 - 2012)

Honors & Awards

  • APA National Teaching Program Award, Academic Pediatric Association (APA) (2019)
  • PHM National Collaborative Award, PHM Council (AAP, APA, SHM) (2018)
  • Excellence in Educational Scholarship, Stanford, Department of Pediatrics (2017)
  • PHM National Collaborative Award, PHM Council (AAP, APA, SHM) (2017)
  • Ted Sectish Award for Advocating for Residents, Stanford Pediatrics Residency Program (2017)
  • John M. Eisenberg Award for Innovation in Patient Safety and Quality, The Joint Commission and the National Quality Forum (2016)
  • Ray E. Helfer Award for Innovation in Medical Education, Academic Pediatric Association (2016)
  • Outstanding Program Director Award, Stanford School of Medicine (2015)
  • Caroline Graham Lamberts Gratitude and Service Award, Stanford Pediatrics Residency Program (2014)
  • Award of Excellence, Advising Junior Faculty, Stanford School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (2013)
  • Ray E. Helfer Award for Innovation in Medical Education, Academic Pediatric Association (2012)
  • Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation Award for Excellence in Clinical Teaching, Stanford School of Medicine (2010)
  • Ted Sectish Award for Advocating for Residents, Stanford Pediatrics Residency Program (2008, 2010, 2013)
  • Arthur L Bloomberg Award for Excellence in Clinical Teaching, Stanford School of Medicine (2008)
  • Faculty Teaching Honor Roll with Letter of Teaching Distinction, Stanford School of Medicine (2007-2015)
  • Pediatric Academic Society Educational Scholar, Academic Pediatric Association (2006-2010)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations

  • President Elect, Association of Pediatric Program Directors (APPD) (2018 - Present)
  • Board Member, Association of Pediatric Program Directors (APPD) (2016 - 2018)

Professional Education

  • Residency:UCSF Pediatric Residency (2004) CA
  • Internship:UCSF Pediatric Residency (2002) CA
  • Board Certification: Pediatrics, American Board of Pediatrics (2005)
  • Chief Residency, UCSF, Pediatrics (2005)
  • Medical Education:University of Chicago (2001) IL
  • MPH, UC, Berkeley, Maternal and Child Health (2000)
  • BS, Caltech, Biology (1996)

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests

I am interested in graduate medical education -- particularly in understanding how learners learn in the clinical environment, and how learners can optimally communicate with patients and families, to improve patient understanding, patient satisfaction, and patient safety.

A few of my studies/areas of interest include:
(1) Coaching Initiative: An innovative approach to provide longitudinal assessment and feedback to residents, and help residents develop skills of lifelong learning and self-reflection. This program pairs a faculty coach with ten residents, who they follow for all three years. We are studying the impact on the amount and quality of feedback given, the residents' communication skills, and impact on faculty through faculty development.

(2) Bedside IPASS Study: Improving Family-Centered Rounds to Improve Patient Safety and Communication: We are one of seven sites in this national study to evaluate the impact of a new FCR rounding structure on patient safety and communication with patients and families.

(3) Shared Decision-Making: We are one of four sites on this NIH R25-funded study of shared decision-making on internal medicine and pediatrics rounds.

(4) Scholarly Concentrations: We are studying the impact of scholarly concentrations on resident learners' scholarship, subsequent scholarly activity, career development.

Prior studies have included:
(1) National Nighttime Curriculum Study: Measured the impact of a national nighttime curriculum on residents' perception of learning, confidence and knowledge in handling routine overnight issues. Prospective study of 89 residency programs, over 2000 learners that found a significant improvement in knowledge, confidence, and attitudes.
(2) IPASS Study (National Handoff Study; we were one of nine pilot sites): Implemented an educational intervention to improve residents' knowledge and use of handoff tools.
(3) Remediation: Created better tools for identifying and helping remediating learners.
(4) Residents as Teachers: Measured the impact of our required senior resident rotation in teaching.


2018-19 Courses


All Publications

  • Promoting Shared Decision-Making Behaviors During Inpatient Rounds: A Multimodal Educational Intervention. Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges Harman, S. M., Blankenburg, R., Satterfield, J. M., Monash, B., Rennke, S., Yuan, P., Sakai, D. S., Huynh, E., Chua, I., Hilton, J. F., Patient Engagement Project 2019


    PURPOSE: To estimate the effectiveness of a multimodal educational intervention to increase use of shared decision-making (SDM) behaviors by inpatient pediatric and internal medicine hospitalists and trainees at teaching hospitals at Stanford University and the University of California, San Francisco.METHOD: The 8-week Patient Engagement Project Study intervention, delivered at 4 services between November 2014 and January 2015, included workshops, campaign messaging, report cards, and coaching. For 12-week pre- and postintervention periods, clinician peers used the 9-point Rochester Participatory Decision-Making Scale (RPAD) to evaluate rounding teams' SDM behaviors with patients during ward rounds. Eligible teams included a hospitalist and at least 1 trainee (resident, intern, medical student), in addition to nonphysicians. Random-effects models were used to estimate intervention effects based on RPAD scores that sum points on 9 SDM behaviors per patient encounter.RESULTS: In total, 527 patient encounters were scored during 175 rounds led by 49 hospitalists. Patient and team characteristics were similar across pre- and postintervention periods. Improvement was observed on all 9 SDM behaviors. Adjusted for the hierarchical study design and covariates, the mean RPAD score improvement was 1.68 points (95% CI, 1.33 to 2.03; P < .001; Cohen d = 0.82), with intervention effects ranging from 0.7 to 2.5 points per service. Improvements were associated with longer patient encounters and a higher percentage of trainees per team.CONCLUSIONS: The intervention increased behaviors supporting SDM during ward rounds on 4 independent services. The findings recommend use of clinician-focused interventions to promote SDM adoption in the inpatient setting.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/ACM.0000000000002715

