Bio

Clinical Focus


  • Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care
  • Pediatric Cardiology

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Medical Director of CVICU, LPCH (2018 - Present)
  • Co Chair Code Committee, LPCH (2015 - 2017)
  • Associate Director of CVICU, LPCH (2016 - 2018)
  • Director of Cardiac ECMO Program, LPCH (2014 - Present)

Professional Education


  • Board Certification: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, American Board of Pediatrics (2008)
  • Board Certification: Pediatric Cardiology, American Board of Pediatrics (2006)
  • Fellowship:Boston Children's Hospital (2008) MA
  • Fellowship:Boston Children's Hospital (2006) MA
  • Board Certification: Pediatrics, American Board of Pediatrics (2003)
  • Residency:Children's Medical Center of Dallas (2003) TX
  • Internship:Children's Medical Center of Dallas (2001) TX
  • Medical Education:Brown University School of Medicine (2000) RI
  • Professional Education:Brown University (1996) RI

Publications

All Publications


  • A Quality Bundle to Support High-Risk Pediatric Ventricular Assist Device Implantation. Pediatric cardiology Knoll, C., Chen, S., Murray, J. M., Dykes, J. C., Yarlagadda, V. V., Rosenthal, D. N., Almond, C. S., Maeda, K., Shin, A. Y. 2019

    Abstract

    Pediatric ventricular assist device (VAD) implantation outcomes are increasingly promising for children with dilated cardiomyopathy and advanced decompensated heart failure (ADHF). VAD placement in patients with clinical features such as complex congenital cardiac anatomy, small body size, or major comorbidities remains problematic. These comorbidities have been traditionally prohibitive for VAD consideration leaving these children as a treatment-orphaned population. Here we describe the quality bundle surrounding these patients with ADHF considered high risk for VAD implantation at our institution. Over a 7-year period, a quality bundle aimed at the peri-operative care for children with high-risk features undergoing VAD implantation was incrementally implemented at a tertiary children's hospital. Patients were considered high risk if they were neonates (<30days), had single-ventricle physiology, non-dilated cardiomyopathy, biventricular dysfunction, or significant comorbidities. The quality improvement bundle evolved to include (1) structured team-based peri-operative evaluation, (2) weekly VAD rounds addressing post-operative device performance, (3) standardized anticoagulation strategies, and (4) a multidisciplinary system for management challenges. These measures aimed to improve communication, standardize management, allow for ongoing process improvement, and incorporate principles of a high-reliability organization. Between January 2010 and December 2017, 98 patients underwent VAD implantation, 48 (49%) of which had high-risk comorbidities and a resultant cohort survival-to-transplant rate of 65%. We report on the evolution of a quality improvement program to expand the scope of VAD implantation to patients with high-risk clinical profiles. This quality bundle can serve as a template for future large-scale collaborations to improve outcomes in these treatment-orphaned subgroups.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00246-019-02123-1

    View details for PubMedID 31087144

  • Bridge to Transplant with Ventricular Assist Device Support in Pediatric Patients with Single Ventricle Heart Disease. ASAIO journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs : 1992) Chen, S., Rosenthal, D. N., Murray, J., Dykes, J. C., Almond, C. S., Yarlagadda, V. V., Wright, G., Navaratnam, M., Reinhartz, O., Maeda, K. 2019

    Abstract

    Ventricular assist device (VAD) support for children with single ventricle (SV) heart disease remains challenging. We performed a single-center retrospective review of SV patients on VAD support and examined survival to transplant using the Kaplan-Meier method. Patients transplanted were compared with those who died on support. Between 2009 and 2017, there were 14 SV patients with 1,112 patient-days of VAD support. Stages of palliation included pre-Glenn (n = 5), Glenn (n = 5), and Fontan (n = 4). Eight patients (57%) were successfully bridged to transplant at a median 107 days. Deaths occurred early (n = 6, median 16 days) and in smaller patients (10.1 vs. 28.3 kg, P = 0.04). All Fontan patients survived to transplant, whereas only 20% of Glenn patients survived to transplant. Adverse events occurred in 79% (n = 11). Five patients met hospital discharge criteria, with two patients (one pre-Glenn, one Glenn) discharged and transplanted after 219 and 174 days of VAD support. All transplanted patients were discharged at a median 21 days posttransplant. SV patients in various stages of palliation can be successfully bridged to transplant with VAD support. With use of intracorporeal continuous-flow devices, longer-term support and hospital discharge are possible.

