- Clinical Informatics
- Pediatric hospital medicine
Fellowship, Stanford Biodesign Faculty Fellow (2018)
Residency, UCSF, Pediatrics (2016)
MD, Harvard Medical School (2013)
The 2014-2015 Ebola outbreak is the largest and most widespread to date. In order to estimate ongoing transmission in the affected countries, we estimated the weekly average number of secondary cases caused by one individual infected with Ebola throughout the infectious period for each affected West African country using a stochastic hidden Markov model fitted to case data from the World Health Organization. If the average number of infections caused by one Ebola infection is less than 1.0, the epidemic is subcritical and cannot sustain itself. The epidemics in Liberia and Sierra Leone have approached subcriticality at some point during the epidemic; the epidemic in Guinea is ongoing with no evidence that it is subcritical. Response efforts to control the epidemic should continue in order to eliminate Ebola cases in West Africa.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0140651
View details for Web of Science ID 000363028100058
View details for PubMedID 26484544
The understanding of the detailed molecular interactions between (GSH) glutathione molecules in the assembly of metal nanoparticles is important for the exploitation of the biological reactivity. We report herein results of an investigation of the assembly of gold nanoparticles mediated by glutathione and the disassembly under controlled conditions. The interparticle interactions and reactivities were characterized by monitoring the evolution of the surface plasmon resonance band using the spectrophotometric method and the hydrodynamic sizes of the nanoparticle assemblies using the dynamic light scattering technique. The interparticle reactivity of glutathiones adsorbed on gold nanoparticles depends on the particle sizes and the ionic strength of the solution. Larger-sized particles were found to exhibit a higher degree of interparticle assembly than smaller-sized particles. The assembly-disassembly reversibility is shown to be highly dependent on pH and additives in the solution. The interactions of the negatively charged citrates surrounding the GSH monolayer on the particle surface were believed to produce more effective interparticle spatial and electrostatic isolation than the case of OH (-) groups surrounding the GSH monolayer. The results have provided new insights into the hydrogen-bonding character of the interparticle molecular interaction of glutathiones bound on gold nanoparticles. The fact that the interparticle hydrogen-bonding interactions in the assembly and disassembly processes can be finely tuned by pH and chemical means has implications to the exploitation of the glutathione-nanoparticle system in biological detection and biosensors.
View details for DOI 10.1021/la800970p
View details for Web of Science ID 000258377900069
View details for PubMedID 18642936
In cell culture, when cells are inoculated into fresh media, there can be a period of slow (or lag phase) growth followed by a transition to exponential growth. This period of slow growth is usually attributed to the cells' adaptation to a new environment. However, we argue that, based on observations of shaken suspension culture of Dictyostelium discoideum, a model single-cell eukaryote, this transition is due to a density effect. Attempts to demonstrate the existence of implicit cell signaling via long-range diffusible messengers (i.e., soluble growth factors) through cell-medium separation and microfluidic flow perturbation experiments produced negative results. This, in turn, led to the development of a signaling model based on direct cell-to-cell contacts. Employing a scaling argument for the collision rate due to fluid shear, we reasonably estimate the crossover density for the transition into the exponential phase and fit the observed growth kinetics.
View details for DOI 10.1103/PhysRevE.77.041905
View details for Web of Science ID 000255456900086
View details for PubMedID 18517654
This paper reports the findings of an investigation of the reactivity and assembly of gold nanoparticles mediated by homocysteine (Hcys), a thiol-containing amino acid found in plasma. The aim is to gain insight into the interparticle interaction and reactivity, which has potential application for the detection of thiol-containing amino acids. By monitoring the evolution of the surface plasmon resonance absorption and the dynamic light scattering of gold nanoparticles in the presence of Hcys, the assembly was shown to be dependent on the nature and concentration of the electrolytes, reflecting an effective screening of the diffuse layer around the initial citrate-capped nanoparticles that decreases the barrier to the Hcys adsorption onto the surface, and around the subsequent Hcys-capped nanoparticles that facilitate the zwitterion-type electrostatic interactions between amino acid groups of Hcys bound to different nanoparticles. A key element of the finding is that the interparticle zwitterion interaction of the Hcys-Au system is much stronger than the expectation for a simple Hcys or Au solution, a new phenomenon originating from the unique nanoscale interparticle interaction. The strength and reversibility of the interparticle zwitterion-type electrostatic interactions between amino acid groups are evidenced by the slow disassembly upon increasing pH at ambient temperatures and its acceleration at elevated temperature. These findings provide new insight into the precise control of interfacial interactions and reactivities between amino acids anchored to nanoparticles and have broad implications in the development of colorimetric nanoprobes for amino acids.
View details for DOI 10.1021/la062334t
View details for Web of Science ID 000243338500069
View details for PubMedID 17209640
This paper describes the results of an investigation of the interparticle interactions and reactivities in the assembly of gold nanoparticles mediated by cyanine dyes. The combination of the positively charged indolenine cyanine dyes and the negatively charged gold nanoparticles is shown to form a J-aggregate bridged assembly of nanoparticles, in addition to hydrophobic interparticle and electrostatic dye-particle interactions. Such interparticle interactions and reactivities are studied by probing the absorption of J-aggregates and fluorescence from the dyes and the surface plasmon resonance absorption from the nanoparticles. The J-aggregation of the dyes adsorbed on the nanoparticles is shown to play an important role in the assembly of nanoparticles. The spectral evolution of the J-band of the dyes and the surface plasmon resonance band of the nanoparticles was found to be sensitive to the nature of the charge and the structure of the dyes. The fluorescence quenching for the dyes was shown to be quantitatively related to the surface coverage of the dyes on the nanocrystal surfaces. These findings have provided important information for assessing a two-step process involving a rapid adsorption of the dyes on the nanoparticles and a subsequent assembly of the nanoparticles involving a combination of interparticle J-aggregation and hydrophobic interactions of the adsorbed dyes. The results are discussed in terms of the structural effects of the dyes, and the interparticle molecular interactions and reactivities, which provide important physical and chemical insights into the design of dye-nanoparticle structured functional nanomaterials.
View details for DOI 10.1021/jp057584h
View details for Web of Science ID 000236523100040
View details for PubMedID 16570972