Bio

Bio


Dr. Paul Heidenreich is Professor of Medicine and Health Research and Policy at the Stanford University School of Medicine. He serves as a Vice-Chair for Quality in the Department of Medicine. He is also the Acting Medical Director of the Stanford Echocardiography Laboratory. He is a practicing non-invasive cardiologist and active clinical researcher. He has an extensive background in outcomes and health services research in the areas of technology assessment including use of screening with diagnostic tests, quality improvement, and economic analyses. He served as Chair of the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association's (AHA) Task Force on Performance Measurement, the AHA Council on Quality of Car and Outcomes Research and the AHA Get With the Guidelines Steering Committee.

Clinical Focus


  • Cardiovascular Disease

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Vice-Chair for Quality, Department of Medicine (2015 - Present)

Honors & Awards


  • Clinical Divisional Teaching Award, Stanford University, Department of Medicine (2001)
  • E. William Hancock Cardiovascular Medicine Teaching Award, Stanford University, Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology (2001)
  • Clinical Divisional Teaching Award, Stanford University, Department of Medicine (2008)

Professional Education


  • Medical Education:University of Chicago School of Medicine (1988) IL
  • Fellowship:UCSF Cardiology Fellowship (1995) CA
  • Residency:UCSF-Internal Medicine (1992) CA
  • Internship:University of California, Los Angeles (1990) CA
  • MD, University of Chicago, Medicine (1988)
  • MS, Stanford University, Health Services Research (1998)

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


My research interests include

1) The cost-effectiveness of new cardiovascular technologies.
Example: tests to screen asymptomatic patients for left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

2) Interventions to improve the quality of care of patients with heart disease. Examples: include clinical reminders and home monitoring.

3) Outcomes research using existing clinical and administrative datasets.

4) Use of echocardiography to predict prognosis (e.g. diastolic dysfunction).

Clinical Trials


  • A Technology Assisted Care Transition Intervention for Veterans With CHF or COPD Recruiting

    Transition from hospital to home places patients in jeopardy of adverse events and increases their risk for rehospitalization. CHF is the most prevalent chronic condition among U.S. adults and COPD is the third leading cause of death in the U.S. Both CHF and COPD represent significant burdens for the VHA healthcare system. Care transitions can be supported through multi-component interventions, but are costly to implement. Virtual nurses provide an effective medium for explaining health concepts to patients, and previous work indicates patients find virtual nurses acceptable. The investigators will implement and evaluate a virtual nurse intervention to provide automated, tailored, and timely support to Veterans transitioning from hospital to home. As effective care transition interventions incorporate both inpatient and outpatient components, the virtual nurse will first engage with patient onscreen during their inpatient stay and then via text message post-discharge. This project has the potential to improve the care transition experience for patients, caregivers and healthcare providers.

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  • Clinical Reminders in Test Reports to Improve Guideline Compliance Not Recruiting

    Although beta-blockers are known to prolong survival for patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, their use in the community and the VA is suboptimal.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial.

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  • Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Use in the VA System Not Recruiting

    Despite being a proven life-saving intervention in appropriately selected individuals, multiple studies continue to demonstrate low implantation of defibrillators in potential candidates. Based upon prior research, a major barrier to low utilization is low referral of potential candidates by healthcare providers. In this study, via brief clinical reminder placed in the electronic medical record, we ask healthcare providers who have not referred potential candidates for defibrillator the reasons for this decision and provide them with the tools for referral if appropriate.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Parisa Gholami, (650) 493 - 5000.

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  • Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement in Heart Failure Clinic Not Recruiting

    This is a randomized study evaluating the effect of routinely collecting a standardized questionnaire of heart failure health status during heart failure clinic visits. Participants will be randomized to early or delayed implementation of a validated health-related quality of life survey (the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire). Participants randomized to early implementation will be given this 12-question survey at each heart failure clinic visit at the beginning of the study; their heart failure clinician will have access to survey results but will continue to manage participants based on standard treatment practice. Patients randomized to delayed implementation will start receiving the survey at each clinic visit one year later. By comparing the health status and treatment rates between early and delayed implementation, this study will determine the impact of standardized health status assessment on patient outcomes and clinician decision-making.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Alexander T Sandhu, MD, MS, (650) 498-5522.

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  • Provider Notification for High B-type Natriuretic Peptide Values Not Recruiting

    This proposal examines use of a clinical reminder to the primary provider of patient with a high B type natriuretic peptide but no prior imaging. Electrical Medical Record-based Intervention to Determine whether Clinical Reminders Improve Heart Failure Management in Patients with High BNP Values and Unknown LVEF.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial.

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  • Serial BNP Testing for Heart Failure Management Not Recruiting

    The scope of the USE-BNP Trial is to investigate whether knowledge of BNP measurements, in conjunction with clinical assessment, in the outpatient setting can guide the management of therapy in patients with heart failure.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial.

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Teaching

2019-20 Courses


Stanford Advisees


Publications

All Publications


  • Association of Statin Adherence With Mortality in Patients With Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease. JAMA cardiology Rodriguez, F., Maron, D. J., Knowles, J. W., Virani, S. S., Lin, S., Heidenreich, P. A. 2019

    Abstract

    Statins decrease mortality in those with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), but statin adherence remains suboptimal.To determine the association between statin adherence and mortality in patients with ASCVD who have stable statin prescriptions.This retrospective cohort analysis included patients who were between ages 21 and 85 years and had 1 or more International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes for ASCVD on 2 or more dates in the previous 2 years without intensity changes to their statin prescription who were treated within the Veterans Affairs Health System between January 1, 2013, and April 2014.Statin adherence was defined by the medication possession ratio (MPR). Adherence levels were categorized as an MPR of less than 50%, 50% to 69%, 70% to 89%, and 90% or greater. For dichotomous analyses, adherence was defined as an MPR of 80% or greater.The primary outcome was death of all causes adjusted for demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as adherence to other cardiac medications.Of 347?104 eligible adults with ASCVD who had stable statin prescriptions, 5472 (1.6%) were women, 284?150 (81.9%) were white, 36?208 (10.4%) were African American, 16?323 (4.7%) were Hispanic, 4093 (1.2%) were Pacific Islander, 1293 (0.4%) were Native American, 1145 (0.3%) were Asian, and 1794 (0.5%) were other races. Patients taking moderate-intensity statin therapy were more adherent than patients taking high-intensity statin therapy (odds ratio [OR], 1.18; 95% CI, 1.16-1.20). Women were less adherent (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.84-0.94), as were minority groups. Younger and older patients were less likely to be adherent compared with adults aged 65 to 74 years. During a mean (SD) of 2.9 (0.8) years of follow-up, there were 85?930 deaths (24.8%). Compared with the most adherent patients (MPR???90%), patients with an MPR of less than 50% had a hazard ratio (HR; adjusted for clinical characteristics and adherence to other cardiac medications) of 1.30 (95% CI, 1.27-1.34), those with an MPR of 50% to 69% had an HR of 1.21 (95% CI, 1.18-1.24), and those with an MPR of 70% to 89% had an HR of 1.08 (95% CI, 1.06-1.09).Using a national sample of Veterans Affairs patients with ASCVD, we found that a low adherence to statin therapy was associated with a greater risk of dying. Women, minorities, younger adults, and older adults were less likely to adhere to statins. Our findings underscore the importance of finding methods to improve adherence.

    View details for PubMedID 30758506

  • Validity of Performance and Outcome Measures for Heart Failure. Circulation. Heart failure Patel, J., Sandhu, A., Parizo, J., Moayedi, Y., Fonarow, G. C., Heidenreich, P. A. 2018; 11 (9): e005035

    Abstract

    Background Numerous quality metrics for heart failure (HF) care now exist based on process and outcome. What remains unclear, however, is if the correct quality metrics are being emphasized. To determine the validity of certain measures, we compared correlations between measures and reliability over time. Measures assessed include guideline-recommended beta-blocker (BB), any BB, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, and hydralazine/isosorbide dinitrate (in blacks) use among candidates, 30-day mortality, 1-year mortality, and 30-day readmission. Methods and Results This was an observational cohort analysis using chart review and electronic resources for 55735 patients from 102 Veterans Affairs medical centers hospitalized with HF from 2008 to 2013. Assessments of convergent validity and reliability were performed. Significant correlations were found between in-hospital rates of ACE inhibitor use and the following measures: BB use, 30-day mortality, and 1-year mortality. Guideline-recommended BB use was also significantly correlated with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, 30-day mortality, and 1-year mortality. There was no correlation between 30-day readmission rates and any therapy or mortality. Measure reliability over time was seen for guideline-recommended BBs ( r=0.57), mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists ( r=0.50), 30-day mortality ( r=0.29), and 1-year mortality ( r=0.31). ACE inhibitor and readmission rates were not reliable measures over time. Conclusions BB use, ACE inhibitor use, mortality, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist use are valid measures of HF quality. Thirty-day readmission rate did not seem to be a valid measure of HF quality of care. If the goal is to identify high-quality HF care, the emphasis on decreasing readmission rates might be better directed towards improving usage of the recommended therapies.

    View details for PubMedID 30354367

  • Association Between Offering Limited Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Echocardiograms and Overall Use of Echocardiography. JAMA internal medicine Sandhu, A. T., Parizo, J., Moradi-Ragheb, N., Heidenreich, P. A. 2018

    View details for PubMedID 30039163

  • Association Between Intensity of Statin Therapy and Mortality in Patients With Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease. JAMA cardiology Rodriguez, F., Maron, D. J., Knowles, J. W., Virani, S. S., Lin, S., Heidenreich, P. A. 2017; 2 (1): 47-54

    Abstract

    High-intensity statin therapy is recommended for the secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Nevertheless, statin therapy in general, and high-intensity statin therapy in particular, is underused in patients with established ASCVD.To determine the association between all-cause mortality and intensity of statin therapy in the Veterans Affairs health care system.A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted of patients aged 21 to 84 years with ASCVD treated in the Veterans Affairs health care system from April 1, 2013, to April 1, 2014. Patients who were included had 1 or more International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes for ASCVD on 2 or more different dates in the prior 2 years.Intensity of statin therapy was defined by the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines, and use was defined as a filled prescription in the prior 6 months. Patients were excluded if they were taking a higher statin dose in the prior 5 years.The primary outcome was death from all causes adjusted for the propensity to receive high-intensity statins.The study sample included 509?766 eligible adults with ASCVD at baseline (mean [SD] age, 68.5 [8.8] years; 499?598 men and 10?168 women), including 150?928 (29.6%) receiving high-intensity statin therapy, 232?293 (45.6%) receiving moderate-intensity statin therapy, 33?920 (6.7%) receiving low-intensity statin therapy, and 92?625 (18.2%) receiving no statins. During a mean follow-up of 492 days, there was a graded association between intensity of statin therapy and mortality, with 1-year mortality rates of 4.0% (5103 of 126?139) for those receiving high-intensity statin therapy, 4.8% (9703 of 200?709) for those receiving moderate-intensity statin therapy, 5.7% (1632 of 28?765) for those receiving low-intensity statin therapy, and 6.6% (4868 of 73?728) for those receiving no statin (P?

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamacardio.2016.4052

    View details for PubMedID 27829091

  • Cost-Effectiveness of Sacubitril-Valsartan in Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE Sandhu, A. T., Ollendorf, D. A., Chapman, R. H., Pearson, S. D., Heidenreich, P. A. 2016; 165 (10): 681-?

    Abstract

    Sacubitril-valsartan therapy reduces cardiovascular mortality compared with enalapril therapy in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction.To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of sacubitril-valsartan versus angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy in patients with chronic heart failure.Markov decision model.Clinical trials, observational analyses, reimbursement data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, drug pricing databases, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention life tables.Patients at an average age of 64 years, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II to IV heart failure, and left ventricular ejection fraction of 0.40 or less.Lifetime.Societal.Treatment with sacubitril-valsartan or lisinopril.Life-years, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), costs, heart failure hospitalizations, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios.The sacubitril-valsartan group experienced 0.08 fewer heart failure hospitalization, 0.69 additional life-year, 0.62 additional QALY, and $29 203 in incremental costs, equating to a cost per QALY gained of $47 053. The cost per QALY gained was $44 531 in patients with NYHA class II heart failure and $58 194 in those with class III or IV heart failure.Sacubitril-valsartan treatment was most sensitive to the duration of improved outcomes, with a cost per QALY gained of $120 623 if the duration was limited to the length of the trial (median, 27 months). No variations in other parameters caused the cost to exceed $100 000 per QALY gained.The benefit of sacubitril-valsartan is based on a single clinical trial.Treatment with sacubitril-valsartan provides reasonable value in reducing cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in patients with NYHA class II to IV heart failure.U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and Institute for Clinical and Economic Review.

    View details for DOI 10.7326/M16-0057

    View details for Web of Science ID 000387970500012

    View details for PubMedID 27571284

  • 2016 ACC/AHA Clinical Performance and Quality Measures for Adults With Atrial Fibrillation or Atrial Flutter: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Performance Measures. Circulation. Cardiovascular quality and outcomes Heidenreich, P. A., Solis, P., Mark Estes, N. A., Fonarow, G. C., Jurgens, C. Y., Marine, J. E., McManus, D. D., McNamara, R. L. 2016; 9 (4): 443-488

    View details for DOI 10.1161/HCQ.0000000000000018

    View details for PubMedID 27354018

  • Cost-Effectiveness of Implantable Pulmonary Artery Pressure Monitoring in Chronic Heart Failure JACC-HEART FAILURE Sandhu, A. T., Goldhaber-Fiebert, J. D., Owens, D. K., Turakhia, M. P., Kaiser, D. W., Heidenreich, P. A. 2016; 4 (5): 368-375

    Abstract

    This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the CardioMEMS (CardioMEMS Heart Failure System, St Jude Medical Inc, Atlanta, Georgia) device in patients with chronic heart failure.The CardioMEMS device, an implantable pulmonary artery pressure monitor, was shown to reduce hospitalizations for heart failure and improve quality of life in the CHAMPION (CardioMEMS Heart Sensor Allows Monitoring of Pressure to Improve Outcomes in NYHA Class III Heart Failure Patients) trial.We developed a Markov model to determine the hospitalization, survival, quality of life, cost, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of CardioMEMS implantation compared with usual care among a CHAMPION trial cohort of patients with heart failure. We obtained event rates and utilities from published trial data; we used costs from literature estimates and Medicare reimbursement data. We performed subgroup analyses of preserved and reduced ejection fraction and an exploratory analysis in a lower-risk cohort on the basis of the CHARM (Candesartan in Heart failure: Reduction in Mortality and Morbidity) trials.CardioMEMS reduced lifetime hospitalizations (2.18 vs. 3.12), increased quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) (2.74 vs. 2.46), and increased costs ($176,648 vs. $156,569), thus yielding a cost of $71,462 per QALY gained and $48,054 per life-year gained. The cost per QALY gained was $82,301 in patients with reduced ejection fraction and $47,768 in those with preserved ejection fraction. In the lower-risk CHARM cohort, the device would need to reduce hospitalizations for heart failure by 41% to cost <$100,000 per QALY gained. The cost-effectiveness was most sensitive to the device's durability.In populations similar to that of the CHAMPION trial, the CardioMEMS device is cost-effective if the trial effectiveness is sustained over long periods. Post-marketing surveillance data on durability will further clarify its value.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jchf.2015.12.015