    View details for PubMedID 30893066

  • The Challenges of Multisource Feedback: Feasibility and Acceptability of Gathering Patient Feedback for Pediatric Residents. Academic pediatrics Mahoney, D., Bogetz, A., Hirsch, A., Killmond, K., Phillips, E., Bhavaraju, V., McQueen, A., Orlov, N., Blankenburg, R., Rassbach, C. E. 2018


    OBJECTIVE: The ACGME calls for residency programs to incorporate multisource feedback, which may include patient feedback, into resident competency assessments. Program directors face numerous challenges in gathering this feedback. This study assesses the feasibility and acceptability of patient feedback collection in the inpatient and outpatient setting at three institutions.METHODS: Patient feedback was collected using a modified version of the Communication Assessment Tool (CAT). Trained research assistants (RAs) administered the CAT to eligible patients/families in pediatric ward, intensive care (ICU), and outpatient settings from July-October 2015. Completion rates and reasons for non-completion were recorded. Patient satisfaction with the CAT was assessed on a five-point Likert scale.RESULTS: 860/1413 (61%) patients completed the CAT. Completion rates in the pediatric ward and ICU settings were 45% and 38% respectively, compared to 91% in the outpatient setting. In inpatient settings, survey non-completion was typically due to participant unavailability; this was rarely a reason in the outpatient setting. 93.4% of patients were satisfied or very satisfied with using the CAT. 6.36 hours of RA time would be required to gather a valid quantity of patient feedback for a single resident in the outpatient setting, compared to 10.14 hours in the inpatient setting.CONCLUSIONS: While collecting feedback using our standardized protocol is acceptable to patients, obtaining sufficient feedback requires overcoming several barriers and a sizable time commitment. Feedback collection in the outpatient setting may be higher-yield than the inpatient setting due to greater patient/family availability. Future work should focus on innovative methods to gather patient feedback in the inpatient setting to provide program directors with a holistic view of their residents' communication skills.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.acap.2018.12.002

    View details for PubMedID 30576788

  • Patient safety after implementation of a coproduced family centered communication programme: multicenter before and after intervention study. BMJ (Clinical research ed.) Khan, A., Spector, N. D., Baird, J. D., Ashland, M., Starmer, A. J., Rosenbluth, G., Garcia, B. M., Litterer, K. P., Rogers, J. E., Dalal, A. K., Lipsitz, S., Yoon, C. S., Zigmont, K. R., Guiot, A., O'Toole, J. K., Patel, A., Bismilla, Z., Coffey, M., Langrish, K., Blankenburg, R. L., Destino, L. A., Everhart, J. L., Good, B. P., Kocolas, I., Srivastava, R., Calaman, S., Cray, S., Kuzma, N., Lewis, K., Thompson, E. D., Hepps, J. H., Lopreiato, J. O., Yu, C. E., Haskell, H., Kruvand, E., Micalizzi, D. A., Alvarado-Little, W., Dreyer, B. P., Yin, H. S., Subramony, A., Patel, S. J., Sectish, T. C., West, D. C., Landrigan, C. P. 2018; 363: k4764


    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether medical errors, family experience, and communication processes improved after implementation of an intervention to standardize the structure of healthcare provider-family communication on family centered rounds.DESIGN: Prospective, multicenter before and after intervention study.SETTING: Pediatric inpatient units in seven North American hospitals, 17 December 2014 to 3 January 2017.PARTICIPANTS: All patients admitted to study units (3106 admissions, 13171 patient days); 2148 parents or caregivers, 435 nurses, 203 medical students, and 586 residents.INTERVENTION: Families, nurses, and physicians coproduced an intervention to standardize healthcare provider-family communication on ward rounds ("family centered rounds"), which included structured, high reliability communication on bedside rounds emphasizing health literacy, family engagement, and bidirectional communication; structured, written real-time summaries of rounds; a formal training programme for healthcare providers; and strategies to support teamwork, implementation, and process improvement.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Medical errors (primary outcome), including harmful errors (preventable adverse events) and non-harmful errors, modeled using Poisson regression and generalized estimating equations clustered by site; family experience; and communication processes (eg, family engagement on rounds). Errors were measured via an established systematic surveillance methodology including family safety reporting.RESULTS: The overall rate of medical errors (per 1000 patient days) was unchanged (41.2 (95% confidence interval 31.2 to 54.5) pre-intervention v 35.8 (26.9 to 47.7) post-intervention, P=0.21), but harmful errors (preventable adverse events) decreased by 37.9% (20.7 (15.3 to 28.1) v 12.9 (8.9 to 18.6), P=0.01) post-intervention. Non-preventable adverse events also decreased (12.6 (8.9 to 17.9) v 5.2 (3.1 to 8.8), P=0.003). Top box (eg, "excellent") ratings for six of 25 components of family reported experience improved; none worsened. Family centered rounds occurred more frequently (72.2% (53.5% to 85.4%) v 82.8% (64.9% to 92.6%), P=0.02). Family engagement 55.6% (32.9% to 76.2%) v 66.7% (43.0% to 84.1%), P=0.04) and nurse engagement (20.4% (7.0% to 46.6%) v 35.5% (17.0% to 59.6%), P=0.03) on rounds improved. Families expressing concerns at the start of rounds (18.2% (5.6% to 45.3%) v 37.7% (17.6% to 63.3%), P=0.03) and reading back plans (4.7% (0.7% to 25.2%) v 26.5% (12.7% to 7.3%), P=0.02) increased. Trainee teaching and the duration of rounds did not change significantly.CONCLUSIONS: Although overall errors were unchanged, harmful medical errors decreased and family experience and communication processes improved after implementation of a structured communication intervention for family centered rounds coproduced by families, nurses, and physicians. Family centered care processes may improve safety and quality of care without negatively impacting teaching or duration of rounds.TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02320175.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/bmj.k4764