    View details for PubMedID 30864969

  • Pulmonary hemorrhage in children with Alagille syndrome undergoing cardiac catheterization. Catheterization and cardiovascular interventions : official journal of the Society for Cardiac Angiography & Interventions Adamson, G. T., Peng, L. F., Feinstein, J. A., Yarlagadda, V. V., Lin, A., Wise-Faberowski, L., McElhinney, D. B. 2019

    Abstract

    To evaluate the incidence, severity, and outcomes of pulmonary hemorrhage in children with Alagille syndrome (AGS) undergoing cardiac catheterization, and to find variables associated with hemorrhage in this population.Children with AGS have a high incidence of bleeding complications during invasive procedures. It has been our impression that catheterization-associated pulmonary hemorrhage is more common in children with AGS, but there are no published data on this topic.This was a retrospective single institution study of children with AGS undergoing catheterization from 2010 to 2018. Pulmonary hemorrhage was defined as angiographic or fluoroscopic evidence of extravasated blood in the lung parenchyma, or blood suctioned from the endotracheal tube with documentation of pulmonary hemorrhage by the anesthesiologist or intensivist. Univariate comparisons were made between catheterizations that did and did not have pulmonary hemorrhage.Thirty children with AGS underwent 87 catheterizations, 32 (37%) with interventions on the branch pulmonary arteries (PA). There were 26 (30%) procedures with hemorrhage, the majority (65%) of which were self-limited or required less than 24?hr of mechanical ventilation. Moderate and severe hemorrhage occurred only in children with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF; 5 of 14, 36%). A higher right ventricle to aorta systolic pressure ratio (1.0 [0.85-1.1] vs. 0.88 [0.59-1.0], p = .029) and interventions on the branch PAs (14 of 26, 54% vs. 18 of 61, 30%, p = .032) were associated with hemorrhage.Pulmonary hemorrhage was common in children with AGS undergoing both intervention and diagnostic cardiac catheterization, and was associated with TOF, higher RV to aorta pressure ratio, and interventions on the branch PAs.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ccd.28508

    View details for PubMedID 31584246

  • Outcomes of Infants Supported With Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Using Centrifugal Versus Roller Pumps: An Analysis From the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry. Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies O'Halloran, C. P., Thiagarajan, R. R., Yarlagadda, V. V., Barbaro, R. P., Nasr, V. G., Rycus, P., Anders, M., Alexander, P. M. 2019

    Abstract

    To determine whether mortality differs between roller and centrifugal pumps used during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in infants weighing less than 10 kg.Retrospective propensity-matched cohort study.All extracorporeal membrane oxygenation centers reporting to the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization.All patients less than 10 kg supported on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation during 2011-2016 within Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry.Centrifugal and roller pump recipients were propensity matched (1:1) based on predicted probability of receiving a centrifugal pump using demographic variables, indication for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, central versus peripheral cannulation, and pre-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patient management.A total of 12,890 patients less than 10 kg were supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation within the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization registry during 2011-2016. Patients were propensity matched into a cohort of 8,366. Venoarterial and venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation runs were propensity matched separately. The propensity-matched cohorts were similar except earlier year of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (standardized mean difference, 0.49) in the roller pump group. Within the propensity-matched cohort, survival to discharge was lower in the centrifugal pump group (57% vs 59%; odds ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.83-0.99; p = 0.04). Hemolytic, infectious, limb injury, mechanical, metabolic, neurologic, pulmonary, and renal complications were more frequent in the centrifugal pump group. Hemorrhagic complications were similar between groups. Hemolysis mediated the relationship between centrifugal pumps and mortality (indirect effect, 0.023; p < 0.001).In this propensity score-matched cohort study of 8,366 extracorporeal membrane oxygenation recipients weighing less than 10 kg, those supported with centrifugal pumps had increased mortality and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation complications. Hemolysis was evaluated as a potential mediator of the relationship between centrifugal pump use and mortality and met criteria for full mediation.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PCC.0000000000002103