    View details for PubMedID 26874380

  • A validated risk model for 1-year mortality after primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillator placement. American heart journal Heidenreich, P. A., Tsai, V., Curtis, J., Wang, Y., Turakhia, M. P., Masoudi, F. A., Varosy, P. D., Goldstein, M. K. 2015; 170 (2): 281-289 e2

    Abstract

    We sought to determine survival for patients with heart failure after an implantation of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) for primary prevention in the United States and to develop a simple model that would predict mortality risk.Clinical trials have found that patients with heart failure with a 1-year mortality risk near 20% may not benefit from an ICD.We identified patients from the ICD Registry of the National Cardiovascular Disease Registries who underwent ICD implantation for primary prevention from 2007 to 2009. Two risk scores for mortality were developed in 2 cohorts: one limited to those with a B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) value and a second for all patients. The scores were obtained from derivation datasets and tested in a validation sets using logistic regression models and classification and regression trees.In a primary prevention population with BNP available (18,725) the 6 variables most predictive of 1-year mortality were age ?75, BNP ?700 pg/mL, chronic lung disease, dialysis, blood urea nitrogen ?30 mg/dL, and systolic blood pressure <120 mmHg. Patients with zero risk factors had a 3.3% one-year mortality compared to a 66.7% one-year mortality for those with all 6 risk factors. Those with ?3 risk factors (24.0% of the population) had a 25.8% one-year mortality. A second score using a larger cohort that did not consider BNP identified similar risk factors.A simple validated risk score can identify patients at high and low risk for death within a year after ICD placement. A large fraction of those currently implanted with an ICD in the United States have a high 1-year mortality and may not benefit from ICD therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2014.12.013

    View details for PubMedID 26299225

  • A validated risk model for 1-year mortality after primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillator placement AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Heidenreich, P. A., Tsai, V., Curtis, J., Wang, Y., Turakhia, M. P., Masoudi, F. A., Varosy, P. D., Goldstein, M. K. 2015; 170 (2): 281-U119

    Abstract

    We sought to determine survival for patients with heart failure after an implantation of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) for primary prevention in the United States and to develop a simple model that would predict mortality risk.Clinical trials have found that patients with heart failure with a 1-year mortality risk near 20% may not benefit from an ICD.We identified patients from the ICD Registry of the National Cardiovascular Disease Registries who underwent ICD implantation for primary prevention from 2007 to 2009. Two risk scores for mortality were developed in 2 cohorts: one limited to those with a B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) value and a second for all patients. The scores were obtained from derivation datasets and tested in a validation sets using logistic regression models and classification and regression trees.In a primary prevention population with BNP available (18,725) the 6 variables most predictive of 1-year mortality were age ?75, BNP ?700 pg/mL, chronic lung disease, dialysis, blood urea nitrogen ?30 mg/dL, and systolic blood pressure <120 mmHg. Patients with zero risk factors had a 3.3% one-year mortality compared to a 66.7% one-year mortality for those with all 6 risk factors. Those with ?3 risk factors (24.0% of the population) had a 25.8% one-year mortality. A second score using a larger cohort that did not consider BNP identified similar risk factors.A simple validated risk score can identify patients at high and low risk for death within a year after ICD placement. A large fraction of those currently implanted with an ICD in the United States have a high 1-year mortality and may not benefit from ICD therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2014.12.013

    View details for Web of Science ID 000360360100015

  • Does Age Influence Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Use and Outcome? JACC. Heart failure Heidenreich, P. A., Tsai, V., Bao, H., Curtis, J., Goldstein, M., Curtis, L., Hernandez, A., Peterson, P., Turakhia, M. P., Masoudi, F. A. 2015; 3 (6): 497-504

    Abstract

    This study sought to describe the use of CRT-D and its association with survival for older patients.Many patients who receive cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D) in practice are older than those included in clinical trials.We identified patients undergoing ICD implantation in the National Cardiovascular Disease Registry (NCDR) ICD registry from 2006 to 2009, who also met clinical trial criteria for CRT, including left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ?35%, QRS ?120 ms, and New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class III or IV. NCDR registry data were linked to the social security death index to determine the primary outcome of time to death from any cause. We identified 70,854 patients from 1,187 facilities who met prior trial criteria for CRT-D. The mean age of the 58,147 patients receiving CRT-D was 69.4 years with 6.4% of patients age 85 or older. CRT use was 80% or higher among candidates in all age groups. Follow-up was available for 42,285 patients age ?65 years at 12 months.Receipt of CRT-D was associated with better survival at 1 year (82.1% vs. 77.1%, respectively) and 4 years (54.0% vs. 46.2% , respectively) than in those receiving only an ICD (p < 0.001). The CRT association with improved survival was not different for different age groups (p = 0.86 for interaction).More than 80% of older patients undergoing ICD implantation who were candidates for a CRT-D received the combined device. Mortality in older patients undergoing ICD implantation was high but was lower for those receiving CRT-D.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jchf.2015.01.012

    View details for PubMedID 25982109

  • Standardized Outcome Measurement for Patients With Coronary Artery Disease: Consensus From the International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM) JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION McNamara, R. L., Spatz, E. S., Kelley, T. A., Stowell, C. J., Beltrame, J., Heidenreich, P., Tresserras, R., Jernberg, T., Chua, T., Morgan, L., Panigrahi, B., Rosas Ruiz, A., Rumsfeld, J. S., Sadwin, L., Schoeberl, M., Shahian, D., Weston, C., Yeh, R., Lewin, J. 2015; 4 (5)

    Abstract

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) outcomes consistently improve when they are routinely measured and provided back to physicians and hospitals. However, few centers around the world systematically track outcomes, and no global standards exist. Furthermore, patient-centered outcomes and longitudinal outcomes are under-represented in current assessments.The nonprofit International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM) convened an international Working Group to define a consensus standard set of outcome measures and risk factors for tracking, comparing, and improving the outcomes of CAD care. Members were drawn from 4 continents and 6 countries. Using a modified Delphi method, the ICHOM Working Group defined who should be tracked, what should be measured, and when such measurements should be performed. The ICHOM CAD consensus measures were designed to be relevant for all patients diagnosed with CAD, including those with acute myocardial infarction, angina, and asymptomatic CAD. Thirteen specific outcomes were chosen, including acute complications occurring within 30 days of acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, or percutaneous coronary intervention; and longitudinal outcomes for up to 5 years for patient-reported health status (Seattle Angina Questionnaire [SAQ-7], elements of Rose Dyspnea Score, and Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-2]), cardiovascular hospital admissions, cardiovascular procedures, renal failure, and mortality. Baseline demographic, cardiovascular disease, and comorbidity information is included to improve the interpretability of comparisons.ICHOM recommends that this set of outcomes and other patient information be measured for all patients with CAD.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/JAHA.115.001767

    View details for Web of Science ID 000356347600011

    View details for PubMedID 25991011

  • ACC/AHA Statement on Cost/Value Methodology in Clinical Practice Guidelines and Performance Measures A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Performance Measures and Task Force on Practice Guidelines CIRCULATION Anderson, J. L., Heidenreich, P. A., Barnett, P. G., Creager, M. A., Fonarow, G. C., Gibbons, R. J., Halperin, J. L., Hlatky, M. A., Jacobs, A. K., Mark, D. B., Masoudi, F. A., Peterson, E. D., Shaw, L. J. 2014; 129 (22): 2329-?
  • ACC/AHA Statement on Cost/Value Methodology in Clinical Practice Guidelines and Performance Measures A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Performance Measures and Task Force on Practice Guidelines JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Anderson, J. L., Heidenreich, P. A., Barnett, P. G., Creager, M. A., Fonarow, G. C., Gibbons, R. J., Halperin, J. L., Hlatky, M. A., Jacobs, A. K., Mark, D. B., Masoudi, F. A., Peterson, E. D., Shaw, L. J. 2014; 63 (21): 2304-2322

    View details for DOI 10.1016/jacc.2014.03.016

    View details for Web of Science ID 000336564500025

    View details for PubMedID 24681044

  • Clinical reminders to providers of patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction increase defibrillator referral: a randomized trial. Circulation. Heart failure Gupta, A., Gholami, P., Turakhia, M. P., Friday, K., Heidenreich, P. A. 2014; 7 (1): 140-145

    Abstract

    Background- Many patients who are candidates for implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are not referred for potential implantation. We sought to determine if a simple provider reminder would increase referrals. Methods and Results- We identified consecutive patients from January 2007 through July 2010 in the VA Palo Alto Health Care System with a left ventricular ejection fraction <35% on echocardiography. Patients were excluded using available administrative data only (no chart review) if they were known to have an ICD, if they were ?80 years old, or if they did not have a current primary care or cardiology provider within the system. We randomized patients to no intervention or a clinical note to the provider in the medical record. The outcomes were referral for consideration of defibrillator implantation (primary) and documented discussion (secondary). Of 330 patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ?35%, 128 were known to have an ICD, 85 were no longer followed in the healthcare system, and 28 were ?80 years old, leaving 89 patients to be randomized. Forty-six patients were randomized to intervention and 43 to control. Eleven of 46 (24%) intervention patients were referred for consideration of ICD implantation during the following 6 months versus 1 of 43 (2%) control patients (P=0.004). Overall, 31 of 46 (67%) intervention patients versus 19 of 43 (44%) control patients had documentation discussing potential candidacy for defibrillators (P=0.05). Conclusions- In patients with low left ventricular ejection fraction, a simple electronic medical record-based intervention directed to their providers improved the rates of referral for ICD implantation. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01217827.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.113.000753

    View details for PubMedID 24319096

  • Variation in Use of Left Ventriculography in the Veterans Affairs Health Care System CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR QUALITY AND OUTCOMES Heidenreich, P. A., Lin, S., Knowles, J. W., Perez, M., Maddox, T. M., Ho, M. P., Rumsfeld, J. S., Sahay, A., Massie, B. M., Tsai, T. T., Witteles, R. M. 2013; 6 (6): 687-693

    Abstract

    Contrast left ventriculography is a method of measuring left ventricular function usually performed at the discretion of the invasive cardiologist during cardiac catheterization. We sought to determine variation in the use of left ventriculography in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care System.We identified adult patients who underwent cardiac catheterization including coronary angiography between 2000 and 2009 in the VA Health Care System. We determined patient and hospital predictors of the use of left ventriculography as well as the variation in use across VA facilities. Results were validated using data from the VA's Clinical Assessment, Reporting, and Tracking (CART) program. Of 457 170 cardiac catheterization procedures among 336 853 patients, left ventriculography was performed on 263 695 (58%) patients. Use of left ventriculography decreased over time (64% in 2000 to 50% in 2009) and varied markedly across facilities (<1->95% of cardiac catheterizations). Patient factors explained little of the large variation in use between facilities. When the cohort was restricted to those with an echocardiogram in the prior 30 days and no intervening event, left ventriculography was still performed in 50% of cases.There is large variation in the use of left ventriculography across VA facilities that is not explained by patient characteristics.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.113.000199

    View details for Web of Science ID 000330362400017

    View details for PubMedID 24192569

  • Association of single- vs dual-chamber ICDs with mortality, readmissions, and complications among patients receiving an ICD for primary prevention. JAMA-the journal of the American Medical Association Peterson, P. N., Varosy, P. D., Heidenreich, P. A., Wang, Y., Dewland, T. A., Curtis, J. P., Go, A. S., Greenlee, R. T., Magid, D. J., Normand, S. T., Masoudi, F. A. 2013; 309 (19): 2025-2034

    Abstract

    Randomized trials of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) for primary prevention predominantly used single-chamber devices. In clinical practice, patients often receive dual-chamber ICDs, even without clear indications for pacing. The outcomes of dual- vs single-chamber devices are uncertain.To compare outcomes of single- and dual-chamber ICDs for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death.Retrospective cohort study of admissions in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry's (NCDR) ICD registry from 2006-2009 that could be linked to Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services fee-for-service Medicare claims data. Patients were included if they received an ICD for primary prevention and did not have a documented indication for pacing. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Adjusted risks of 1-year mortality, all-cause readmission, heart failure readmission, and device-related complications within 90 days were estimated with propensity-score matching based on patient, clinician, and hospital factors.Among 32,034 patients, 12,246 (38%) received a single-chamber device and 19,788 (62%) received a dual-chamber device. In a propensity-matched cohort, rates of complications were lower for single-chamber devices (3.51% vs 4.72%; P < .001; risk difference, -1.20 [95% CI, -1.72 to -0.69]), but device type was not significantly associated with 1-year mortality (unadjusted rate, 9.85% vs 9.77%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.99 [95% CI, 0.91 to 1.07]; P = .79), 1-year all-cause hospitalization (unadjusted rate, 43.86% vs 44.83%; HR, 1.00 [95% CI, 0.97-1.04]; P = .82), or hospitalization for heart failure (unadjusted rate, 14.73% vs 15.38%; HR, 1.05 [95% CI, 0.99-1.12]; P = .19).Among patients receiving an ICD for primary prevention without indications for pacing, the use of a dual-chamber device compared with a single-chamber device was associated with a higher risk of device-related complications and similar 1-year mortality and hospitalization outcomes. Reasons for preferentially using dual-chamber ICDs in this setting remains unclear.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jama.2013.4982

    View details for PubMedID 23677314

  • Forecasting the impact of heart failure in the United States: a policy statement from the american heart association. Circulation. Heart failure Heidenreich, P. A., Albert, N. M., Allen, L. A., Bluemke, D. A., Butler, J., Fonarow, G. C., Ikonomidis, J. S., Khavjou, O., Konstam, M. A., Maddox, T. M., Nichol, G., Pham, M., Piña, I. L., Trogdon, J. G. 2013; 6 (3): 606-619

    Abstract

    Background- Heart failure (HF) is an important contributor to both the burden and cost of national healthcare expenditures, with more older Americans hospitalized for HF than for any other medical condition. With the aging of the population, the impact of HF is expected to increase substantially. Methods and Results- We estimated future costs of HF by adapting a methodology developed by the American Heart Association to project the epidemiology and future costs of HF from 2012 to 2030 without double counting the costs attributed to comorbid conditions. The model assumes that HF prevalence will remain constant by age, sex, and race/ethnicity and that rising costs and technological innovation will continue at the same rate. By 2030, >8 million people in the United States (1 in every 33) will have HF. Between 2012 and 2030, real (2010$) total direct medical costs of HF are projected to increase from $21 billion to $53 billion. Total costs, including indirect costs for HF, are estimated to increase from $31 billion in 2012 to $70 billion in 2030. If one assumes all costs of cardiac care for HF patients are attributable to HF (no cost attribution to comorbid conditions), the 2030 projected cost estimates of treating patients with HF will be 3-fold higher ($160 billion in direct costs). Conclusions- The estimated prevalence and cost of care for HF will increase markedly because of aging of the population. Strategies to prevent HF and improve the efficiency of care are needed.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/HHF.0b013e318291329a