    View details for PubMedID 30518517

  • De-escalating Angry Caregivers: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Novel Communication Curriculum for Pediatric Residents. Academic pediatrics Hilgenberg, S. L., Bogetz, A. L., Leibold, C., Gaba, D., Blankenburg, R. L. 2018


    OBJECTIVE: Medical providers struggle when communicating with angry patients and their caregivers. Pediatric residents perceive communication competencies as an important priority for learning, yet they lack confidence and desire more training in communicating with angry families. Few curricula exist to support trainees with de-escalation skill development. We developed, implemented, and evaluated the impact of a novel de-escalation curriculum on pediatric resident communication skills.METHODS: Randomized controlled trial of a 90-minute de-escalation curriculum for pediatric residents in August-September 2016. Trained standardized patient (SP) actors rated residents' communication skills following two unique encounters before and after the intervention/control session. Residents completed a retrospective pre-post communication skills self-assessment and curriculum evaluation. We used independent and paired t-tests to assess for communication improvements.RESULTS: 84 of 88 (95%) eligible residents participated (43 intervention, 41 control). Residents reported frequent encounters with angry caregivers. At baseline, interns had significantly lower mean SP-rated de-escalation skills than other residents (P = .03). Intervention residents did not improve significantly more than controls on their pre-post change in mean SP-rated de-escalation skills. Intervention residents improved significantly on their pre-post mean self-assessed de-escalation skills (P ≤ .03).CONCLUSIONS: Despite significant self-assessed improvements, residents' SP-rated de-escalation skills did not improve following a skills-based intervention. Nevertheless, our study illustrates the need for de-escalation curricula focused on strategies and peer discussion, suggests optimal timing of delivery during fall of intern year, and offers an assessment tool for exploration in future studies.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.acap.2018.10.005

    View details for PubMedID 30368036

  • THE EFFECT OF FACULTY COACHING ON RESIDENT ATTITUDES, CONFIDENCE, AND PATIENT-RATED COMMUNICATION: A MULTI-INSTITUTION STUDY. Academic pediatrics Rassbach, C. E., Bogetz, A. L., Orlov, N., McQueen, A., Bhavaraju, V., Mahoney, D., Leibold, C., Blankenburg, R. L. 2018


    OBJECTIVE: Despite a national focus on physician-patient communication, there is a paucity of literature on how patient and family feedback (PFF) can be used as a tool to help residents learn communication skills. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of coaching on residents' attitudes towards PFF, self-confidence in communication, and patient-rated communication skills.METHODS: This was an IRB-approved, randomized-controlled trial with pediatric residents at three institutions in 2015-2016. Pre- and post-intervention, residents completed a self-assessment of their attitudes and self-confidence in communication. PFF was collected for each resident using the Communication Assessment Tool (CAT), which has been validated in other medical disciplines. Intervention group residents reviewed their baseline PFF with a faculty coach; control group residents reviewed their PFF independently.RESULTS: 114 residents completed the study, 57 in each arm. Intervention group residents were significantly more likely to ask for PFF compared with control group residents (mean change 0.36 vs. -0.11, p=.01). There were no other significant differences in resident attitudes, confidence, or patient-rated communication between groups. Both groups had increased self-confidence over time and with increasing PGY level. Patient ratings of resident communication did not differ over time or between groups.CONCLUSIONS: Residents who reviewed PFF with a faculty coach were significantly more likely to report they would ask patients for feedback than residents who reviewed PFF independently, suggesting review of feedback with a coach may enhance appreciation of patient feedback. Though self-confidence improved over time in both groups, patient ratings of resident communication skills were not significantly different over time or between groups.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.acap.2018.10.004

    View details for PubMedID 30368034

  • The Golden Ticket Project for peer recognition. The clinical teacher Gribben, V., Bogetz, A., Bachrach, L., Blankenburg, R. 2018


    BACKGROUND: A supportive working environment can be protective against burnout in residency training. To help foster a positive culture, we developed the 'Golden Ticket Project' (GTP) and evaluated it as a tool for peer appreciation.METHODS: In October2013-July2014, all paediatric residents (n=83) at a paediatric residency programme were invited to participate in the GTP. Through an electronic form, residents could award a co-resident with a 'Golden Ticket' for any behaviour that they were grateful for. Two authors manually coded and analysed the tickets using content analysis to identify recurring themes. We also distributed an anonymous survey to all residents to assess their attitudes toward the GTP.RESULTS: The majority (61%) of residents either gave or received 'Golden Tickets' (51/83). Reasons for receiving tickets fell into five categories: (i) teamwork; (ii) positive attitude; (iii) patient care; (iv) resident-resident support; and (v) supervisory skills. Across all three classes, teamwork was recognised most frequently, noted in 43% of all tickets. The recognition of other behaviours varied by class. Fifty-five percent (46/83) of residents completed the programme evaluation survey. Seventy-six percent (35/46) of respondents wanted the programme to continue; of those, 49% (17/35) 'agreed' or 'strongly agreed' that they were 'more aware of acts of kindness in the residency program because of the GTP'. A supportive working environment can be protective against burnout in residency training DISCUSSION: The GTP is a feasible and valued peer-support initiative for residents. The GTP characterised behaviours and attitudes that residents were grateful for in their peers. These behaviours could inform the development of wellness interventions for residents that focus on building supportive working environments.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/tct.12798

    View details for PubMedID 29806729

  • Shared Decision-Making During Inpatient Rounds: Opportunities for Improvement in Patient Engagement and Communication. Journal of hospital medicine Blankenburg, R., Hilton, J. F., Yuan, P., Rennke, S., Monash, B., Harman, S. M., Sakai, D. S., Hosamani, P., Khan, A., Chua, I., Huynh, E., Shieh, L., Xie, L. 2018


