Doctor of Philosophy, Yale University (2018)
Bachelor of Arts, The University of Chicago, Biological Sciences (2012)
Mark Krasnow, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
Although much is known about the biochemical regulation of glycolytic enzymes, less is understood about how they are organized inside cells. We systematically examine the dynamic subcellular localization of glycolytic protein phosphofructokinase-1/PFK-1.1 in Caenorhabditis elegans. We determine that endogenous PFK-1.1 localizes to subcellular compartments inávivo. In neurons, PFK-1.1 forms phase-separated condensates near synapses in response to energy stress from transient hypoxia. Restoring animals to normoxic conditions results in cytosolic dispersion of PFK-1.1. PFK-1.1 condensates exhibit liquid-like properties, including spheroid shapes due to surface tension, fluidity due to deformations, and fast internal molecular rearrangements. Heterologous self-association domain cryptochrome 2 promotes formation of PFK-1.1 condensates and recruitment of aldolase/ALDO-1. PFK-1.1 condensates do not correspond to stress granules and might represent novel metabolic subcompartments. Our studies indicate that glycolytic protein PFK-1.1 can dynamically form condensates inávivo.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bpj.2020.08.002
View details for PubMedID 32853565
We have studied a series of human acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) 1 and ACC2 proteins with deletions and/or Ser to Ala substitutions of the known phosphorylation sites. In vitro dephosphorylation/phosphorylation experiments reveal a substantial level of phosphorylation of human ACCs produced in insect cells. Our results are consistent with AMPK phosphorylation of Ser29 , Ser80 , Ser1,201 , and Ser1,216 . Phosphorylation of the N-terminal regulatory domain decreases ACC1 activity, while phosphorylation of residues in the ACC central domain has no effect. Inhibition of the activity by phosphorylation is significantly more profound at citrate concentrations below 2 mm. Furthermore, deletion of the N-terminal domain facilitates structural changes induced by citrate, including conversion of ACC dimers to linear polymers. We have also identified ACC2 amino acid mutations affecting specific inhibition of the isozyme by compound CD-017-0191. They form two clusters separated by 60-90 ┼: one located in the vicinity of the BC active site and the other one in the vicinity of the ACC1 phosphorylation sites in the central domain, suggesting a contribution of the interface of two ACC dimers in the polymer to the inhibitor binding site.
View details for DOI 10.1002/1873-3468.13097
View details for PubMedID 29772612
Changes in neuronal activity create local and transient changes in energy demands at synapses. Here we discover a metabolic compartment that forms inávivo near synapses to meet local energy demands and support synaptic function in Caenorhabditis elegans neurons. Under conditions of energy stress, glycolytic enzymes redistribute from a diffuse localization in the cytoplasm to a punctate localization adjacent to synapses. Glycolytic enzymes colocalize, suggesting the ad hoc formation of a glycolysis compartment, or a "glycolytic metabolon," that can maintain local levels of ATP. Local formation of the glycolytic metabolon is dependent on presynaptic scaffolding proteins, and disruption of the glycolytic metabolon blocks the synaptic vesicle cycle, impairs synaptic recovery, and affects locomotion. Our studies indicate that under energy stress conditions, energy demands in C.áelegans synapses are met locally through the assembly of a glycolytic metabolon to sustain synaptic function and behavior. VIDEO ABSTRACT.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.neuron.2016.03.011
View details for PubMedID 27068791
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4840048
Eleven spontaneous mutations of acetyl-CoA carboxylase have been identified in many herbicide-resistant populations of 42 species of grassy weeds, hampering application of aryloxyphenoxypropionate, cyclohexadione and phenylpyrazoline herbicides in agriculture. IC(50) shifts (resistance indices) caused by herbicide-resistant mutations were determined using a recombinant yeast system that allows comparison of the effects of single amino acid mutations in the same biochemical background, avoiding the complexity inherent in the in planta experiments. The effect of six mutations on the sensitivity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase to nine herbicides representing the three chemical classes was studied. A combination of partially overlapping binding sites of the three classes of herbicides and the structure of their variable parts explains cross-resistance among and between the three classes of inhibitors, as well as differences in their specificity. Some degree of resistance was detected for 51 of 54 herbicide/mutation combinations. Introduction of new herbicides targeting acetyl-CoA carboxylase will depend on their ability to overcome the high degree of cross-resistance already existing in weed populations.
View details for DOI 10.1111/nph.12117
View details for PubMedID 23301879