    View details for PubMedID 23616602

  • Incremental Cost-Effectiveness of Guideline-Directed Medical Therapies for Heart Failure JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Banka, G., Heidenreich, P. A., Fonarow, G. C. 2013; 61 (13): 1440-1446

    Abstract

    This study sought to quantify the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), beta-blocker (BB), and aldosterone antagonist (AldA) therapies for patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF).There are evidence-based, guideline-directed medical therapies for patients with HFrEF, but the incremental cost-effectiveness of these therapies has not been well studied using contemporary data.A Markov model with lifetime horizon and two states, dead or alive, was created. We compared HFrEF patients treated with diuretic agents alone to three treatment arms: 1) ACEI therapy alone; 2) ACEI+BB; and 3) ACEI+BB+AldA. Sequential therapy was also analyzed. HF hospitalizations and mortality rates were based on representative studies. Costs of medications and inpatient and outpatient care were accounted for.Treatment with ACEI and ACEI+BB strictly dominated treatment with diuretics only (cost-saving). The greatest gains in quality-adjusted life-years occurred when all 3 guideline-directed medications were provided. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of ACEI+BB+AldA versus ACEI+BB and ACEI+BB versus ACEI was <$1,500 per quality-adjusted life-year. The cost-savings in the ACEI and ACEI+BB cohorts compared to that with diuretics alone were $444 and $33, respectively. Assuming lower treatment costs and lower hospitalization rates in the ACEI+BB+AldA arm resulted in greater cost-savings. Even in the most unfavorable situations, the ICER was <$10,000 per life-year gained.Our analysis demonstrates that medical treatment of HFrEF is highly cost-effective and may even result in cost-savings. Greater efforts to ensure optimal adherence to guideline-directed medical therapy for HFrEF are warranted.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2012.12.022

    View details for Web of Science ID 000317191200012

    View details for PubMedID 23433562

  • ACCF/HRS/AHA/ASE/HFSA/SCAI/SCCT/SCMR 2013 Appropriate Use Criteria for Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators and Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, Heart Rhythm Society, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, Heart Failure Society of America, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, and Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance HEART RHYTHM Russo, A. M., Stainback, R. F., Bailey, S. R., Epstein, A. E., Heidenreich, P. A., Jessup, M., Kapa, S., Kremers, M. S., Lindsay, B. D., Stevenson, L. W., Bailey, S. R., Russo, A. M., Kapa, S., Alexander, M. B., Bailey, S. R., Birgersdotter-Green, U., Brown, A. S., Grimm, R. A., Hauptman, P. J., Hunt, S. A., Lampert, R., Lindenfeld, J., Malenka, D. J., Mani, K., Marine, J. E., Martin, E. T., Page, R. L., Rich, M. W., Varosy, P. D., Walsh, M. N., Wolk, M. J., Bailey, S. R., Doherty, J. U., Douglas, P. S., Hendel, R. C., Kramer, C. M., Min, J. K., Patel, M. R., Shaw, L., Stainback, R. F., Allen, J. M. 2013; 10 (4): E11-E58
  • Measuring the Quality of Echocardiography Using the Predictive Value of the Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY Heidenreich, P. A., Maddox, T. M., Nath, J. 2013; 26 (3): 237-242

    Abstract

    One of the main challenges for imaging laboratories is demonstrating the quality of their studies. The aim of this study was to determine if echocardiographic training and experience are associated with the accuracy of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) reporting using all-cause mortality as the gold standard.Survival was determined for consecutive patients undergoing echocardiography at one of four academic facilities. The relationship between LVEF and survival was determined for different groups of physician readers and sonographers on the basis of board certification and experience. Studies of physicians reading <200 studies were excluded.Data from 63,108 patients and 40 physicians were included. There was moderate variation across physicians in the relationship between LVEF and 1-year mortality (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve interquartile range, 0.56-0.64). The relationship between LVEF and 1-year mortality was stronger for physicians board certified in echocardiography (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.59-0.61) compared with those not certified (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.55-0.57; P < .0001). Physician experience, years since training, and sonographer experience and certification were not clearly associated with the predictive value of LVEF. After adjustment for patient characteristics, the LVEF-mortality association of board-certified physicians remained stronger than the LVEF-mortality association of those not certified.LVEF as determined by physicians board certified in echocardiography was associated with a stronger relationship with mortality than as determined by those not certified. The LVEF-mortality relationship may be useful as one measure of the quality of imaging.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.echo.2012.12.011

    View details for Web of Science ID 000315290200004

    View details for PubMedID 23337738

  • Survival of patients receiving a primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator in clinical practice vs clinical trials. JAMA-the journal of the American Medical Association Al-Khatib, S. M., Hellkamp, A., Bardy, G. H., Hammill, S., Hall, W. J., Mark, D. B., Anstrom, K. J., Curtis, J., Al-Khalidi, H., Curtis, L. H., Heidenreich, P., Peterson, E. D., Sanders, G., Clapp-Channing, N., Lee, K. L., Moss, A. J. 2013; 309 (1): 55-62

    Abstract

    Randomized clinical trials have shown that implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy saves lives. Whether the survival of patients who received an ICD in primary prevention clinical trials differs from that of trial-eligible patients receiving a primary prevention ICD in clinical practice is unknown.To determine whether trial-eligible patients who received a primary prevention ICD as documented in a large national registry have a survival rate that differs from the survival rate of similar patients who received an ICD in the 2 largest primary prevention clinical trials, MADIT-II (n = 742) and SCD-HeFT (n = 829).Retrospective analysis of data for patients enrolled in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry ICD Registry between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2007, meeting the MADIT-II criteria (2464 propensity score-matched patients) or the SCD-HeFT criteria (3352 propensity score-matched patients). Mortality data for the registry patients were collected through December 31, 2009.Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare mortality from any cause.The median follow-up time in MADIT-II, SCD-HeFT, and the ICD Registry was 19.5, 46.1, and 35.2 months, respectively. Compared with patients enrolled in the clinical trials, patients in the ICD Registry were significantly older and had a higher burden of comorbidities. In the matched cohorts, there was no significant difference in survival between MADIT-II-like patients in the registry and MADIT-II patients randomized to receive an ICD (2-year mortality rates: 13.9% and 15.6%, respectively; adjusted ICD Registry vs trial hazard ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.85-1.31; P = .62). Likewise, the survival among SCD-HeFT-like patients in the registry was not significantly different from survival among patients randomized to receive ICD therapy in SCD-HeFT (3-year mortality rates: 17.3% and 17.4%, respectively; adjusted registry vs trial hazard ratio, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.97-1.38; P = .11).There was no significant difference in survival between clinical trial patients randomized to receive an ICD and a similar group of clinical registry patients who received a primary prevention ICD. Our findings support the continued use of primary prevention ICDs in similar patients seen in clinical practice.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00000609.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jama.2012.157182

    View details for PubMedID 23280225

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3638257

  • Placing a Value on New Technologies. Circulation Heidenreich, P. A. 2013

    Abstract

    In this issue of Circulation, two studies examine the value (cost-effectiveness) of two rapidly changing technologies: ventricular assist devices (VADs) as a bridge to transplant for patients with heart failure, and left atrial appendage (LAA) occlusion as an alternative to anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation. Both heart failure and atrial fibrillation impose an important economic and health burden on western societies that is only going to worsen as their populations age. In addition, the high cost of treating these conditions in the United States (US) is increasingly paid by Medicare resulting in greater taxes and premiums for all. Heart failure is already the most common reason for hospitalization in the US Medicare program and its prevalence in the US is estimated to grow by 43% to 8 million people by 2030(1). The cost of this care, due solely to the aging of the US population is expected to increase from 30 to 70 billion during the next 20 years. As the number of patients with heart failure grows so will the number of those with end-stage heart failure. Given that the rate of cardiac transplantation has not increased(2) many patients, providers, and payers will consider the use of ventricular assist devices (VADs) as a potential therapy for those not responding to other therapies. Older generation VADs were shown shown to improve survival in patients with severe heart failure (REMATCH)(3). More recently continuous flow devices have been found to provide even better outcome and have been used routinely for several years(4). Unfortunately the devices are expensive with an acquisition cost near $150,000(5). The use of VADs for both destination therapy and as a bridge to transplant has increased resulting in estimated VAD costs in the US climbing from $143 million to $479 million in 2009(6).

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.003196

    View details for PubMedID 23697909

  • Associations Between Aldosterone Antagonist Therapy and Risks of Mortality and Readmission Among Patients With Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Hernandez, A. F., Mi, X., Hammill, B. G., Hammill, S. C., Heidenreich, P. A., Masoudi, F. A., Qualls, L. G., Peterson, E. D., Fonarow, G. C., Curtis, L. H. 2012; 308 (20): 2097-2107

    Abstract

    Aldosterone antagonist therapy for heart failure and reduced ejection fraction has been highly efficacious in randomized trials. However, questions remain regarding the effectiveness and safety of the therapy in clinical practice.To examine the clinical effectiveness of newly initiated aldosterone antagonist therapy among older patients hospitalized with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction.Using clinical registry data linked to Medicare claims from 2005 through 2010, we examined outcomes of eligible patients hospitalized with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. We used Cox proportional hazards models and inverse-weighted estimates of the probability of treatment to adjust for treatment selection bias.All-cause mortality, cardiovascular readmission, and heart failure readmission at 3 years, and hyperkalemia readmission at 30 days and 1 year.Among 5887 patients who met the inclusion criteria, the mean age was 77.6 years; of those 1070 (18.2%) started aldosterone antagonist therapy at discharge. Cumulative incidence rates among treated and untreated patients were 49.9% vs 51.2% (P = .62) for mortality; 63.8% vs 63.9% (P = .65) for cardiovascular readmission; and 38.7% vs 44.9% (P < .001) for heart failure readmission at 3 years; and 2.9% vs 1.2% (P < .001) for hyperkalemia readmission within 30 days and 8.9% vs 6.3% (P = .002) within 1 year. After inverse weighting for the probability of treatment, there were no significant differences in mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.04; 95% CI, 0.96-1.14; P = .32) and cardiovascular readmission (HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.91-1.09; P = .94). Heart failure readmission was lower among treated patients at 3 years (HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.77-0.98; P = .02). Readmission associated with hyperkalemia was higher with aldosterone antagonist therapy at 30 days (HR, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.51-4.29; P < .001) and 1 year (HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.23-1.84; P < .001).Initiation of aldosterone antagonist therapy at hospital discharge was not independently associated with improved mortality or cardiovascular readmission but was associated with improved heart failure readmission among eligible older patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. There was a significant increase in the risk of readmission with hyperkalemia, predominantly within 30 days after discharge.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000311537200024

    View details for PubMedID 23188026

  • Use and overuse of left ventriculography AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Witteles, R. M., Knowles, J. W., Perez, M., Morris, W. M., Spettell, C. M., Brennan, T. A., Heidenreich, P. A. 2012; 163 (4): 617-?

    Abstract

    Left ventriculography provided the first imaging of left ventricular function and was historically performed as part of coronary angiography despite a small but significant risk of complications. Because modern noninvasive imaging techniques are more accurate and carry smaller risks, the routine use of left ventriculography is of questionable utility. We sought to analyze the frequency that left ventriculography was performed during coronary angiography in patients with and without a recent alternative assessment of left ventricular function.We performed a retrospective analysis of insurance claims data from the Aetna health care benefits database including all adults who underwent coronary angiography in 2007. The primary outcome was the concomitant use of left ventriculography during coronary angiography.Of 96,235 patients who underwent coronary angiography, left ventriculography was performed in 78,705 (81.8%). Use of left ventriculography was high in all subgroups, with greatest use in younger patients, those with a diagnosis of coronary disease, and those in the Southern United States. In the population who had undergone a very recent ejection fraction assessment by another modality (within 30 days) and who had had no intervening diagnosis of new heart failure, myocardial infarction, hypotension, or shock (37,149 patients), left ventriculography was performed in 32,798 patients (88%)-a rate higher than in the overall cohort.Left ventriculography was performed in most coronary angiography cases and often when an alternative imaging modality had been recently completed. New clinical practice guidelines should be considered to decrease the overuse of this invasive test.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2011.12.018

    View details for PubMedID 22520528

  • Get With The Guidelines Program Participation, Process of Care, and Outcome for Medicare Patients Hospitalized With Heart Failure CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR QUALITY AND OUTCOMES Heidenreich, P. A., Hernandez, A. F., Yancy, C. W., Liang, L., Peterson, E. D., Fonarow, G. C. 2012; 5 (1): 37-43

    Abstract

    Hospitals enrolled in the American Heart Association's Get With The Guidelines Program for heart failure (GWTG-HF) have improved their process of care. However, it is unclear if process of care and outcomes are better in the GWTG-HF hospitals compared with hospitals not enrolled.We compared hospitals enrolled in GWTG-HF from 2006 to 2007 with other hospitals using data on 4 process of heart failure care measures, 5 noncardiac process measures, risk-adjusted 30-day mortality, and 30-day all-cause readmission after a heart failure hospitalization, as reported by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Among the 4460 hospitals reporting data to CMS, 215 (5%) were enrolled in GWTG-HF. Of the 4 CMS heart failure performance measures, GWTG-HF hospitals had significantly higher documentation of the left ventricular ejection fraction (93.4% versus 88.8%), use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor antagonist (88.3% versus 86.6%), and discharge instructions (74.9% versus 70.5%) (P<0.005 for all). Smoking cessation counseling rates were similar (94.1% versus 94.0%; P=0.51). There was no significant difference in compliance with noncardiac process of care. After heart failure discharge, all-cause readmission at 30 days was 24.5% and mortality at 30 days after admission was 11.1%. After adjustment for hospital characteristics, 30-day mortality rates were no different (P=0.45). However, 30-day readmission was lower for GWTG hospitals (-0.33%; 95% CI, -0.53% to -0.12%; P=0.002).Although there was evidence that hospitals enrolled in the GTWG-HF program demonstrated better processes of care than other hospitals, there were few clinically important differences in outcomes. Further identification of opportunities to improve outcomes, and inclusion of these metrics in GTWG-HF, may further support the value of GTWG-HF in improving care for patients with HF.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.110.959122

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299411100008

    View details for PubMedID 22235067

  • Age and Receipt of Guideline-Recommended Medications for Heart Failure: A Nationwide Study of Veterans JOURNAL OF GENERAL INTERNAL MEDICINE Steinman, M. A., Harlow, J. B., Massie, B. M., Kaboli, P. J., Fung, K. Z., Heidenreich, P. A. 2011; 26 (10): 1152-1159