    BACKGROUND: Shared decision-making (SDM) improves patient engagement and may improve outpatient health outcomes. Little is known about inpatient SDM.OBJECTIVE: To assess overall quality, provider behaviors, and contextual predictors of SDM during inpatient rounds on medicine and pediatrics hospitalist services.DESIGN: A 12-week, cross-sectional, single-blinded observational study of team SDM behaviors during rounds, followed by semistructured patient interviews.SETTING: Two large quaternary care academic medical centers.PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-five inpatient teams (18 medicine, 17 pediatrics) and 254 unique patient encounters (117 medicine, 137 pediatrics).INTERVENTION: Observational study.MEASUREMENTS: We used a 9-item Rochester Participatory Decision-Making Scale (RPAD) measured team-level SDM behaviors. Same-day interviews using a modified RPAD assessed patient perceptions of SDM.RESULTS: Characteristics associated with increased SDM in the multivariate analysis included the following: service, patient gender, timing of rounds during patient's hospital stay, and amount of time rounding per patient (P < .05). The most frequently observed behaviors across all services included explaining the clinical issue and matching medical language to the patient's level of understanding. The least frequently observed behaviors included checking understanding of the patient's point of view, examining barriers to follow-through, and asking if the patient has any questions. Patients and guardians had substantially higher ratings for SDM quality compared to peer observers (7.2 vs 4.4 out of 9).CONCLUSIONS: Important opportunities exist to improve inpatient SDM. Team size, number of learners, patient census, and type of decision being made did not affect SDM, suggesting that even large, busy services can perform SDM if properly trained.

    View details for DOI 10.12788/jhm.2909

    View details for PubMedID 29401211

  • Teaching Residents Clinical Practice Guidelines Using a Flipped Classroom Model. MedEdPORTAL : the journal of teaching and learning resources Peterson, J., Louden, D. T., Gribben, V., Blankenburg, R. 2017; 13: 10548


    Introduction: Prior studies have demonstrated poor guideline compliance by pediatricians, and there is no published curriculum on how to teach clinical guidelines. Furthermore, in a national survey of pediatric residency training programs conducted in 2015, only two had a formal curriculum for teaching clinical guidelines. This module provides a framework for teaching residents clinical guidelines through a modified flipped classroom approach. Associated materials include a guide for faculty facilitators, sample slides and worksheet, and pictures of the classroom setup.Methods: In this module, the guidelines for acute otitis media (AOM), obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are taught in three sessions and evaluated with a pre-/posttest assessing knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, and satisfaction. Each guideline is delivered in a 30-minute session, with five learners per group. Faculty training requires approximately 30 minutes of preparation. The intervention groups (n = 9 for OSAS, 10 each for AOM and ADHD) received three weekly, half-hour flipped classroom lessons. The control group (n = 19) had no formal guideline education.Results: Pre-/posttests showed a statistically significant improvement in knowledge and attitudes in the group of interns who received this educational intervention over the control group. The learners rated the sessions as highly effective.Discussion: This module provides an efficient and effective way of utilizing a modified flipped classroom approach to teach learners the correct use of clinical guidelines, a skill residents must master to provide evidence-based care. This curriculum has been successfully incorporated into our pediatric residency program.

    View details for DOI 10.15766/mep_2374-8265.10548

    View details for PubMedID 30800750

  • Families as Partners in Hospital Error and Adverse Event Surveillance. JAMA pediatrics Khan, A., Coffey, M., Litterer, K. P., Baird, J. D., Furtak, S. L., Garcia, B. M., Ashland, M. A., Calaman, S., Kuzma, N. C., O'Toole, J. K., Patel, A., Rosenbluth, G., Destino, L. A., Everhart, J. L., Good, B. P., Hepps, J. H., Dalal, A. K., Lipsitz, S. R., Yoon, C. S., Zigmont, K. R., Srivastava, R., Starmer, A. J., Sectish, T. C., Spector, N. D., West, D. C., Landrigan, C. P., Allair, B. K., Alminde, C., Alvarado-Little, W., Atsatt, M., Aylor, M. E., Bale, J. F., Balmer, D., Barton, K. T., Beck, C., Bismilla, Z., Blankenberg, R. L., Chandler, D., Choudhary, A., Christensen, E., Coghlan-McDonald, S., Cole, F. S., Corless, E., Cray, S., Da Silva, R., Dahale, D., Dreyer, B., Growdon, A. S., Gubler, L., Guiot, A., Harris, R., Haskell, H., Kocolas, I., Kruvand, E., Lane, M. M., Langrish, K., Ledford, C. J., Lewis, K., Lopreiato, J. O., Maloney, C. G., Mangan, A., Markle, P., Mendoza, F., Micalizzi, D. A., Mittal, V., Obermeyer, M., O'Donnell, K. A., Ottolini, M., Patel, S. J., Pickler, R., Rogers, J. E., Sanders, L. M., Sauder, K., Shah, S. S., Sharma, M., Simpkin, A., Subramony, A., Thompson, E. D., Trueman, L., Trujillo, T., Turmelle, M. P., Warnick, C., Welch, C., White, A. J., Wien, M. F., Winn, A. S., Wintch, S., Wolf, M., Yin, H. S., Yu, C. E. 2017