    View details for PubMedID 31567621

  • Applying Lessons from an Inaugural Clinical Pathway to Establish a Clinical Effectiveness Program. Pediatric quality & safety Algaze, C. A., Shin, A. Y., Nather, C., Elgin, K. H., Ramamoorthy, C., Kamra, K., Kipps, A. K., Yarlagadda, V. V., Mafla, M. M., Vashist, T., Krawczeski, C. D., Sharek, P. J. 2018; 3 (6): e115

    Abstract

    Introduction: Clinical effectiveness (CE) programs promote standardization to reduce unnecessary variation and improve healthcare value. Best practices for successful and sustainable CE programs remain in question. We developed and implemented our inaugural clinical pathway with the aim of incorporating lessons learned in the build of a CE program at our academic children's hospital.Methods: The Lucile Packard Children's Hospital Stanford Heart Center and Center for Quality and Clinical Effectiveness partnered to develop and implement an inaugural clinical pathway. Project phases included team assembly, pathway development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation, and improvement. We ascertained Critical CE program elements by focus group discussion among a multidisciplinary panel of experts and key affected groups. Pre and postintervention compared outcomes included mechanical ventilation duration, cardiovascular intensive care unit, and total postoperative length of stay.Results: Twenty-seven of the 30 enrolled patients (90%) completed the pathway. There was a reduction in ventilator days (mean 1.0+0.5 versus 1.9+1.3 days; P < 0.001), cardiovascular intensive care unit (mean 2.3+1.1 versus 4.6+2.1 days; P < 0.001) and postoperative length of stay (mean 5.9+1.6 versus 7.9+2.7 days; P < 0.001) compared with the preintervention period. Elements deemed critical included (1) project prioritization for maximal return on investment; (2) multidisciplinary involvement; (3) pathway focus on best practices, critical outcomes, and rate-limiting steps; (4) active and flexible implementation; and (5) continuous data-driven and transparent pathway iteration.Conclusions: We identified multiple elements of successful pathway implementation, that we believe to be critical foundational elements of our CE program.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/pq9.0000000000000115

    View details for PubMedID 31334447

  • Successful use of a ventricular assist device in a neonate with hypoplastic left heart syndrome with right ventricular dysfunction JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Maeda, K., Yarlagadda, V. V., Rosenthal, D. N., Almond, C. S. 2018; 156 (4): E171?E173
  • Impact of Phrenic Nerve Palsy and Need for Diaphragm Plication Following Surgery for Pulmonary Atresia With Ventricular Septal Defect and Major Aortopulmonary Collaterals SEMINARS IN THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Greene, C. L., Mainwaring, R. D., Sidell, D., Yarlagadda, V. V., Patrick, W. L., Hanley, F. L. 2018; 30 (3): 318?24
  • An alternative cannulation approach for venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in children for long-term ambulatory support JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Maeda, K., Ryan, K., Conrad, C. K., Yarlagadda, V. V. 2018; 156 (1): E13?E14
  • Successful use of a ventricular assist device in a neonate with hypoplastic left heart syndrome with right ventricular dysfunction. The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery Maeda, K., Yarlagadda, V. V., Rosenthal, D. N., Almond, C. S. 2018

    View details for PubMedID 29970231

  • An alternative cannulation approach for venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in children for long-term ambulatory support. The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery Maeda, K., Ryan, K., Conrad, C. K., Yarlagadda, V. V. 2018

    View details for PubMedID 29685584

  • Impact of Phrenic Nerve Palsy and Need for Diaphragm Plication Following Surgery for Pulmonary Atresia With Ventricular Septal Defect and Major Aortopulmonary Collaterals. Seminars in thoracic and cardiovascular surgery Greene, C. L., Mainwaring, R. D., Sidell, D., Yarlagadda, V. V., Patrick, W. L., Hanley, F. L. 2018