    Abstract

    Older patients often receive less guideline-concordant care for heart failure than younger patients.To determine whether age differences in heart failure care are explained by patient, provider, and health system characteristics and/or by chart-documented reasons for non-adherence to guidelines.Retrospective cohort study of 2,772 ambulatory veterans with heart failure and left ventricular ejection fraction <40% from a 2004 nationwide medical record review program (the VA External Peer Review Program).Ambulatory use of ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and beta blockers.Among 2,772 patients, mean age was 73 +/- 10 years, 87% received an ACE inhibitor or ARB, and 82% received a beta blocker. When patients with explicit chart-documented reasons for not receiving these drugs were excluded, 95% received an ACE inhibitor or ARB and 89% received a beta blocker. In multivariable analyses controlling for a variety of patient and health system characteristics, the adjusted odds ratio for ACE-inhibitor and ARB use was 0.43 (95% CI 0.24-0.78) for patients age 80 and over vs. those age 50-64 years, and the adjusted odds ratio for beta blocker use was 0.66 (95% CI 0.48-0.93) between the two age groups. The magnitude of these associations was similar but not statistically significant after excluding patients with chart-documented reasons for not prescribing ACE inhibitors or ARBs and beta blockers.A high proportion of veterans receive guideline-recommended medications for heart failure. Older veterans are consistently less likely to receive these drugs, although these differences were no longer significant when accounting for patients with chart-documented reasons for not prescribing these drugs. Closely evaluating reasons for non-prescribing in older adults is essential to assessing whether non-treatment represents good clinical judgment or missed opportunities to improve care.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11606-011-1745-2

    View details for Web of Science ID 000295329600016

    View details for PubMedID 21604076

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3181303

  • Influence of Age on Perioperative Complications Among Patients Undergoing Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators for Primary Prevention in the United States CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR QUALITY AND OUTCOMES Tsai, V., Goldstein, M. K., Hsia, H. H., Wang, Y., Curtis, J., Heidenreich, P. A. 2011; 4 (5): 549-U111

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND- The majority of current implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) recipients are significantly older than those in the ICD trials. Data on periprocedural complications among the elderly are insufficient. We evaluated the influence of age on perioperative complications among primary prevention ICD recipients in the United States. METHODS AND RESULTS- Using the National Cardiovascular Data's ICD Registry, we identified 150 264 primary prevention patients who received ICDs from January 2006 to December 2008. The primary end point was any adverse event or in-hospital mortality. Secondary end points included major adverse events, minor adverse events, and length of stay. Of 150 264 patients, 61% (n=91 863) were 65 years and older. A higher proportion of patients ?65 years had diabetes, congestive heart failure, atrial fibrillation, renal disease, and coronary artery disease. Approximately 3.4% of the entire cohort had any complication, including death, after ICD implant. Any adverse event or death occurred in 2.8% of patients under 65 years old; 3.1% of 65- to 69-year-olds; 3.5% of 70- to 74-year-olds; 3.9% of 75- to 79-year-olds, 4.5% of 80- to 84-year-olds; and 4.5% of patients 85 years and older. After adjustment for clinical covariates, multivariate analysis found an increased odds of any adverse event or death among 75- to 79-year-olds (1.14 [95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 1.25], 80-to 84-year-olds (1.22 [95% confidence interval, 1.10 to 1.36], and patients 85 years and older (1.15 [95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 1.32], compared with patients under 65 years old. CONCLUSIONS- Older patients had a modestly increased-but acceptably safe-risk of periprocedural complications and in-hospital mortality, driven mostly by increased comorbidity.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.110.959205

    View details for Web of Science ID 000295028800012

    View details for PubMedID 21878667

  • Age Differences in Primary Prevention Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Use in US Individuals JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY Tsai, V., Goldstein, M. K., Hsia, H. H., Wang, Y., Curtis, J., Heidenreich, P. A. 2011; 59 (9): 1589-1595

    Abstract

    To estimate the potentially inappropriate use of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator ICDs in older U.S. adults.Retrospective study.The National Cardiovascular Data ICD Registry.Forty-four thousand eight hundred five individuals in the National Cardiovascular Data's ICD Registry(?) who had received ICDs for primary prevention from January 2006 to December 2008. Individuals with a prior myocardial infarction and ejection fraction less than 30% were included.Mortality risk was categorized using the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation (MADIT) II risk-stratification system. Low-risk and very-high-risk individuals were considered potentially inappropriate recipients.Of 44,805 individuals, 67% (n = 29,893) were aged 65 and older, of whom 51% were aged 75 and older. A significant proportion of ICD recipients had a low risk of death (16%, n = 6,969) or very high risk of nonarrhythmic death (8%, n = 3,693). Potentially inappropriate ICD use was 10% in those aged 75 and older, much less than in younger groups (40%, <65; 21%, 65-74, P < .001). Although age was associated with a high risk of nonarrhythmic death, its influence was markedly attenuated after adjusting for comorbidities and timing of ICD implantation (odds ratio = 1.02, 95% confidence interval = 1.02-1.03, P < .001).Potentially inappropriate ICD use appears significantly less--and at modest rates--in older Americans than in younger age groups. Overall, almost one-quarter of individuals may have received ICDs inappropriately based on their risk of death. Physicians appear to be conservatively referring older adults and wisely deferring those with high comorbid burden.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2011.03542.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000295615000003

    View details for PubMedID 21883101

  • Characteristics and Outcomes of Very Elderly Patients After First Hospitalization for Heart Failure CIRCULATION-HEART FAILURE Shah, R. U., Tsai, V., Klein, L., Heidenreich, P. A. 2011; 4 (3): 301-307

    Abstract

    The very elderly (age 80 years and older) with heart failure (HF) is a growing population that is rarely included in clinical trials. The aim of this investigation was to describe the characteristics and outcomes of very elderly patients after a first HF hospitalization.We identified very elderly patients (age 80 years and older) discharged with HF from the Veteran's Administration National Patient Care Database from 1999 to 2008. Outcomes of interest were death during index admission, 30-day and 1-year mortality, and 30-day all-cause and HF readmissions. We used generalized estimating equations to evaluate outcome differences between age groups within the very elderly cohort (ages 80 to 84, 85 to 89, and 90 and older), adjusting for comorbidities, demographics, and clustering by treatment facility. We identified 21 397 very elderly veterans with a first HF hospitalization during the study period. Thirty-day mortality decreased from 14% to 7% (both P<0.001) and 1-year mortality decreased from 49% to 27% (P<0.001). Although these improvements were most notable for patients age 90 and older (1-year mortality improved by 25.9%), the adjusted odds of death within 1 year were highest for the oldest veterans (odds ratio, 1.85; 95% confidence interval, 1.64 to 2.09, using the 80- to 85-year age group as reference). For all patients, 30-day all-cause readmissions remained largely unchanged and did not differ between age groups.Mortality for very elderly HF patients has improved over time, but 30-day readmissions remain frequent. Future studies should identify interventions to reduce cardiac and noncardiac rehospitalization of very elderly HF patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.110.959114

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292869800014

    View details for PubMedID 21467294

  • Forecasting the Future of Cardiovascular Disease in the United States A Policy Statement From the American Heart Association CIRCULATION Heidenreich, P. A., Trogdon, J. G., Khavjou, O. A., Butler, J., Dracup, K., Ezekowitz, M. D., Finkelstein, E. A., Hong, Y., Johnston, S. C., Khera, A., Lloyd-Jones, D. M., Nelson, S. A., Nichol, G., Orenstein, D., Wilson, P. W., Woo, Y. J. 2011; 123 (8): 933-944

    Abstract

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States and is responsible for 17% of national health expenditures. As the population ages, these costs are expected to increase substantially.To prepare for future cardiovascular care needs, the American Heart Association developed methodology to project future costs of care for hypertension, coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke, and all other CVD from 2010 to 2030. This methodology avoided double counting of costs for patients with multiple cardiovascular conditions. By 2030, 40.5% of the US population is projected to have some form of CVD. Between 2010 and 2030, real (2008$) total direct medical costs of CVD are projected to triple, from $273 billion to $818 billion. Real indirect costs (due to lost productivity) for all CVD are estimated to increase from $172 billion in 2010 to $276 billion in 2030, an increase of 61%.These findings indicate CVD prevalence and costs are projected to increase substantially. Effective prevention strategies are needed if we are to limit the growing burden of CVD.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIR.0b013e31820a55f5

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287801300021

    View details for PubMedID 21262990

  • Long-Term Outcome After ICD and CRT Implantation and Influence of Remote Device Follow-Up The ALTITUDE Survival Study CIRCULATION Saxon, L. A., Hayes, D. L., Gilliam, F. R., Heidenreich, P. A., Day, J., Seth, M., Meyer, T. E., Jones, P. W., Boehmer, J. P. 2010; 122 (23): 2359-2367

    Abstract

    Outcome data for patients receiving implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) and cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator (CRT-D) devices treated outside of clinical trials are lacking. No clinical trial has evaluated mortality after device implantation or after shock therapy in large numbers of patients with implanted devices that regularly transmit device data over a network.Survival status in patients implanted with ICD and CRT devices across the United States from a single manufacturer was assessed. Outcomes were compared between patients followed in device clinic settings and those who regularly transmit remote data collected from the device an average of 4 times monthly. Shock delivery and electrogram analysis could be ascertained from patients followed on the network, enabling survival after ICD shock to be evaluated. One- and 5-year survival rates in 185,778 patients after ICD implantation were 92% and 68% and were 88% and 54% for CRT-D device recipients. In 8228 patients implanted with CRT-only devices, survival was 82% and 48% at 1 and 5 years, respectively. For the 69,556 ICD and CRT-D patients receiving remote follow-up on the network, 1- and 5-year survival rates were higher compared with those in the 116,222 patients who received device follow-up in device clinics only (50% reduction; P<0.0001). There were no differences between patients followed on or off the remote network for the characteristics of age, gender, implanted device year or type, and economic or educational status. Shock therapy was associated with subsequent mortality risk for both ICD and CRT-D recipients.Survival after ICD and CRT-D implantation in patients treated in naturalistic practice compares favorably with survival rates observed in clinical trials. Remote follow-up of device data is associated with excellent survival, but arrhythmias that result in device therapy in this population are associated with a higher mortality risk compared with patients who do not require shock therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.960633

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285002100009

    View details for PubMedID 21098452

  • Divergent Trends in Survival and Readmission Following a Hospitalization for Heart Failure in the Veterans Affairs Health Care System 2002 to 2006 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Heidenreich, P. A., Sahay, A., Kapoor, J. R., Pham, M. X., Massie, B. 2010; 56 (5): 362-368

    Abstract

    This study sought to determine recent trends over time in heart failure hospitalization, patient characteristics, treatment, rehospitalization, and mortality within the Veterans Affairs health care system.Use of recommended therapies for heart failure has increased in the U.S. However, it is unclear to what extent hospitalization rates and the associated mortality have improved.We compared rates of hospitalization for heart failure, 30-day rehospitalization for heart failure, and 30-day mortality following discharge from 2002 to 2006 in the Veterans Affairs Health Care System. Odds ratios for outcome were adjusted for patient diagnoses within the past year, laboratory data, and for clustering of patients within hospitals.We identified 50,125 patients with a first hospitalization for heart failure from 2002 to 2006. Mean age did not change (70 years), but increases were noted for most comorbidities (mean Charlson score increased from 1.72 to 1.89, p < 0.0001). Heart failure admission rates remained constant at about 5 per 1,000 veterans. Mortality at 30 days decreased (7.1% to 5.0%, p < 0.0001), whereas rehospitalization for heart failure at 30 days increased (5.6% to 6.1%, p = 0.11). After adjustment for patient characteristics, the odds ratio for rehospitalization in 2006 (vs. 2002) was 0.54 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.47 to 0.61) for mortality, but 1.21 (95% CI: 1.04 to 1.41) for heart failure rehospitalization at 30 days.Recent mortality and rehospitalization rates in the Veterans Affairs Health Care System have trended in opposite directions. These results have implications for using rehospitalization as a measure of quality of care.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2010.02.053

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280109400003

    View details for PubMedID 20650356

  • Relationship Between Early Physician Follow-up and 30-Day Readmission Among Medicare Beneficiaries Hospitalized for Heart Failure JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Hernandez, A. F., Greiner, M. A., Fonarow, G. C., Hammill, B. G., Heidenreich, P. A., Yancy, C. W., Peterson, E. D., Curtis, L. H. 2010; 303 (17): 1716-1722

    Abstract

    Readmission after hospitalization for heart failure is common. Early outpatient follow-up after hospitalization has been proposed as a means of reducing readmission rates. However, there are limited data describing patterns of follow-up after heart failure hospitalization and its association with readmission rates.To examine associations between outpatient follow-up within 7 days after discharge from a heart failure hospitalization and readmission within 30 days.Observational analysis of patients 65 years or older with heart failure and discharged to home from hospitals participating in the Organized Program to Initiate Lifesaving Treatment in Hospitalized Patients With Heart Failure and the Get With the Guidelines-Heart Failure quality improvement program from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2006.All-cause readmission within 30 days after discharge.The study population included 30,136 patients from 225 hospitals. Median length of stay was 4 days (interquartile range, 2-6) and 21.3% of patients were readmitted within 30 days. At the hospital level, the median percentage of patients who had early follow-up after discharge from the index hospitalization was 38.3% (interquartile range, 32.4%-44.5%). Compared with patients whose index admission was in a hospital in the lowest quartile of early follow-up (30-day readmission rate, 23.3%), the rates of 30-day readmission were 20.5% among patients in the second quartile (risk-adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78-0.93), 20.5% among patients in the third quartile (risk-adjusted HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.78-0.96), and 20.9% among patients in the fourth quartile (risk-adjusted HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.83-1.00).Among patients who are hospitalized for heart failure, substantial variation exists in hospital-level rates of early outpatient follow-up after discharge. Patients who are discharged from hospitals that have higher early follow-up rates have a lower risk of 30-day readmission.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00344513.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000277276600024

    View details for PubMedID 20442387

  • Cost-Effectiveness of Preparticipation Screening for Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death in Young Athletes ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE Wheeler, M. T., Heidenreich, P. A., Froelicher, V. F., Hlatky, M. A., Ashley, E. A. 2010; 152 (5): 276-W91

    Abstract

    Inclusion of 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG) in preparticipation screening of young athletes is controversial because of concerns about cost-effectiveness.To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of ECG plus cardiovascular-focused history and physical examination compared with cardiovascular-focused history and physical examination alone for preparticipation screening.Decision-analysis, cost-effectiveness model.Published epidemiologic and preparticipation screening data, vital statistics, and other publicly available data.Competitive athletes in high school and college aged 14 to 22 years.Lifetime.Societal.Nonparticipation in competitive athletic activity and disease-specific treatment for identified athletes with heart disease.Incremental health care cost per life-year gained.Addition of ECG to preparticipation screening saves 2.06 life-years per 1000 athletes at an incremental total cost of $89 per athlete and yields a cost-effectiveness ratio of $42 900 per life-year saved (95% CI, $21 200 to $71 300 per life-year saved) compared with cardiovascular-focused history and physical examination alone. Compared with no screening, ECG plus cardiovascular-focused history and physical examination saves 2.6 life-years per 1000 athletes screened and costs $199 per athlete, yielding a cost-effectiveness ratio of $76 100 per life-year saved ($62 400 to $130 000).Results are sensitive to the relative risk reduction associated with nonparticipation and the cost of initial screening.Effectiveness data are derived from 1 major European study. Patterns of causes of sudden death may vary among countries.Screening young athletes with 12-lead ECG plus cardiovascular-focused history and physical examination may be cost-effective.Stanford Cardiovascular Institute and the Breetwor Foundation.