    Medical errors and adverse events (AEs) are common among hospitalized children. While clinician reports are the foundation of operational hospital safety surveillance and a key component of multifaceted research surveillance, patient and family reports are not routinely gathered. We hypothesized that a novel family-reporting mechanism would improve incident detection.To compare error and AE rates (1) gathered systematically with vs without family reporting, (2) reported by families vs clinicians, and (3) reported by families vs hospital incident reports.We conducted a prospective cohort study including the parents/caregivers of 989 hospitalized patients 17 years and younger (total 3902 patient-days) and their clinicians from December 2014 to July 2015 in 4 US pediatric centers. Clinician abstractors identified potential errors and AEs by reviewing medical records, hospital incident reports, and clinician reports as well as weekly and discharge Family Safety Interviews (FSIs). Two physicians reviewed and independently categorized all incidents, rating severity and preventability (agreement, 68%-90%; κ, 0.50-0.68). Discordant categorizations were reconciled. Rates were generated using Poisson regression estimated via generalized estimating equations to account for repeated measures on the same patient.Error and AE rates.Overall, 746 parents/caregivers consented for the study. Of these, 717 completed FSIs. Their median (interquartile range) age was 32.5 (26-40) years; 380 (53.0%) were nonwhite, 566 (78.9%) were female, 603 (84.1%) were English speaking, and 380 (53.0%) had attended college. Of 717 parents/caregivers completing FSIs, 185 (25.8%) reported a total of 255 incidents, which were classified as 132 safety concerns (51.8%), 102 nonsafety-related quality concerns (40.0%), and 21 other concerns (8.2%). These included 22 preventable AEs (8.6%), 17 nonharmful medical errors (6.7%), and 11 nonpreventable AEs (4.3%) on the study unit. In total, 179 errors and 113 AEs were identified from all sources. Family reports included 8 otherwise unidentified AEs, including 7 preventable AEs. Error rates with family reporting (45.9 per 1000 patient-days) were 1.2-fold (95% CI, 1.1-1.2) higher than rates without family reporting (39.7 per 1000 patient-days). Adverse event rates with family reporting (28.7 per 1000 patient-days) were 1.1-fold (95% CI, 1.0-1.2; P = .006) higher than rates without (26.1 per 1000 patient-days). Families and clinicians reported similar rates of errors (10.0 vs 12.8 per 1000 patient-days; relative rate, 0.8; 95% CI, .5-1.2) and AEs (8.5 vs 6.2 per 1000 patient-days; relative rate, 1.4; 95% CI, 0.8-2.2). Family-reported error rates were 5.0-fold (95% CI, 1.9-13.0) higher and AE rates 2.9-fold (95% CI, 1.2-6.7) higher than hospital incident report rates.Families provide unique information about hospital safety and should be included in hospital safety surveillance in order to facilitate better design and assessment of interventions to improve safety.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.4812

    View details for PubMedID 28241211

  • Choose Your Own Adventure: Leading Effective Case-Based Learning Sessions Using Evidence-Based Strategies. MedEdPORTAL : the journal of teaching and learning resources Beck, J., Rooholamini, S., Wilson, L., Griego, E., McDaniel, C., Blankenburg, R. 2017; 13: 10532


    Introduction: Learning how to lead engaging teaching sessions is critical for faculty development and for optimizing teaching opportunities. We developed an interactive workshop to provide an evidence-based framework for designing and facilitating case-based discussions.Methods: This workshop was designed as a 150-minute large-group session, though a 90-minute session is possible. Six to 10 students per facilitated group is optimal. Faculty training requires approximately 30 minutes prior to the session. Associated materials include guidelines to prepare faculty facilitators and participants for the large-group discussion and small-group practice sessions with role-plays. Also included are two prompting cases, a template for designing a large- or small-group session, a form to guide constructive feedback in the role-plays, and an evaluation form.Results: This workshop was accepted for presentation at two national conferences in 2016: the Pediatric Academic Societies Meeting (PAS) and the Pediatric Hospital Medicine Conference (PHM). Average responses to "Workshop was a valuable use of my time" were 4.93 out of 5 (PAS) and 4.45 out of 5 (PHM). Average responses to "I learned information I can apply at my home institution" were 4.93 out of 5 (PAS) and 4.80 out of 5 (PHM).Discussion: This large- and small-group teaching module has been incorporated into multiple pediatric residency programs and rated as highly effective by learners. Learning how to develop engaging, objective-focused group teaching sessions is an essential skill that residents, chief residents, fellows, and faculty must master to make the most of teaching opportunities.

    View details for DOI 10.15766/mep_2374-8265.10532

    View details for PubMedID 30800734

  • Development of a Curricular Framework for Pediatric Hospital Medicine Fellowships. Pediatrics Jerardi, K. E., Fisher, E., Rassbach, C., Maniscalco, J., Blankenburg, R., Chase, L., Shah, N. 2017; 140 (1)


    Pediatric Hospital Medicine (PHM) is an emerging field in pediatrics and one that has experienced immense growth and maturation in a short period of time. Evolution and rapid expansion of the field invigorated the goal of standardizing PHM fellowship curricula, which naturally aligned with the field's evolving pursuit of a defined identity and consideration of certification options. The national group of PHM fellowship program directors sought to establish curricular standards that would more accurately reflect the competencies needed to practice pediatric hospital medicine and meet future board certification needs. In this manuscript, we describe the method by which we reached consensus on a 2-year curricular framework for PHM fellowship programs, detail the current model for this framework, and provide examples of how this curricular framework may be applied to meet the needs of a variety of fellows and fellowship programs. The 2-year PHM fellowship curricular framework was developed over a number of years through an iterative process and with the input of PHM fellowship program directors (PDs), PHM fellowship graduates, PHM leaders, pediatric hospitalists practicing in a variety of clinical settings, and other educators outside the field. We have developed a curricular framework for PHM Fellowships that consists of 8 education units (defined as 4 weeks each) in 3 areas: clinical care, systems and scholarship, and individualized curriculum.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2017-0698

    View details for PubMedID 28600448

  • A Novel Pediatric Residency Coaching Program: Outcomes After One Year. Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges Rassbach, C. E., Blankenburg, R. 2017