    Abstract

    Injury to the phrenic nerves may occur during surgery for pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (PA-VSD and MAPCAs). These patients may develop respiratory failure and require diaphragm plication. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of phrenic nerve palsy on recovery following surgery for PA-VSD and MAPCAs. Between 2007 and 2016, approximately 500 patients underwent surgery for PA-VSD and MAPCAs at our institution. Twenty-four patients (4.8%) subsequently had evidence of new phrenic nerve palsy. Sixteen patients were undergoing their first surgical procedure, whereas 8 were undergoing reoperations. All 24 patients underwent diaphragm plication. A cohort of matched controls was identified based on identical diagnosis and procedures but did not sustain a phrenic nerve palsy. Eighteen of the 24 patients (75%) had clinical improvement following diaphragm plication as evidenced by the ability to undergo successful extubation (5±2 days), transition out of the intensive care unit (32±16 days), and discharge from the hospital (42±19 days). In contrast, there were 6 patients (25%) who did not demonstrate a temporal improvement following diaphragm plication, as evidenced by intervals of 61±38, 106±45, and 108±46 days, respectively (P<0.05 for all 3 comparisons). The 6 patients who failed to improve following diaphragm plication had a significantly greater number of comorbidities compared to the 18 patients who demonstrated improvement (2.2 vs 0.6 per patient, P<0.05). When compared with the control group, patients who improved following diaphragm plication spent an additional 22 days and patients who failed to improve an additional 90 days in the hospital. The data demonstrate a bifurcation of clinical outcome in patients undergoing diaphragm plication following surgery for PA-VSD and MAPCAs. This bifurcation appears to be linked to the presence or absence of other comorbidities.

    View details for PubMedID 29545034

  • INSURANCE TYPE IS ASSOCIATED WITH LONGER HOSPITAL DURATION BUT SIMILAR MORTALITY AMONG CHILDREN UNDERGOING CONGENITAL HEART SURGERY Ryan, K., Algaze, C., Sakarovitch, C., Do, T., Yarlagadda, V., Fernandes, S., McElhinney, D., Roth, S., Krawczeski, C., Shin, A. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2017: 569
  • A novel inflow cannulation strategy for pediatric mechanical circulatory support in small left ventricles. journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery Ma, M., Yarlagadda, V. V., Rosenthal, D. N., Maeda, K. 2017

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2017.03.034

    View details for PubMedID 28416331

  • Left Ventricular Retraining and Double Switch in Patients With Congenitally Corrected Transposition of the Great Arteries. World journal for pediatric & congenital heart surgery Ibrahimiye, A. N., Mainwaring, R. D., Patrick, W. L., Downey, L., Yarlagadda, V., Hanley, F. L. 2017; 8 (2): 203-209

    Abstract

    Congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (CC-TGA) is a complex form of congenital heart defect with numerous anatomic subgroups. The majority of patients with CC-TGA are excellent candidates for a double-switch procedure. However, in the absence of an unrestrictive ventricular septal defect or subpulmonary stenosis, the left ventricle (LV) may undergo involution and require retraining prior to double switch. The purpose of this study was to review our experience with patients having CC-TGA who required LV retraining prior to a double-switch procedure.This was a retrospective review of 24 patients with CC-TGA who were enrolled in an LV retraining program in preparation for a double-switch procedure. The median age at the time of enrollment for retraining was 11 months (range 1 month-24 years). The average left ventricle to right ventricle pressure ratio was 0.39 ± 0.07 prior to intervention. All 24 patients underwent placement of an initial pulmonary artery band (PAB) for LV retraining.Eighteen (75%) of the 24 patients underwent a double-switch procedure with no operative mortality. Of these 18 patients, 9 had a single PAB and 9 required a second band for retraining. Six patients have not undergone a double-switch procedure to date. Five patients are good candidates for a double switch and are 2 weeks, 3 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 months, and 35 months since their last PAB. One patient died from a noncardiac cause 26 months after PAB retightening. The 18 patients who underwent a double switch were followed for an average of 5 ± 1 years (range 0.1-10.3 years). There has been no late mortality, and only 2 patients required further reinterventions.The data demonstrate that LV retraining has been highly effective in this select group of patients with CC-TGA. The data also demonstrate that the results of the double-switch procedure have been excellent at midterm follow-up. These results suggest that LV retraining and double switch offer a reliable strategy option for patients with CC-TGA.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/2150135116683939

    View details for PubMedID 28329464

  • Alternative Strategy for Biventricular Assist Device in an Infant With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. The Annals of thoracic surgery Dykes, J. C., Reinhartz, O., Almond, C. S., Yarlagadda, V., Murray, J., Rosenthal, D. N., Maeda, K. 2017; 104 (2): e185?e186

    Abstract

    We report an infant with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who underwent biventricular assist device placement with two 15-mL Berlin Heart EXCOR pediatric ventricular assist devices using an alternative atrial cannulation strategy. The systemic circulation was supported by left atrium (LA) to aorta cannulation. The LA was accessed through the right atrium by extending a 6-mm EXCOR cannula with a Gore-Tex graft connected to an atrial septal defect. The pulmonary circulation was supported with cannulation of the right atrium to pulmonary artery. This alternative cannulation strategy facilitated effective biventricular support and may be applicable to other patients with hypertrophic or restrictive physiology.