    View details for PubMedID 20194233

  • Hospital performance recognition with the Get With The Guidelines Program and mortality for acute myocardial infarction and heart failure AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Heidenreich, P. A., Lewis, W. R., LaBresh, K. A., Schwamm, L. H., Fonarow, G. C. 2009; 158 (4): 546-553

    Abstract

    Many hospitals enrolled in the American Heart Association's Get With The Guidelines (GWTG) Program achieve high levels of recommended care for heart failure, acute myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. However, it is unclear if outcomes are better in those hospitals recognized by the GWTG program for their processes of care.We compared hospitals enrolled in GWTG and receiving achievement awards for high levels of recommended processes of care with other hospitals using data on risk-adjusted 30-day survival for heart failure and acute MI reported by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services.Among the 3,909 hospitals with 30-day data reported by Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services 355 (9%) received GWTG achievement awards. Risk-adjusted mortality for hospitals receiving awards was lower for both heart failure (11.0% vs 11.2%, P = .0005) and acute MI (16.1% vs 16.5%, P < .0001) compared to those not receiving awards. After additional adjustment for hospital characteristics and noncardiac performance measures, the reduction in mortality remained significantly lower for GWTG award hospitals for acute myocardial infraction (-0.19%, 95% CI -0.33 to -0.05), but not for heart failure (-0.11%, 95% CI -0.25 to 0.02). Additional adjustment for cardiac processes of care reduced the benefit of award hospitals by 28% for heart failure mortality and 43% for acute MI mortality.Hospitals receiving achievement awards from the GWTG program have modestly lower risk adjusted mortality for acute MI and to a lesser extent, heart failure, explained in part by better process of care.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2009.07.031

    View details for Web of Science ID 000270706100009

    View details for PubMedID 19781413

  • Assessing the Value of a Diagnostic Test ARCHIVES OF INTERNAL MEDICINE Heidenreich, P. A. 2009; 169 (14): 1262-1264

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268373000002

    View details for PubMedID 19636026

  • Radiation induced heart disease: systemic disorders in heart disease. Heart Heidenreich, P. A., Kapoor, J. R. 2009; 95 (3): 252-258

    View details for DOI 10.1136/hrt.2008.149088

    View details for PubMedID 19144884

  • Cost-effectiveness of chlorthalidone, amlodipine, and lisinopril as first-step treatment for patients with hypertension: An analysis of the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) JOURNAL OF GENERAL INTERNAL MEDICINE Heidenreich, P. A., Davis, B. R., Cutler, J. A., Furberg, C. D., Lairson, D. R., Shlipak, M. G., Pressel, S. L., Nwachuku, C., Goldman, L. 2008; 23 (5): 509-516

    Abstract

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of first-line treatments for hypertension.The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) found that first-line treatment with lisinopril or amlodipine was not significantly superior to chlorthalidone in terms of the primary endpoint, so differences in costs may be critical for optimizing decision-making.Cost-effectiveness analysis was performed using bootstrap resampling to evaluate uncertainty.Over a patient's lifetime, chlorthalidone was always least expensive (mean $4,802 less than amlodipine, $3,700 less than lisinopril). Amlodipine provided more life-years (LYs) than chlorthalidone in 84% of bootstrap samples (mean 37 days) at an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $48,400 per LY gained. Lisinopril provided fewer LYs than chlorthalidone in 55% of bootstrap samples (mean 7-day loss) despite a higher cost. At a threshold of $50,000 per LY gained, amlodipine was preferred in 50%, chlorthalidone in 40%, and lisinopril in 10% of bootstrap samples, but these findings were highly sensitive to the cost of amlodipine and the cost-effectiveness threshold chosen. Incorporating quality of life did not appreciably alter the results. Overall, no reasonable combination of assumptions led to 1 treatment being preferred in over 90% of bootstrap samples.Initial treatment with chlorthalidone is less expensive than lisinopril or amlodipine, but amlodipine provided a nonsignificantly greater survival benefit and may be a cost-effective alternative. A randomized trial with power to exclude "clinically important" differences in survival will often have inadequate power to determine the most cost-effective treatment.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11606-008-0515-2

    View details for Web of Science ID 000255195300001

    View details for PubMedID 18228109

  • Clinical significance of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY deGoma, E. M., Leeper, N. J., Heidenreich, P. A. 2008; 51 (1): 49-55

    Abstract

    We sought to evaluate the significance of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in the context of low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C).Earlier studies support an inverse correlation between circulating HDL-C and coronary risk in patients with normal or elevated LDL-C.This study involved 4,188 patients attending the Palo Alto Veterans Administration Medical Center or affiliated clinics with LDL-C levels below 60 mg/dl. Outcomes were examined 1 year after the index LDL-C date. The combined primary end point was myocardial injury or hospitalization from ischemic heart disease. The secondary end point was all-cause mortality.Mean HDL-C levels (mg/dl) by quartile (Q) were: Q1 28 mg/dl, Q2 36 mg/dl, Q3 43 mg/dl, and Q4 63 mg/dl. The rate of myocardial injury or hospitalization for ischemic heart disease showed an inverse relationship to HDL-C (adjusted odds ratios: Q1 1.59 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16 to 2.19], Q2 1.39 [95% CI 1.01 to 1.92], Q3 1.33 [95% CI 0.96 to 1.84], and Q4 reference) that persisted regardless of statin use or recent myocardial injury. Analyzing HDL-C as a continuous variable revealed a 10% [95% CI 3% to 17%] increase in the combined end point of myocardial injury or hospitalization for ischemic heart disease for every 10-mg/dl decrease in HDL-C. The unadjusted and adjusted incidence of all-cause mortality demonstrated a U-shaped relationship to HDL-C (adjusted odds ratios: Q1 1.13 [95% CI 0.79 to 1.62], Q2 0.97 [95% CI 0.67 to 1.40], Q3 0.74 [95% CI 0.50 to 1.09], and Q4 reference).The inverse relationship between HDL-C and coronary risk persists even among patients with LDL-C below 60 mg/dl, although a U-shaped relationship is observed between HDL-C and all-cause mortality.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2007.07.086

    View details for Web of Science ID 000252510300008

    View details for PubMedID 18174036

  • Statin use in patients with extremely low low-density lipoprotein levels is associated with improved survival CIRCULATION Leeper, N. J., Ardehali, R., DeGoma, E. M., Heidenreich, P. A. 2007; 116 (6): 613-618

    Abstract

    Aggressive lipid management has recently become the standard of care for patients with coronary heart disease. The safety and effectiveness of statin usage for patients with extremely low low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels are less clear, however. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and clinical outcomes of statin treatment in patients with LDL cholesterol levels below 60 mg/dL.A total of 6107 consecutive patients with LDL levels less than 60 mg/dL were identified from a tertiary care medical center or affiliated community clinic. Statin therapy was defined as a prescription during the 150 days after the low LDL value was obtained. The propensity to be treated with a statin was used to adjust the association of statin therapy and survival. A total of 4295 patients (70%) had at least 1 prescription for any medication during the 150-day observation period after the low LDL value. Their mean age was 65 years, 43% had prior ischemic heart disease, and 47% had diabetes mellitus. Statins were prescribed in 2564 patients (60%) after the low LDL value was observed. During a mean follow-up of 2.0+/-1.4 years after the observation period, there were 510 deaths. After controlling for the propensity to receive a statin, statin therapy was associated with improved survival (hazard ratio [HR], 0.65; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.80). This lower mortality was also observed for subgroups of patients already taking statins at baseline (HR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.88), those with extremely low LDL levels (<40 mg/dL, n=623; HR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.33 to 0.79), and those without a history of ischemic heart disease (n=2438; HR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.80). Statin use was not associated with an increase in malignancy, transaminase elevation, or rhabdomyolysis.Statin therapy in the setting of a very low LDL level appears to be safe and is associated with improved survival.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.694117

    View details for Web of Science ID 000248572300010

    View details for PubMedID 17664373

  • Clinical reminders attached to echocardiography reports of patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction increase use of beta-blockers - A randomized trial CIRCULATION Heidenreich, P. A., Gholami, P., Sahay, A., Massie, B., Goldstein, M. K. 2007; 115 (22): 2829-2834

    Abstract

    Although beta-blockers are known to prolong survival for patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, they are often underused. We hypothesized that a reminder attached to the echocardiography report would increase the use of beta-blockers for patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction.We randomized 1546 consecutive patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction <45% found on echocardiography at 1 of 3 laboratories to a reminder for use of beta-blockers or no reminder. Patients were excluded from analysis if they died within 30 days of randomization (n=89), did not receive medications through the Veterans Affairs system after 30 days (n=180), or underwent echocardiography at >1 laboratory (n=6). The primary outcome was a prescription for an oral beta-blocker between 1 and 9 months after randomization. The mean age of the 1271 included patients was 69 years; 60% had a history of heart failure, and 51% were receiving treatment with beta-blockers at the time of echocardiography. More patients randomized to the reminder had a subsequent beta-blocker prescription (74%, 458 of 621) compared with those randomized to no reminder (66%, 428 of 650; P=0.002). The effect of the reminder was not significantly different for subgroups based on patient location (inpatient versus outpatient) or prior use of beta-blockers.A reminder attached to the echocardiography report increased the use of beta-blockers in patients with depressed left ventricular systolic function.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.684753

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246972600008

    View details for PubMedID 17515459

  • Screening for coronary artery disease after mediastinal irradiation for Hodgkin's disease JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY Heidenreich, P. A., Schnittger, I., Strauss, H. W., Vagelos, R. H., Lee, B. K., Mariscal, C. S., Tate, D. J., Horning, S. J., Hoppe, R. T., Hancock, S. L. 2007; 25 (1): 43-49

    Abstract

    Incidental cardiac irradiation during treatment of thoracic neoplasms has increased risks for subsequent acute myocardial infarction or sudden cardiac death. Identifying patients who have a high risk for a coronary event may decrease morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether stress imaging can identify severe, unsuspected coronary stenoses in patients who had prior mediastinal irradiation for Hodgkin's disease.We enrolled 294 outpatients observed at a tertiary care cancer treatment center after mediastinal irradiation doses 35 Gy for Hodgkin's disease who had no known ischemic cardiac disease. Patients underwent stress echocardiography and radionuclide perfusion imaging at one stress session. Coronary angiography was performed at the discretion of the physician.Among the 294 participants, 63 (21.4%) had abnormal ventricular images at rest, suggesting prior myocardial injury. During stress testing, 42 patients (14%) developed perfusion defects (n = 26), impaired wall motion (n = 8), or both abnormalities (n = 8). Coronary angiography showed stenosis 50% in 22 patients (55%), less than 50% in nine patients (22.5%), and no stenosis in nine patients (22.5%). Screening led to bypass graft surgery in seven patients. Twenty-three patients developed coronary events during a median of 6.5 years of follow-up, with 10 acute myocardial infarctions (two fatal).Stress-induced signs of ischemia and significant coronary artery disease are highly prevalent after mediastinal irradiation in young patients. Stress testing identifies asymptomatic individuals at high risk for acute myocardial infarction or sudden cardiac death.

    View details for DOI 10.1200/JCO.2006.07.0805

    View details for Web of Science ID 000243725900009

    View details for PubMedID 17194904

  • Health status identifies heart failure outpatients at risk for hospitalization or death JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Heidenreich, P. A., Spertus, J. A., Jones, P. G., Weintraub, W. S., Rumsfeld, J. S., Rathore, S. S., Peterson, E. D., Masoudi, F. A., Krumholz, H. M., Havranek, E. P., Conard, M. W., Williams, R. E. 2006; 47 (4): 752-756

    Abstract

    We tested the hypothesis that one health status measure, the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ), provides prognostic information independent of other clinical data in outpatients with heart failure (HF).Health status measures are used to describe a patient's clinical condition and have been shown to predict mortality in some populations. Their prognostic value may be particularly useful among patients with HF for identifying candidates for disease management in whom increased care may reduce hospitalizations and prevent death.We evaluated 505 HF patients from 13 outpatient clinics who had an ejection fraction <40% using the KCCQ summary score. Proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate the association between the KCCQ summary score (range, 0 to 100; higher scores indicate better health status) and the primary outcome of death or HF admission, adjusting for baseline patient characteristics, 6-min walk distance, and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP).The mean age was 61 years, 76% of patients were male, 51% had an ischemic HF etiology, and 5% were New York Heart Association functional class IV. At 12 months, among the 9% of patients with a KCCQ score <25, 37% had been admitted for HF and 20% had died, compared with 7% (HF admissions) and 5% (death) of those with a KCCQ score > or =75 (33% of patients, p < 0.0001 for both comparisons). In sequential multivariable models adjusting for clinical variables, 6-min walk, and BNP levels, the KCCQ score remained significantly associated with survival free of HF hospitalization.A low KCCQ score is an independent predictor of poor prognosis in outpatients with HF.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2005.11.021

    View details for Web of Science ID 000235422900011

    View details for PubMedID 16487840

  • ACE inhibitor reminders attached to echocardiography reports of patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Heidenreich, P. A., Chacko, M., Goidstein, M. K., Atwood, J. E. 2005; 118 (9): 1034-1037

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjmed.2004.12.028

    View details for Web of Science ID 000231807300018

    View details for PubMedID 16164891

  • A cost-effectiveness analysis of combination antiplatelet therapy for high-risk acute coronary syndromes: Clopidogrel plus aspirin versus aspirin alone ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE Schleinitz, M. D., Heidenreich, P. A. 2005; 142 (4): 251-259