    The ACGME requires all residency programs to assess residents on specialty-specific milestones. Optimal assessment of competence is through direct observation of performance in clinical settings, which is challenging to implement.The authors developed the Stanford Pediatric Residency Coaching Program to improve residents' clinical skill development, reflective practice, feedback, and goal setting, and to improve learner assessment. All residents are assigned a dedicated faculty coach who coaches them throughout their training in various settings in an iterative process. Each coaching session consists of four parts: (1) direct observation, (2) facilitated reflection, (3) feedback from the coach, and (4) goal setting. Coaches document each session and participate in the Clinical Competency Committee. Initial program evaluation (2013 -2014) focused on the program's effect on feedback, reflection, and goal setting. Pre- and postintervention surveys of residents and faculty assessed the quantity and quality of feedback provided to residents and faculty members' confidence in giving feedback.Review of documented coaching sessions showed that all 82 residents had 3 or more direct observations (range: 3-12). Residents and faculty assessed coaches as providing higher-quality feedback and incorporating more reflection and goal setting than noncoaches. Coaches, compared with noncoaches, demonstrated increased confidence in giving feedback on clinical reasoning, communication skills, and goal setting. Noncoach faculty reported giving equal or more feedback after the coaching program than before.Further evaluation is under way to explore how coaching residents can affect patient-level outcomes, and to better understand the benefits and challenges of coaching residents.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001825

    View details for PubMedID 28700460

  • Exploring the Educational Value of Patient Feedback: A Qualitative Analysis of Pediatric Residents' Perspectives ACADEMIC PEDIATRICS Bogetz, A. L., Rassbach, C. E., Chan, T., Blankenburg, R. L. 2017; 17 (1): 4-8

    View details for Web of Science ID 000391349100002

    View details for PubMedID 27965014

  • The SDM 3 Circle Model: A Literature Synthesis and Adaptation for Shared Decision Making in the Hospital. Journal of hospital medicine Rennke, S., Yuan, P., Monash, B., Blankenburg, R., Chua, I., Harman, S., Sakai, D. S., Khan, A., Hilton, J. F., Shieh, L., Satterfield, J. 2017; 12 (12): 1001–8


    Patient engagement through shared decision-making (SDM) is increasingly seen as a key component for patient safety, patient satisfaction, and quality of care. Current SDM models do not adequately account for medical and environmental contexts, which may influence medical decisions in the hospital. We identified leading SDM models and reviews to inductively construct a novel SDM model appropriate for the inpatient setting. A team of medicine and pediatric hospitalists reviewed the literature to integrate core SDM concepts and processes and iteratively constructed a synthesized draft model. We then solicited broad SDM expert feedback on the draft model for validation and further refinement. The SDM 3 Circle Model identifies 3 core categories of variables that dynamically interact within an "environmental frame." The resulting Venn diagram includes overlapping circles for (1) patient/family, (2) provider/team, and (3) medical context. The environmental frame includes all external, contextual factors that may influence any of the 3 circles. Existing multistep SDM process models were then rearticulated and contextualized to illustrate how a shared decision might be made. The SDM 3 Circle Model accounts for important environmental and contextual characteristics that vary across settings. The visual emphasis generated by each "circle" and by the environmental frame direct attention to often overlooked interactive forces and has the potential to more precisely define, promote, and improve SDM. This model provides a framework to develop interventions to improve quality and patient safety through SDM and patient engagement for hospitalists.

    View details for DOI 10.12788/jhm.2865

    View details for PubMedID 29073314

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5709161

  • The Discriminatory Patient and Family: Strategies to Address Discrimination Towards Trainees ACADEMIC MEDICINE Whitgob, E. E., Blankenburg, R. L., Bogetz, A. L. 2016; 91 (11): S64-S69


    Trainee mistreatment remains an important and serious medical education issue. Mistreatment toward trainees by the medical team has been described; mistreatment by patients and families has not. Motivated by discrimination towards a resident by a family in their emergency department, the authors sought to identify strategies for trainees and physicians to respond effectively to mistreatment by patients and families.A purposeful sample of pediatric faculty educational leaders was recruited from April-June 2014 at Stanford University. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, semistructured one-on-one interviews were conducted. Participants were asked to describe how they would respond to clinical scenarios of families discriminating against trainees (involving race, gender, and religion). Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and anonymized. The authors analyzed interview transcripts using constant comparative analysis and performed post hoc member checking. This project was IRB approved.Four themes emerged from interviews with 13 faculty: assess illness acuity, cultivate a therapeutic alliance, depersonalize the event, and ensure a safe learning environment. Participants wanted trainees to feel empowered to remove themselves from care when necessary but acknowledged that removal was not always possible or easy. Nearly all participants agreed that trainee and faculty development was needed. Suggested educational strategies included team debriefing and critical reflection.Discrimination towards trainees by patients and families is an important issue. As this type of mistreatment cannot be fully prevented, effective preparation is essential. Effective response strategies exist and can be taught to trainees to empower responses that protect learners and preserve patient care.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001357

    View details for Web of Science ID 000387209500010

  • Pediatric Resident Workload Intensity and Variability PEDIATRICS Was, A., Blankenburg, R., Park, K. T. 2016; 138 (1)


    Research on resident workloads has focused primarily on the quantity of hours worked, rather than the content of those hours or the variability among residents. We hypothesize that there are statistically significant variations in resident workloads and better understanding of workload intensity could improve resident education.The Stanford Children's Health research database was queried for all electronic notes and orders written by pediatric residents from June 2012 to March 2014. The dataset was narrowed to ensure an accurate comparison among residents. A survey was used to determine residents' self-perceived workload intensity. Variability of total notes written and orders entered was analyzed by χ(2) test and a Monte Carlo simulation. Linear regression was used to analyze the correlation between note-writing and order-entry workload intensity.A total of 20 280 notes and 112 214 orders were written by 26 pediatric interns during 6 core rotations between June 2012 and June 2013. Both order-entry and note-writing workload intensity showed highly significant (P < .001) variability among residents. "High workload" residents, defined as the top quartile of total workload intensity, wrote 91% more orders and 19% more notes than "low workload" residents in the bottom quartile. Statistically significant correlation was observed between note-writing and order-entry workload intensity (R(2) = 0.22; P = .02). There was no significant correlation between residents' self-perceived workload intensity and their objective workload.Significant variations in workload exist among pediatric residents. This may contribute to heterogeneous educational opportunities, physician wellness, and quality of patient care.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2015-4371