    View details for PubMedID 28734448

  • Temporary Circulatory Support in U.S. Children Awaiting Heart Transplantation. Journal of the American College of Cardiology Yarlagadda, V. V., Maeda, K., Zhang, Y., Chen, S., Dykes, J. C., Gowen, M. A., Shuttleworth, P., Murray, J. M., Shin, A. Y., Reinhartz, O., Rosenthal, D. N., McElhinney, D. B., Almond, C. S. 2017; 70 (18): 2250?60

    Abstract

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has long served as the standard of care for short-term mechanical circulatory support in pediatrics. It is unknown whether newer-generation temporary circulatory support (TCS) devices afford children a meaningful survival advantage over ECMO.This study sought to determine whether bridge-to-heart transplant survival with a TCS device is superior to ECMO after adjusting for patient differences.All children ?21 years of age listed for heart transplant from 2011 to 2015 who received a TCS device or ECMO as a bridge to transplant were identified using Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network data. Children supported with a TCS device were compared with a propensity score (PS)-matched cohort of children supported with ECMO as a bridge to transplant. The primary endpoint was Kaplan-Meier survival to transplant.The number of TCS devices implanted in children increased from ?3 per year before 2011 to 50 in 2015. Overall, 93 patients implanted with TCS devices were included for analysis (59% left ventricular assist devices, 23% right ventricular assist devices, 18% biventricular assist devices). The most commonly used device was the CentriMag-PediMag system (65%), followed by TandemHeart (18%), Rotaflow (6%), and Impella (5%). Among 164 PS-matched patients, support duration was longer for the TCS cohort (median 19 days vs. 6 days; p < 0.001), and was longest for the CentriMag-PediMag (24 days vs. 6 days; p < 0.001) with 27% supported for >60 days. Compared with the ECMO cohort, the PS-matched TCS cohort had longer survival to transplant (hazard ratio: 0.49; 95% confidence interval: 0.30 to 0.79) and longer overall survival (hazard ratio: 0.61; 95% confidence interval: 0.39 to 0.96), with 90-day mortality before transplant that was modestly reduced (from 45% with ECMO to 39% with TCS).The use of TCS devices in children as a bridge to transplant has risen rapidly in recent years, led by the growth of magnetically levitated centrifugal flow pumps. Compared with conventional ECMO, TCS durations are longer, and more importantly, patient survival is superior.

    View details for PubMedID 29073953

  • Anesthesia for Placement of a Paracorporeal Lung Assist Device and Subsequent Heart-Lung Transplantation in a Child with Suprasystemic Pulmonary Hypertension and End-Stage Respiratory Failure. A & A case reports Char, D. S., Yarlagadda, V., Maeda, K., Williams, G. 2016; 6 (10): 308-310

    Abstract

    Pediatric patients with end-stage respiratory failure and pulmonary hypertension traditionally have poor outcomes when bridged with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation to lung or heart-lung transplantation. Therefore, several institutions have attempted paracorporeal lung assist devices as a bridge. However, given the small number of patients, little is known about approaches to anesthetic induction in these hemodynamically unstable patients either before placement of a device or anesthetic induction once a device is in situ. In this case report, we describe our anesthetic experience managing a 13-year-old boy for both paracorporeal lung assist device placement and subsequent heart-lung transplantation.

    View details for DOI 10.1213/XAA.0000000000000300

    View details for PubMedID 27002753

  • Major Causes of Stroke in Children With Congenital and Acquired Heart Disease. Elbers, J., Lee, E., Yarlagadda, V. V., Lo, C., Hanisch, D., Lin, A., Almond, C. S., Shin, A. Y. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2016

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