    Abstract

    Although clopidogrel plus aspirin is more effective than aspirin alone in preventing subsequent vascular events in patients with unstable angina, the cost-effectiveness of this combination has yet to be examined in this high-risk population.To determine the cost-effectiveness of clopidogrel plus aspirin compared with aspirin alone.Cost-utility analysis.Published literature.Patients with unstable angina and electrocardiographic changes or non-Q-wave myocardial infarction. time horizon: Lifetime.Societal.Combination therapy with clopidogrel, 75 mg/d, plus aspirin, 325 mg/d, for 1 year, followed by aspirin monotherapy, was compared with lifelong aspirin therapy, 325 mg/d.Lifetime costs, life expectancy in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio.Patients treated with aspirin alone lived 9.51 QALYs after their initial event and incurred expenses of 127,700 dollars; the addition of clopidogrel increased life expectancy to 9.61 QALYs and costs to 129,300 dollars. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for clopidogrel plus aspirin compared with aspirin alone was 15,400 dollars per QALY. RESULTS OF SENSITIVITY ANALYSES: The analysis of 1 year of therapy was robust to all sensitivity analyses. In the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, fewer than 3% of simulations resulted in cost-effectiveness ratios over 50,000 dollars per QALY. The cost-effectiveness of longer combination therapy depends critically on the balance of thrombotic event rates, durable efficacy, and the increased bleeding rate in patients taking clopidogrel.This analysis may not apply to patients with severe heart failure, those undergoing long-term anticoagulant therapy, those recently managed with revascularization, or those undergoing short-term treatment with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors.In patients with high-risk acute coronary syndromes, 1 year of therapy with clopidogrel plus aspirin results in greater life expectancy than aspirin alone, at a cost within the traditional limits of cost-effectiveness. The durable efficacy of clopidogrel relative to the risk for hemorrhage should be further explored before more protracted therapy can be recommended.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000227239500003

    View details for PubMedID 15710958

  • Cost-effectiveness of screening with B-type natriuretic peptide to identify patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Heidenreich, P. A., Gubens, M. A., Fonarow, G. C., Konstam, M. A., Stevenson, L. W., Shekelle, P. G. 2004; 43 (6): 1019-1026

    Abstract

    This study was designed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of screening patients with a B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) blood test to identify those with depressed left ventricular systolic function.Asymptomatic patients with depressed ejection fraction (EF) may have less progression to heart failure if they can be identified and treated.We used a decision model to estimate economic and health outcomes for different screening strategies using BNP and echocardiography to detect left ventricular EF <40% for men and women age 60 years. We used published data from community cohorts (gender-specific BNP test characteristics, prevalence of depressed EF) and randomized trials (benefit from treatment).Screening 1,000 asymptomatic patients with BNP followed by echocardiography in those with an abnormal test increased the lifetime cost of care (176,000 US dollars for men, 101,000 US dollars for women) and improved outcome (7.9 quality-adjusted life years [QALYs] for men, 1.3 QALYs for women), resulting in a cost per QALY of 22,300 US dollars for men and 77,700 US dollars for women. For populations with a prevalence of depressed EF of at least 1%, screening with BNP followed by echocardiography increased outcome at a cost < 50,000 US dollars per QALY gained. Screening would not be attractive if a diagnosis of left ventricular dysfunction led to significant decreases in quality of life or income.Screening populations with a 1% prevalence of reduced EF (men at age 60 years) with BNP followed by echocardiography should provide a health benefit at a cost that is comparable to or less than other accepted health interventions.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2003.10.043

    View details for Web of Science ID 000220212400016

    View details for PubMedID 15028361

  • Understanding and modifying physician behavior for prevention and management of cardiovascular disease JOURNAL OF GENERAL INTERNAL MEDICINE Heidenreich, P. A. 2003; 18 (12): 1060-1061

    View details for Web of Science ID 000187450400014

    View details for PubMedID 14687267

  • Improving guideline adherence - A randomized trial evaluating strategies to increase beta-blocker use in heart failure CIRCULATION Ansari, M., Shlipak, M. G., Heidenreich, P. A., Van Ostaeyen, D., Pohl, E. C., Browner, W. S., Massie, B. M. 2003; 107 (22): 2799-2804

    Abstract

    The dissemination of clinical practice guidelines often has not been accompanied by desired improvements in guideline adherence. This study evaluated interventions for implementing a new practice guideline advocating the use of beta-blockers for heart failure patients.This was a randomized controlled trial involving heart failure patients (n=169) with an ejection fraction < or =45% and no contraindications to beta-blockers. Patients' primary providers were randomized in a stratified design to 1 of 3 interventions: (1) control: provider education; (2) provider and patient notification: computerized provider reminders and patient letters advocating beta-blockers; and (3) nurse facilitator: supervised nurse to initiate and titrate beta-blockers. The primary outcome, the proportion of patients who were initiated or uptitrated and maintained on beta-blockers, analyzed by intention to treat, was achieved in 67% (36 of 54) of patients in the nurse facilitator group compared with 16% (10 of 64) in the provider/patient notification and 27% (14 of 51) in the control groups (P<0.001 for the comparisons between the nurse facilitator group and both other groups). The proportion of patients on target beta-blocker doses at the study end (median follow-up, 12 months) was also highest in the nurse facilitator group (43%) compared with the control (10%) and provider/patient notification groups (2%) (P<0.001). There were no differences in adverse events among groups.The use of a nurse facilitator was a successful approach for implementing a beta-blocker guideline in heart failure patients. The use of provider education, clinical reminders, and patient education was of limited value in this setting.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/01.CIR.0000070952.08969.5B

    View details for Web of Science ID 000183400500008

    View details for PubMedID 12756157

  • The relation between managed care market share and the treatment of elderly fee-for-service patients with myocardial infarction AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Heidenreich, P. A., McClellan, M., Frances, C., Baker, L. C. 2002; 112 (3): 176-182

    Abstract

    To determine if greater managed care market share is associated with greater use of recommended therapies for fee-for-service patients with acute myocardial infarction.We examined the care of 112,900 fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries aged > or = 65 years who resided in one of 320 metropolitan statistical areas and who were admitted with an acute myocardial infarction between February 1994 through July 1995. Use of recommended medical treatments and 30-day survival were determined for areas with low (<10%), medium (10% to 30%), and high (>30%) managed care market share.After adjustment for severity of illness, teaching status of the admission hospital, and area characteristics, areas with high levels of managed care had greater use of beta-blockers (relative risk [RR] for greater use = 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06 to 1.29) and aspirin at discharge (RR = 1.05; 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.07), but less appropriate coronary angiography (RR = 0.93; 95% CI: 0.86 to 1.01) and reperfusion (RR = 0.95; 95% CI: 0.85 to 1.03) when compared with areas with low levels of managed care.Medicare beneficiaries with fee-for-service insurance who resided in areas with high managed care activity were more likely to have received appropriate treatment with beta-blockers and aspirin, and less likely to have undergone coronary angiography following admission for myocardial infarction. Thus, the effects of managed care may not be limited to managed care enrollees.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000174602100002

    View details for PubMedID 11893343

  • Trends in treatment and outcomes for acute myocardial infarction: 1975-1995 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Heidenreich, P. A., McClellan, M. 2001; 110 (3): 165-174

    Abstract

    To review the trends in treatment and survival for patients with acute myocardial infarction over the last 20 years.Studies were identified through MEDLINE searches and review of study bibliographies. Additional data were obtained from the Health Care Financing Administration including data from Medicare claims files (part A). Thirty-day mortality rates were calculated using Medicare data and case fatality rates from the National Hospital Discharge Survey. Published meta-analyses were used to determine treatment effects. Published studies were included if they reported the use of therapies for acute myocardial infarction at a population level. Trends in the demographic characteristics of the patients as well as infarct characteristics, medication use, and revascularization were recorded.The use of acute treatments that are known to improve survival among patients with myocardial infarction has increased markedly during the last 20 years, leading to an estimated 9.6% reduction (from 27.0% to 17.4%) in 30-day mortality. After adjusting for potential interactions between therapies, the increase in use of aspirin, beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and reperfusion can explain 71% of the decrease in the 30-day age- and sex-adjusted mortality rate from 1975 to 1995. The greatest effect of a given therapy was that of aspirin, which accounted for 34% of the decrease in 30-day mortality, followed by thrombolysis (17%), primary angioplasty (10%), beta-blockers (7%), and ACE inhibitors (3%). If other treatments (such as heparin or nonprimary angioplasty), whose effects on mortality are less certain, are included, up to 90% of the decrease in 30-day mortality can be explained by changes in treatment.The primary reason for the decrease in early mortality from myocardial infarction during the last 20 years appears to be increased use of effective treatments.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000166946600001

    View details for PubMedID 11182101

  • Meta-analysis of trials comparing beta-blockers, calcium antagonists, and nitrates for stable angina JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Heidenreich, P. A., McDonald, K. M., Hastie, T., Fadel, B., Hagan, V., Lee, B. K., Hlatky, M. A. 1999; 281 (20): 1927-1936

    Abstract

    Which drug is most effective as a first-line treatment for stable angina is not known.To compare the relative efficacy and tolerability of treatment with beta-blockers, calcium antagonists, and long-acting nitrates for patients who have stable angina.We identified English-language studies published between 1966 and 1997 by searching the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and reviewing the bibliographies of identified articles to locate additional relevant studies.Randomized or crossover studies comparing antianginal drugs from 2 or 3 different classes (beta-blockers, calcium antagonists, and long-acting nitrates) lasting at least 1 week were reviewed. Studies were selected if they reported at least 1 of the following outcomes: cardiac death, myocardial infarction, study withdrawal due to adverse events, angina frequency, nitroglycerin use, or exercise duration. Ninety (63%) of 143 identified studies met the inclusion criteria.Two independent reviewers extracted data from selected articles, settling any differences by consensus. Outcome data were extracted a third time by 1 of the investigators. We combined results using odds ratios (ORs) for discrete data and mean differences for continuous data. Studies of calcium antagonists were grouped by duration and type of drug (nifedipine vs nonnifedipine).Rates of cardiac death and myocardial infarction were not significantly different for treatment with beta-blockers vs calcium antagonists (OR, 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-1.38; P = .79). There were 0.31 (95% CI, 0.00-0.62; P = .05) fewer episodes of angina per week with beta-blockers than with calcium antagonists. beta-Blockers were discontinued because of adverse events less often than were calcium antagonists (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.60-0.86; P<.001). The differences between beta-blockers and calcium antagonists were most striking for nifedipine (OR for adverse events with beta-blockers vs nifedipine, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.47-0.77). Too few trials compared nitrates with calcium antagonists or beta-blockers to draw firm conclusions about relative efficacy.beta-Blockers provide similar clinical outcomes and are associated with fewer adverse events than calcium antagonists in randomized trials of patients who have stable angina.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000080427300033

    View details for PubMedID 10349897

  • Differences in Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR) Outcomes by Gender and Race Over Time Yong, C., Jaluba, K., Heidenreich, P. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2019: B732
  • Characteristics of Academic Physicians Associated With Patient Satisfaction AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL QUALITY Heidenreich, P., Shieh, L., Fassiotto, M., Kahn, J., Weinacker, A., Smith, R., Trockel, M., Shanafelt, T., Palaniappan, L. 2019: 1062860619876344

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1062860619876344

    View details for Web of Science ID 000488727200001

    View details for PubMedID 31529975

  • 2019 AHA/ACC/HRS focused update of the 2014 AHA/ACC/HRS guideline for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society HEART RHYTHM January, C. T., Wann, L., Calkins, H., Chen, L. Y., Cigarroa, J. E., Cleveland, J. C., Ellinor, P. T., Ezekowitz, M. D., Field, M. E., Furie, K. L., Heidenreich, P. A., Murray, K. T., Shea, J. B., Tracy, C. M., Yancy, C. W. 2019; 16 (8): E66?E93

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hrthm.2019.01.024

    View details for Web of Science ID 000477570700008

    View details for PubMedID 30703530

  • Patient-Reported Outcomes: The Future of HeartFailure Care. JACC. Heart failure Heidenreich, P. A. 2019

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jchf.2019.06.006

    View details for PubMedID 31401093

  • Body mass index and outcomes of cardiac resynchronization with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy in older patients with heart failure. European journal of heart failure Echouffo-Tcheugui, J. B., Masoudi, F. A., Bao, H., Curtis, J. P., Heidenreich, P. A., Fonarow, G. C. 2019

    Abstract

    AIMS: To assess the association of body mass index (BMI) with heart failure (HF) outcomes after cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D) implantation.METHODS AND RESULTS: Medicare beneficiaries with HF aged ?65years (n=18922) undergoing first-time CRT-D from the National Cardiovascular Data Registry (NCDR) Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Registry between 2010 and 2013, were followed for 3years post-implantation. Survival curves and covariate adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) or odds ratio were used to assess the risks for death, readmission, and device-related complications by BMI status. Of 18922 HF patients receiving CRT-D, 5265 (27.8%) were normal weight, 6896 (37%) were overweight, 6318 (33.4%) were obese, and 353 (1.8%) were underweight. Compared to those of normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9kg/m2 ), underweight patients had a higher 3-year post-device implantation risk of death [aHR: 1.34 (95% confidence interval 1.09-1.65); P<0.001] and of readmission [sub-aHR: 1.25 (1.09-1.42); P<0.001]. The corresponding 3-year aHRs for death were 0.83 (0.77-0.89) for overweight, 0.74 (0.67-0.82) for obesity class I (BMI 30-34.9kg/m2 ), 0.78 (0.68-0.90) for obesity class II (BMI 35-39.9kg/m2 ), and 0.75 (0.60-0.93) for obesity class III (BMI ?40kg/m2 , P for all categories <0.001). Individuals with class III obesity had a higher risk of readmission [sub-aHR: 1.17 (1.06-1.30)]. There were no differences in rates of device-related complications within 90days across BMI categories.CONCLUSION: Most elderly patients with HF receiving CRT-D were overweight or obese. While being underweight was associated with greater risks of death and hospitalization, overweight and obese patients were at lower risk of death after CRT-D.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ejhf.1552

    View details for PubMedID 31359595

  • Association Between Heart Failure and Postoperative Mortality Among Patients Undergoing Ambulatory Noncardiac Surgery. JAMA surgery Lerman, B. J., Popat, R. A., Assimes, T. L., Heidenreich, P. A., Wren, S. M. 2019

    Abstract

    Importance: Heart failure is an established risk factor for postoperative mortality, but how heart failure is associated with operative outcomes specifically in the ambulatory surgical setting is not well characterized.Objective: To assess the risk of postoperative mortality and complications in patients with vs without heart failure at various levels of echocardiographic (left ventricular systolic dysfunction) and clinical (symptoms) severity who were undergoing ambulatory surgery.Design, Setting, and Participants: In this US multisite retrospective cohort study of all adult patients undergoing ambulatory, elective, noncardiac surgery in the Veterans Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Project database during fiscal years 2009 to 2016, a total of 355?121 patient records were identified and analyzed with 1 year of follow-up after surgery (final date of follow-up September 1, 2017).Exposures: Heart failure, left ventricular ejection fraction, and presence of signs or symptoms of heart failure within 30 days of surgery.Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were postoperative mortality at 90 days and any postoperative complication at 30 days.Results: Among 355?121 total patients, outcome data from 19?353 patients with heart failure (5.5%; mean [SD] age, 67.9 [10.1] years; 18 841 [96.9%] male) and 334?768 patients without heart failure (94.5%; mean [SD] age, 57.2 [14.0] years; 301 198 [90.0%] male) were analyzed. Compared with patients without heart failure, patients with heart failure had a higher risk of 90-day postoperative mortality (crude mortality risk, 2.00% vs 0.39%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.95; 95% CI, 1.69-2.44), and risk of mortality progressively increased with decreasing systolic function. Compared with patients without heart failure, symptomatic patients with heart failure had a greater risk of mortality (crude mortality risk, 3.57%; aOR, 2.76; 95% CI, 2.07-3.70), as did asymptomatic patients with heart failure (crude mortality risk, 1.85%; aOR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.60-2.15). Patients with heart failure had a higher risk of experiencing a 30-day postoperative complication than did patients without heart failure (crude risk, 5.65% vs 2.65%; aOR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.02-1.19).Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, among patients undergoing elective, ambulatory surgery, heart failure with or without symptoms was significantly associated with 90-day mortality and 30-day postoperative complications. These data may be helpful in preoperative discussions with patients with heart failure undergoing ambulatory surgery.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamasurg.2019.2110