    View details for Web of Science ID 000378853100022

    View details for PubMedID 27358473

  • Caring for Children With Medical Complexity: Challenges and Educational Opportunities Identified by Pediatric Residents. Academic pediatrics Bogetz, J. F., Bogetz, A. L., Rassbach, C. E., Gabhart, J. M., Blankenburg, R. L. 2015; 15 (6): 621-625


    High-quality care for children with medical complexity (CMC) is in its infancy. Residents have the opportunity to view care for CMC with a fresh perspective that is informed by their work across diverse health care settings and significant time spent at the bedside. This study aimed to identify the challenges and potential solutions for complex care delivery and education from their perspectives.We conducted three 60-minute focus groups with a purposeful sample of residents and recent graduates at a US tertiary-care medical center. Data were transcribed verbatim, and themes were identified using an iterative approach and modified grounded theory.Sixteen participants identified 4 major challenges to caring for CMC: 1) lack of care coordination; 2) complex technology management; 3) patients' pervasive psychosocial needs; and 4) lack of effective health care provider training. Participants identified 3 solutions: 1) greater integration of primary care providers; 2) attention to psychosocial needs through shared decision making; and 3) integration of longitudinal patient relationships into provider training. We found that residents who experienced longitudinal relationships with CMC felt more efficacious and better equipped to handle challenges of caring for CMC as a result of their broader understanding of patients' priorities and of their role as providers.Residents recognize important challenges and offer thoughtful solutions to caring for CMC. Although multiple solutions exist, formal integration of longitudinal patient experiences into residency training may better prepare residents to understand patient priorities and identify when their own attitudinal changes can guide them into more efficacious roles as providers.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.acap.2015.08.004

    View details for PubMedID 26409304

  • Outcomes of a Randomized Controlled Educational Intervention to Train Pediatric Residents on Caring for Children With Special Health Care Needs CLINICAL PEDIATRICS Bogetz, J. F., Gabhart, J. M., Rassbach, C. E., Sanders, L. M., Mendoza, F. S., Bergman, D. A., Blankenburg, R. L. 2015; 54 (7): 659-666


    Objective. To evaluate an innovative curriculum meeting new pediatric residency education guidelines, Special Care Optimization for Patients and Education (SCOPE). Methods. Residents were randomized to intervention (n = 23) or control (n = 25) groups. Intervention residents participated in SCOPE, pairing them with a child with special health care needs (CSHCN) and faculty mentor to make a home visit, complete care coordination toolkits, and participate in case discussions. The primary outcome was resident self-efficacy in nine skills in caring for CSHCN. Secondary outcomes included curriculum feasibility/acceptance, resident attitudes, and family satisfaction. Results. Response rates were ≥65%. Intervention residents improved in their self-efficacy for setting patient-centered goals compared with controls (mean change on 4-point Likert-type scale, 1.36 vs 0.56, P < .05). SCOPE was feasible/acceptable, residents had improved attitudes toward CSHCN, and families reported high satisfaction. Conclusion. SCOPE may serve as a model for efforts to increase residents' self-efficacy in their care of patients with chronic disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0009922814564050

    View details for Web of Science ID 000354656600008

    View details for PubMedID 25561698

  • Questioning as a teaching tool. Pediatrics Long, M., Blankenburg, R., Butani, L. 2015; 135 (3): 406-408


    The Dreyfus and Bloom frameworks can help the great clinical teacher craft questions that are learner-centric and appropriately challenging.Employing strategies to ask the right questions in the right way can further add to the effectiveness of using questions as a valuable teaching,learning, and assessment tool.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2014-3285

    View details for PubMedID 25647682

  • Continuing education needs of pediatricians across diverse specialties caring for children with medical complexity. Clinical pediatrics Bogetz, J. F., Bogetz, A. L., Gabhart, J. M., Bergman, D. A., Blankenburg, R. L., Rassbach, C. E. 2015; 54 (3): 222-227


    Objective. Care for children with medical complexity (CMC) relies on pediatricians who often are ill equipped, but striving to provide high quality care. We performed a needs assessment of pediatricians across diverse subspecialties at a tertiary academic US children's hospital about their continuing education needs regarding the care of CMC. Methods. Eighteen pediatricians from diverse subspecialties were asked to complete an online anonymous open-ended survey. Data were analyzed using modified grounded theory. Results. The response rate was 89% (n = 16). Of participants, 31.2% (n = 5) were general pediatricians, 18.7% (n = 3) were hospitalists, and 50% (n = 8) were pediatric subspecialists. Pediatricians recognized the need for skills in care coordination, giving bad news, working in interprofessional teams, and setting goals of care with patients. Conclusions. Practicing pediatricians need skills to improve care for CMC. Strategically incorporating basic palliative care education may fill an important training need across diverse pediatric specialties.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0009922814564049

    View details for PubMedID 25561699

  • Changes in Medical Errors after Implementation of a Handoff Program NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Starmer, A. J., Spector, N. D., Srivastava, R., West, D. C., Rosenbluth, G., Allen, A. D., NOBLE, E. L., Tse, L. L., Dalal, A. K., Keohane, C. A., Lipsitz, S. R., Rothschild, J. M., Wien, M. F., Yoon, C. S., Zigmont, K. R., Wilson, K. M., O'Toole, J. K., Solan, L. G., Aylor, M., Bismilla, Z., Coffey, M., Mahant, S., Blankenburg, R. L., Destino, L. A., EVERHART, J. L., Patel, S. J., Bale, J. F., Spackman, J. B., Stevenson, A. T., Calaman, S., Cole, F. S., Balmer, D. F., Hepps, J. H., Lopreiato, J. O., Yu, C. E., Sectish, T. C., Landrigan, C. P. 2014; 371 (19): 1803-1812


    Miscommunications are a leading cause of serious medical errors. Data from multicenter studies assessing programs designed to improve handoff of information about patient care are lacking.We conducted a prospective intervention study of a resident handoff-improvement program in nine hospitals, measuring rates of medical errors, preventable adverse events, and miscommunications, as well as resident workflow. The intervention included a mnemonic to standardize oral and written handoffs, handoff and communication training, a faculty development and observation program, and a sustainability campaign. Error rates were measured through active surveillance. Handoffs were assessed by means of evaluation of printed handoff documents and audio recordings. Workflow was assessed through time-motion observations. The primary outcome had two components: medical errors and preventable adverse events.In 10,740 patient admissions, the medical-error rate decreased by 23% from the preintervention period to the postintervention period (24.5 vs. 18.8 per 100 admissions, P<0.001), and the rate of preventable adverse events decreased by 30% (4.7 vs. 3.3 events per 100 admissions, P<0.001). The rate of nonpreventable adverse events did not change significantly (3.0 and 2.8 events per 100 admissions, P=0.79). Site-level analyses showed significant error reductions at six of nine sites. Across sites, significant increases were observed in the inclusion of all prespecified key elements in written documents and oral communication during handoff (nine written and five oral elements; P<0.001 for all 14 comparisons). There were no significant changes from the preintervention period to the postintervention period in the duration of oral handoffs (2.4 and 2.5 minutes per patient, respectively; P=0.55) or in resident workflow, including patient-family contact and computer time.Implementation of the handoff program was associated with reductions in medical errors and in preventable adverse events and with improvements in communication, without a negative effect on workflow. (Funded by the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, and others.).

    View details for DOI 10.1056/NEJMsa1405556

    View details for Web of Science ID 000344170300009

  • Challenges and Potential Solutions to Educating Learners About Pediatric Complex Care ACADEMIC PEDIATRICS Bogetz, J. F., Bogetz, A. L., Bergman, D., Turner, T., Blankenburg, R., Ballantine, A. 2014; 14 (6): 603-609


    To identify existing challenges and potential strategies for providing complex care training to future pediatricians from a national group of educators.Data were collected from pediatric educators involved in complex care at the Pediatric Educational Excellence Across the Continuum national meeting. Participants completed an anonymous 15-item survey adapted from the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) Best Practices for Better Care initiative and participated in a focus group to understand the challenges and potential solutions to pediatric complex care education. Data were analyzed using grounded theory.Of the 15 participants, 9 (60%) were in educational leadership positions. All participants provided care to children with medical complexity (CMC), although 80% (n = 12) reported no formal training. Thematic analysis revealed learners' challenges in 2 domains: 1) a lack of ownership for the patient because of decreased continuity, decision-making authority, and autonomy, as a result of the multitude of care providers and parents' distrust; and 2) a sense of being overwhelmed as a result of lack of preparedness and disruptions in work flow. Participants suggested 3 mitigating strategies: being candid about the difficulties of complex care, discussing the social mandate to care for CMC, and cultivating humility among learners.Residency education must prepare pediatricians to care for all children, regardless of disease. Training in complex care involves redefining the physician's role so that they are better equipped to participate in collaboration, empathy and advocacy with CMC. This study is the first to identify specific challenges and offer potential solutions to help establish training guidelines.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000344966800013

  • The prevalence of social and behavioral topics and related educational opportunities during attending rounds. Academic medicine Satterfield, J. M., Bereknyei, S., Hilton, J. F., Bogetz, A. L., Blankenburg, R., Buckelew, S. M., Chen, H. C., Monash, B., Ramos, J. S., Rennke, S., Braddock, C. H. 2014; 89 (11): 1548-1557


    To quantify the prevalence of social and behavioral sciences (SBS) topics during patient care and to rate team response to these topics once introduced.This cross-sectional study used five independent raters to observe 80 inpatient ward teams on internal medicine and pediatric services during attending rounds at two academic hospitals over a five-month period. Patient-level primary outcomes-prevalence of SBS topic discussions and rate of positive responses to discussions-were captured using an observational tool and summarized at the team level using hierarchical models. Teams were scored on patient- and learner-centered behaviors.Observations were made of 80 attendings, 83 residents, 75 interns, 78 medical students, and 113 allied health providers. Teams saw a median of 8.0 patients per round (collectively, 622 patients), and 97.1% had at least one SBS topic arise (mean = 5.3 topics per patient). Common topics were pain (62%), nutrition (53%), social support (52%), and resources (39%). After adjusting for team characteristics, the number of discussion topics raised varied significantly among the four services and was associated with greater patient-centeredness. When topics were raised, 38% of teams' responses were positive. Services varied with respect to learner- and patient-centeredness, with most services above average for learner-centered, and below average for patient-centered behaviors.Of 30 SBS topics tracked, some were addressed commonly and others rarely. Multivariable analyses suggest that medium-sized teams can address SBS concerns by increasing time per patient and consistently adopting patient-centered behaviors.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/ACM.0000000000000483

    View details for PubMedID 25250747

  • Stimulating Reflective Practice Among Your Learners PEDIATRICS Butani, L., Blankenburg, R., Long, M. 2013; 131 (2): 204-206

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2012-3106

    View details for Web of Science ID 000314355100044

    View details for PubMedID 23339227