    View details for PubMedID 31290953

  • 2019 AHA/ACC/HRS Focused Update of the 2014 AHA/ACC/HRS Guideline for the Management of Patients With Atrial Fibrillation A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY January, C. T., Wann, L., Calkins, H., Chen, L. Y., Cigarroa, J. E., Cleveland, J. C., Ellinor, P. T., Ezekowitz, M. D., Field, M. E., Furie, K. L., Heidenreich, P. A., Murray, K. T., Shea, J. B., Tracy, C. M., Yancy, C. W., Levine, G. N., O'Gara, P. T., Halperin, J. L., Al-Khatib, S. M., Beckman, J. A., Birtcher, K. K., Bozkurt, B., Brindis, R. G., Cigarroa, J. E., Curtis, L. H., Deswal, A., Fleisher, L. A., Gentile, F., Gidding, S., Goldberger, Z. D., Hlatky, M. A., Ikonomidis, J., Joglar, J. A., Mauri, L., Piano, M. R., Pressler, S. J., Riegel, B., Wijeysundera, D. N., ACC AHA Task Force Members 2019; 74 (1): 104?32

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2019.01.011

    View details for Web of Science ID 000473259200015

    View details for PubMedID 30703431

  • 2019 AHA/ACC/HRS Focused Update of the 2014 AHA/ACC/HRS Guideline for the Management of Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society in Collaboration With the Society of Thoracic Surgeons CIRCULATION January, C. T., Wann, L., Calkins, H., Chen, L. Y., Cigarroa, J. E., Cleveland, J. C., Ellinor, P. T., Ezekowitz, M. D., Field, M. E., Furie, K. L., Heidenreich, P. A., Murray, K. T., Shea, J. B., Tracy, C. M., Yancy, C. W., Levine, G. N., O'Gara, P. T., Halperin, J. L., Al-Khatib, S. M., Beckman, J. A., Birtcher, K. K., Bozkurt, B., Brindis, R. G., Cigarroa, J. E., Curtis, L. H., Deswal, A., Fleisher, L. A., Gentile, F., Gidding, S., Goldberger, Z. D., Hlatky, M. A., Ikonomidis, J., Joglar, J. A., Mauri, L., Piano, M. R., Pressler, S. J., Riegel, B., Wijeysundera, D. N., Valentine, C., Attebery, T. W., Oetgen, W. J., Elma, M., Scholtz, A., Sheehan, K. A., Abdullah, A. R., Getchius, T. D., Benjamin, I. J., Brown, N., Robertson, R., Whitman, G. R., Leonard, A., Hundley, J., ACC AHA Task Force, Amer Coll Cardiology 2019; 140 (2): E125?E151

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000665

    View details for Web of Science ID 000476768100010

    View details for PubMedID 30686041

  • Studies Evaluating Statin Adherence and Outcome Should Adjust for Smoking Persistence and Antiplatelet Treatment Discontinuation-Reply. JAMA cardiology Rodriguez, F., Maron, D. J., Heidenreich, P. A. 2019

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamacardio.2019.1969

    View details for PubMedID 31241723

  • Managed Care, Information, and Diffusion: The Case of Treatment for Heart-Attack Patients. The American economic review Baker, L. C., Afendulis, C. C., Heidenreich, P. A. ; 94 (2): 347?51

    View details for PubMedID 29068187

  • 2018 AHA/ACC/AACVPR/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/ADA/AGS/APhA/ASPC/NLA/PCNA Guideline on the Management of Blood Cholesterol: Executive Summary: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines CIRCULATION Grundy, S. M., Stone, N. J., Bailey, A. L., Beam, C., Birtcher, K. K., Blumenthal, R. S., Braun, L. T., de Ferranti, S., Faiella-Tommasino, J., Forman, D. E., Goldberg, R., Heidenreich, P. A., Hlatky, M. A., Jones, D. W., Lloyd-Jones, D., Lopez-Pajares, N., Ndumele, C. E., Orringer, C. E., Peralta, C. A., Saseen, J. J., Smith, S. C., Sperling, L., Virani, S. S., Yeboah, J. 2019; 139 (25): E1046?E1081

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000624

    View details for Web of Science ID 000471794100004

    View details for PubMedID 30565953

  • 2018 AHA/ACC/AACVPR/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/ADA/AGS/APhA/ASPC/NLA/PCNA Guideline on the Management of Blood Cholesterol: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines CIRCULATION Grundy, S. M., Stone, N. J., Bailey, A. L., Beam, C., Birtcher, K. K., Blumenthal, R. S., Braun, L. T., de Ferranti, S., Faiella-Tommasino, J., Forman, D. E., Goldberg, R., Heidenreich, P. A., Hlatky, M. A., Jones, D. W., Lloyd-Jones, D., Lopez-Pajares, N., Ndumele, C. E., Orringer, C. E., Peralta, C. A., Saseen, J. J., Smith, S. C., Sperling, L., Virani, S. S., Yeboah, J. 2019; 139 (25): E1082?E1143

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000625

    View details for Web of Science ID 000471794100005

    View details for PubMedID 30586774

  • Accuracy of Administrative Coding to Identify Reduced and Preserved Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction JOURNAL OF CARDIAC FAILURE Heidenreich, P. A., Natarajan, S., Bahrami, H. 2019; 25 (6): 486?89
  • Can We Do More With Less While Building Predictive Models? A Study in Parsimony of Risk Models for Predicting Heart Failure Readmissions CIN-COMPUTERS INFORMATICS NURSING Mahajan, S. M., Mahajan, A., Burman, P., Heidenreich, P. 2019; 37 (6): 306?14
  • Association of post-discharge specialty outpatient visits with readmissions and mortality in high-risk heart failure patients AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Edmonston, D. L., Wu, J., Matsouaka, R. A., Yancy, C., Heidenreich, P., Pina, I. L., Hernandez, A., Fonarow, G. C., DeVore, A. D. 2019; 212: 101?12
  • Practice Variation in Anticoagulation Prescription and Outcomes After Device-Detected Atrial Fibrillation Insights From the Veterans Health Administration CIRCULATION Perino, A. C., Fan, J., Askari, M., Heidenreich, P. A., Keung, E., Raitt, M. H., Piccini, J. P., Ziegler, P. D., Turakhia, M. P. 2019; 139 (22): 2502?12
  • Engaging Cardiology Providers in Quality Measurement. Journal of the American Heart Association Heidenreich, P., Sandhu, A., Schofield, R. 2019; 8 (9): e012519

    Abstract

    See Article Segal etal.

    View details for PubMedID 31020894

  • Engaging Cardiology Providers in Quality Measurement JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION Heidenreich, P., Sandhu, A., Schofield, R. 2019; 8 (9)
  • A paradoxical relationship between hemoglobin A1C and in-hospital mortality in intracerebral hemorrhage patients. Heliyon Dandapat, S., Siddiqui, F. M., Fonarow, G. C., Bhatt, D. L., Xu, H., Matsouaka, R., Heidenreich, P. A., Xian, Y., Schwamm, L. H., Smith, E. E. 2019; 5 (5): e01659

    Abstract

    Objectives: The relationship between prior glycemic status and outcomes in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is not established. We hypothesized that higher hemoglobin (Hb) A1c is associated with worse outcomes in ICH.Patients and methods: Using the GWTG-Stroke registry, data on patients with ICH between April 1, 2003 and September 30, 2015 were harvested. Patients were divided into four ordinal groups based on HbA1c values of <5.7%, 5.7-6.4%, 6.5-8.0% and >8.0%. Outcomes (mortality, modified Rankin Scale (mRS), home discharge and independent ambulatory status) were analyzed for patients overall and separately for patients with or without history of diabetes using multivariable regression models.Results: Among 75,455 patients with ICH (with available HbA1c data), patients with lower HbA1c (<5.7%) had higher rates of in-hospital mortality in the entire cohort (15.5%; 3947/25473); as well as those with history of diabetes (19.0%; 542/2852). Among those without history of diabetes, both lower HbA1c (15.1%; 3405/22621) and higher HbA1c (>8.0%), (15.0%; 205/1364) were associated with higher in-hospital mortality. Lower HbA1c was also associated with higher mRS, less chance of going home, and lower likelihood of having independent ambulatory status in patients with prior history of diabetes.Conclusions: Among patients with no reported history of diabetes, both very low and very high HbA1c were directly associated with higher in-hospital mortality. Only very low HbA1c was associated with higher mortality in known diabetic patients. Further studies are needed to better define the relationship between HbA1c and outcomes, for it may have important implications for care of ICH patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01659

    View details for PubMedID 31111113

  • Association of post-discharge specialty outpatient visits with readmissions and mortality in high-risk heart failure patients. American heart journal Edmonston, D. L., Wu, J., Matsouaka, R. A., Yancy, C., Heidenreich, P., Pina, I. L., Hernandez, A., Fonarow, G. C., DeVore, A. D. 2019; 212: 101?12

    Abstract

    Heart failure (HF) outcomes are especially poor in high-risk patients with certain comorbidities including diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Whether early specialty or primary care provider (PCP) follow-up after HF discharge affects outcomes in high-risk patients is unknown.METHODS: We analyzed patients discharged from a Get With The Guidelines HF-participating hospital from 2007-2012 with linked Medicare claims to investigate the association of medical specialist visit within 14 days of discharge stratified by comorbidity with the primary outcome of 90-day HF readmission. Secondary outcomes included 90-day and 1-year all-cause mortality.RESULTS: Out of 33,243 patients, 39.4% had DM, 19.8% had CKD, 30.0% had COPD, and 36.3% had no key comorbidity. Nephrologist visit in patients with CKD was associated with a 35% reduction in 90-day HF readmission (hazard ratio [HR] 0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49-0.85). Pulmonologist visit in patients with COPD was associated with a 29% reduction in 90-day HF readmission (HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.55-0.91). In patients with no key comorbidity, PCP and Cardiologist visits were associated with decreased 90-day mortality (HR for PCP 0.79, 95% CI 0.66-0.94; HR for Cardiologist 0.78, 95% CI 0.63-0.96). In patients with DM, Endocrinologist visit was associated with a 42% reduction of 90-day mortality (HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.34-0.99).CONCLUSIONS: Specialist and PCP visit in the immediate post-discharge period may improve 90-day HF readmission and mortality in certain high-risk groups of patients with HF.

    View details for PubMedID 30978555

  • Practice Variation in Anticoagulation Prescription and Outcomes after Device-Detected Atrial Fibrillation: Insights from the Veterans Health Administration. Circulation Perino, A. C., Fan, J., Askari, M., Heidenreich, P. A., Keung, E., Raitt, M. H., Piccini, J. P., Ziegler, P. D., Turakhia, M. P. 2019

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Device-detected atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with increased risk of stroke. However, there are no clearly-defined thresholds of AF burden for which to initiate oral anticoagulation (OAC). We sought to describe OAC prescription practice variation in response to new device-detected AF and the association to outcomes.METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study using data from the Veterans Health Administration linked to remote monitoring data that included day-level AF burden. We included patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED) and remote monitoring from 2011-2014, CHA2DS2-VASc ?2, and no prior stroke or OAC receipt in the preceding 2 years. We determined the proportion of patients prescribed OAC within 90-days following new device-detected AF across a range of AF thresholds (?6 minutes to >24 hours), and examined site variation in OAC prescription. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regressions to determine the association of OAC prescription with stroke by device-detected AF burden.RESULTS: Among 10,212 patients with CIEDs, 4,570 patients (45%), 3,969 patients (39%), 3,263 patients (32%), and 2,469 patients (24%) had device-detected AF >6 minutes, >1 hour, >6 hours, and >24 hours, respectively. For device-detected AF >1 hour, 1,712 patients met inclusion criteria (72±10 years; 1.5% female; CHA2DS2-VASc 4.0±1.4; HAS-BLED 2.6±1.1). The proportion receiving OAC varied based on device-detected AF burden (?6 minutes: 272/2,101 (13%); >1 hour: 273/1,712 (16%); >6 hours: 263/1,279 (21%); >24 hours: 224/818 (27%)). Across 52 sites (N=1,329 patients), there was substantial site-level variation in OAC prescription after device-detected AF >1 hour (median: 16%; range: 3%-67%; median odds ratio: 1.56 [95% credible interval 1.49-1.71]). In adjusted models, OAC prescription after device-detected AF >24 hours was associated with reduced stroke risk (HR 0.28, 95% CI 0.10-0.81, p=0.02), although the propensity-adjusted model was significant when AF lasted at least 6 minutes.CONCLUSIONS: Among Veterans with CIEDs, device-detected AF is common. There is large practice variation in 90-day OAC initiation after new device-detected AF with low rates of treatment overall, even for episodes >24 hours. The strongest association of OAC with reduction in stroke was observed after device-detected AF >24 hours. Randomized trials are needed to confirm these observational findings.

    View details for PubMedID 30880434

  • Electronic health record-based clinical decision support alert for severe sepsis: a randomised evaluation. BMJ quality & safety Downing, N. L., Rolnick, J., Poole, S. F., Hall, E., Wessels, A. J., Heidenreich, P., Shieh, L. 2019

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Sepsis remains the top cause of morbidity and mortality of hospitalised patients despite concerted efforts. Clinical decision support for sepsis has shown mixed results reflecting heterogeneous populations, methodologies and interventions.OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the addition of a real-time electronic health record (EHR)-based clinical decision support alert improves adherence to treatment guidelines and clinical outcomes in hospitalised patients with suspected severe sepsis.DESIGN: Patient-level randomisation, single blinded.SETTING: Medical and surgical inpatient units of an academic, tertiary care medical centre.PATIENTS: 1123 adults over the age of 18 admitted to inpatient wards (intensive care units (ICU) excluded) at an academic teaching hospital between November 2014 and March 2015.INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomised to either usual care or the addition of an EHR-generated alert in response to a set of modified severe sepsis criteria that included vital signs, laboratory values and physician orders.MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the intervention and control groups in primary outcome of the percentage of patients with new antibiotic orders at 3hours after the alert (35% vs 37%, p=0.53). There was no difference in secondary outcomes of in-hospital mortality at 30 days, length of stay greater than 72hours, rate of transfer to ICU within 48hours of alert, or proportion of patients receiving at least 30mL/kg of intravenous fluids.CONCLUSIONS: An EHR-based severe sepsis alert did not result in a statistically significant improvement in several sepsis treatment performance measures.

    View details for PubMedID 30872387

  • EVALUATION OF TRENDS IN READMISSION AND MORTALITY RATES AFTER HEART FAILURE HOSPITALIZATION IN THE VETERANS AFFAIRS HEALTH CARE SYSTEM BETWEEN 2007 AND 2017 Parizo, J., Kohsaka, S., Sandhu, A., Patel, J., Heidenreich, P. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2019: 737
  • IMPACT OF PATIENT FRAILTY ON ONE-YEAR MORTALITY ACROSS CHA2DS2-VASC SCORES: FROM THE TREAT-AF STUDY Pundi, K., Perino, A., Fan, J., Askari, M., Heidenreich, P., Turakhia, M. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2019: 539
  • HOW MUCH ATRIAL FIBRILLATION IS TOO MUCH? TREATMENT BENEFIT OF ANTICOAGULATION BASED ON THRESHOLD OF DEVICE-DETECTED AF Perino, A., Fan, J., Askari, M., Heidenreich, P., Keung, E., Piccini, J., Ziegler, P., Turakhia, M. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2019: 290
  • Association of Statin Adherence With Mortality in Patients With Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease JAMA CARDIOLOGY Rodriguez, F., Maron, D. J., Knowles, J. W., Virani, S. S., Lin, S., Heidenreich, P. A. 2019; 4 (3): 206?13
  • Comparison of the change in heart failure readmission and mortality rates between hospitals subject to hospital readmission reduction program penalties and critical access hospitals AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Sandhu, A. T., Heidenreich, P. A. 2019; 209: 63?67
  • Glycated Hemoglobin and Outcomes of Heart Failure (from Get With the Guidelines-Heart Failure) AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY Echouffo-Tcheugui, J. B., Sheng, S., DeVore, A. D., Matsouaka, R. A., Hernandez, A. F., Yancy, C. W., Heidenreich, P. A., Bhatt, D. L., Fonarow, G. C. 2019; 123 (4): 618?26
  • Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction and Diabetes JACC State-of-the-Art Review JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY McHugh, K., DeVore, A. D., Wu, J., Matsouaka, R. A., Fonarow, G. C., Heidenreich, P. A., Yancy, C. W., Green, J. B., Altman, N., Hernandez, A. F. 2019; 73 (5): 602?11
  • Heart Failure With Preserved EjectionFraction and Diabetes: JACC State-of-the-Art Review. Journal of the American College of Cardiology McHugh, K., DeVore, A. D., Wu, J., Matsouaka, R. A., Fonarow, G. C., Heidenreich, P. A., Yancy, C. W., Green, J. B., Altman, N., Hernandez, A. F. 2019; 73 (5): 602?11

    Abstract

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is now the most common form of HF, affecting over 3 million adults in the United States alone. HFpEF is a heterogenous syndrome. One important phenotype may be related to comorbid conditions, including diabetes mellitus (DM). DM has a prevalence of approximately 45% in HFpEF, but characteristics and outcomes of this population are poorly understood. In this review, the authors summarize data from several clinical trials of HFpEF therapeutics and provide original data from a large cohort using the Get With The Guidelines-HF registry, which together suggest that DM is associated with increased morbidity and long-term mortality in HFpEF. The authors then discuss several common pathological mechanisms in HFpEF and DM, including sodium retention, metabolic derangements, impaired skeletal muscle function, and potential therapeutic targets. As the understanding of comorbid HFpEF and DM improves, it is hoped clinicians will be better equipped to offer effective, patient-centered treatments.

    View details for PubMedID 30732715

  • Accuracy of Administrative Coding to Identify Reduced and Preserved Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction. Journal of cardiac failure Heidenreich, P. A., Natarajan, S., Bahrami, H. 2019

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Coding of systolic function in heart failure is important but the accuracy is uncertain.METHODS: We used data from chart review of VA heart failure hospitalizations between 2006 and 2013. Trained abstractors determined the documented diagnosis of heart failure and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). We compared this LVEF to the primary and secondary International Classification of Disease (ICD)-9 codes for heart failure for the same hospitalization.RESULTS: Among 43,044 hospitalizations for heart failure, the primary discharge diagnosis was coded as systolic heart failure in 18%, diastolic heart failure in 17% and other heart failure codes in 65%. For an LVEF less than 40%, a systolic heart failure code had a sensitivity of 29% and a positive predictive value of 76%. The code for systolic heart failure was used more frequently over time with sensitivity increasing from 16% to 37% but at the expense of the positive predictive value which decreased from 80% to 74%. The overall area under the receiver operating curve for the relationship between LVEF and the systolic heart failure code was 0.71. Using a LVEF > 50% to define diastolic heart failure, led to a sensitivity of 29% for a diastolic heart failure code with a positive predictive value of 78%. In multivariate analysis, a systolic heart failure code had an odds ratio for 1-year mortality of 1.1 (95% CI 1.03-1.17) compared to not having a systolic heart failure code.CONCLUSION: Coding for systolic and diastolic heart failure is associated with LVEF but the accuracy is too poor to substitute for the documented LVEF in performance measurement.

    View details for PubMedID 30743043

  • Discharge Heart Rate After Hospitalization for Myocardial Infarction and Long-Term Mortality in 2 US Registries. Journal of the American Heart Association Alapati, V., Tang, F., Charlap, E., Chan, P. S., Heidenreich, P. A., Jones, P. G., Spertus, J. A., Srinivas, V., Kizer, J. R. 2019; 8 (3): e010855

    Abstract

    Background Although admission heart rate predicts higher mortality after acute myocardial infarction ( AMI ), less is known about discharge heart rate. We tested the hypothesis that higher discharge heart rate after AMI is related to increased long-term mortality independent of admission heart rate, and assessed whether beta blockers modify this relationship. Methods and Results In 2 prospective US multicenter registries of AMI , we evaluated the associations of discharge and admission heart rate with 3-year mortality using Cox models. Among 6576 patients with AMI , discharge heart rate was modestly associated with initial heart rate ( r=0.28), comorbidities, and infarct severity. In this cohort, 10.7% did not receive beta blockers at discharge. After full adjustment for demographic, psychosocial, and clinical covariates, discharge heart rate (hazard ratio [HR]=1.14 per 10beats per minute [bpm]; 95% CI =1.07-1.21 per 10 bpm) was more strongly associated with risk of death than admission heart rate (HR=1.05 per 10bpm; 95% CI=1.02-1.09 per 10 bpm) when both were entered in the same model ( P=0.043 for comparison). There was a significant interaction between discharge heart rate and beta-blocker use ( P=0.004) on mortality, wherein risk of death was markedly higher among those with high discharge heart rate and not on beta blockers (HR=1.35 per 10bpm; 95% CI=1.19-1.53 per 10 bpm) versus those with a high discharge heart rate and on beta blockers at discharge (HR=1.10 per 10 bpm; 95% CI=1.03-1.17 per 10 bpm). Conclusions Higher discharge heart rate after AMI was more strongly associated with 3-year mortality than admission heart rate, and the risk associated with higher discharge heart rate was modified by beta blockers at discharge. These findings highlight opportunities for risk stratification and intervention that will require further investigation.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/JAHA.118.010855

    View details for PubMedID 30691334

  • Comparison of Outpatient Satisfaction Survey Scores for Asian Physicians and Non-Hispanic White Physicians JAMA NETWORK OPEN Garcia, L. C., Chung, S., Liao, L., Altamirano, J., Fassiotto, M., Maldonado, B., Heidenreich, P., Palaniappan, L. 2019; 2 (2)
  • Secular trends in success rate of catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation: The SMASH-AF cohort AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Perino, A. C., Leef, G. C., Cluckey, A., Yunus, F. N., Askari, M., Heidenreich, P. A., Narayan, S. M., Wang, P. J., Turakhia, M. P. 2019; 208: 110?19
  • Efficacy of Ablation Lesion Sets in Addition to Pulmonary Vein Isolation for Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation: Findings From the SMASH-AF Meta-Analysis Study Cohort JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION Cluckey, A., Perino, A. C., Yunus, F. N., Leef, G. C., Askari, M., Heidenreich, P. A., Narayan, S. M., Wang, P. J., Turakhia, M. P. 2019; 8 (1)
  • Efficacy of Ablation Lesion Sets in Addition to Pulmonary Vein Isolation for Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation: Findings From the SMASH - AF Meta-Analysis Study Cohort. Journal of the American Heart Association Cluckey, A., Perino, A. C., Yunus, F. N., Leef, G. C., Askari, M., Heidenreich, P. A., Narayan, S. M., Wang, P. J., Turakhia, M. P. 2019; 8 (1): e009976

    Abstract

    Background The objective was to explore the efficacy of ablation lesion sets in addition to pulmonary vein isolation ( PVI ) for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. The optimal strategy for catheter ablation of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation is debated. Methods and Results The SMASH-AF (Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Ablation Strategy Heterogeneity in Atrial Fibrillation) study cohort includes trials and observational studies identified in PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane databases from January 1 1990, to August 1, 2016. We included studies reporting single procedure paroxysmal atrial fibrillation ablation success rates. Exclusion criteria included insufficient reporting of outcomes, ablation strategies that were not prespecified and uniform, and a sample size of fewer than 40 patients. We analyzed lesion sets performed in addition to PVI ( PVI plus) using multivariable random-effects meta-regression to control for patient, study, and procedure characteristics. The analysis included 145 total studies with 23263 patients ( PVI- only cohort: 115 studies, 148 treatment arms, 16500 patients; PVI plus cohort: 39 studies; 46 treatment arms, 6763 patients). PVI plus studies, as compared with PVI -only studies, included younger patients (56.7years versus 58.8years, P=0.001), fewer women (27.2% versus 32.0% women, P=0.002), and were more methodologically rigorous with longer follow-up (29.5 versus 17.1months, P 0.004) and more randomization (19.4% versus 11.8%, P<0.001). In multivariable meta-regression, PVI plus studies were associated with improved success (7.6% absolute improvement [95% CI, 2.6-12.5%]; P<0.01, I2=88%), specifically superior vena cava isolation (4 studies, 4 treatment arms, 1392 patients; 15.1% absolute improvement [95%CI, 2.3-27.9%]; P 0.02, I2=87%). However, residual heterogeneity was large. Conclusions Across the paroxysmal atrial fibrillation ablation literature, PVI plus ablation strategies were associated with incremental improvements in success rate. However, large residual heterogeneity complicates evidence synthesis.

    View details for PubMedID 30587059

  • Comparison of Outpatient Satisfaction Survey Scores for Asian Physicians and Non-Hispanic White Physicians. JAMA network open Garcia, L. C., Chung, S., Liao, L., Altamirano, J., Fassiotto, M., Maldonado, B., Heidenreich, P., Palaniappan, L. 2019; 2 (2): e190027

    Abstract

    Patient satisfaction scores are used to inform decisions about physician compensation, and there remains a lack of consensus regarding the need to adjust scores for patient race/ethnicity. Previous research suggests that patients prefer physicians of the same race/ethnicity as themselves and that Asian patients provide lower satisfaction scores than non-Hispanic white patients.To examine whether Asian physicians receive less favorable patient satisfaction scores relative to non-Hispanic white physicians.This population-based survey study used data from Press Ganey Outpatient Medical Practice Surveys collected from December 1, 2010, to November 30, 2014, which included 149?775 patient survey responses for 962 physicians. Every month, 5 patients per physician were randomly selected to complete a satisfaction survey after an outpatient visit. Hierarchical multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the association between Asian race/ethnicity of the physician and racial/ethnic concordance of the patient with the probability of receiving the highest score on the survey item rating the likelihood to recommend the physician. Statistical analysis was performed from April 2 to August 27, 2018.Physician characteristics included race/ethnicity, sex, years in practice, and proportion of Asian patient responders. Patient characteristics included race/ethnicity, sex, age, and language spoken.The highest score (a score of 5 on a 1-5 Likert scale, where 1 indicates very poor and 5 indicates very good) on the survey item rating the likelihood to recommend the physician on the Press Ganey Outpatient Medical Practice Survey.Of the 962 physicians in this study, 515 (53.5%) were women; physicians had a mean (SD) of 19.9 (9.1) years of experience since graduating medical school; 573 (59.6%) were white, and 350 (36.4%) were Asian. In unadjusted analyses, the odds of receiving the highest score on the survey item rating the likelihood to recommend the physician were lower for Asian physicians compared with non-Hispanic white physicians (odds ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.72-0.84; P?

    View details for PubMedID 30794297

  • Association of Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction and Symptoms With Mortality After Elective Noncardiac Surgery Among Patients With Heart Failure JAMA Lerman, B. J., Popat, R. A., Assimes, T., Heidenreich, P., Wren, S. M. 2019; 321 (6): 572-579

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jama.2019.0156

  • Site Variation and Outcomes for Antithrombotic Therapy in Atrial Fibrillation Patients After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. Circulation. Cardiovascular interventions Olivier, C. B., Fan, J., Askari, M., Mahaffey, K. W., Heidenreich, P. A., Perino, A. C., Leef, G. C., Ho, P. M., Harrington, R. A., Turakhia, M. P. 2019; 12 (8): e007604

    Abstract

    Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) require multiple antithrombotic therapies. The optimal strategy is debated suggesting increased treatment variation. This study sought to characterize site-level variation in antithrombotic therapies in AF patients after PCI and determine the association with outcomes.Using the retrospective TREAT-AF study (The Retrospective Evaluation and Assessment of Therapies in AF) from the Veterans Health Administration, patients with newly diagnosed, nonvalvular AF between 2004 and 2015 followed by a PCI with a P2Y12-antagonist prescription were identified. Patients were grouped according to the therapy dispensed 7 days before until 30 days after the PCI: oral anticoagulation plus platelet inhibition (OAC+PI) or platelet inhibition only. A combined outcome of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or major bleeding was assessed 1 year after PCI and Cox regression was performed to estimate hazard ratios.Of 230 762 patients with newly diagnosed AF, 4042 (1.8%) underwent PCI and received a P2Y12-antagonist during the observation period (age, 67±9 years; CHA2DS2-VASc, 2.7±1.7; HAS-BLED, 2.6±1.2). Among these, 47% were prescribed OAC+PI, and 53% platelet inhibition only 7 days before until 30 days after the PCI. Across 63 sites, the use of OAC+PI ranged from 19% to 66%. Prescription of OAC+PI was independently associated with a reduction in the combined outcome of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or major bleeding compared with platelet inhibition only (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.73-0.99; P=0.033).In patients with established AF undergoing PCI, the use of OAC+PI varied substantially across sites in the 30 days post-PCI. Anticoagulation appeared to be underutilized but was associated with improved outcomes. Strategies to promote OAC+PI and minimize site variation may be useful, particularly in light of recent randomized trials.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.118.007604

    View details for PubMedID 31416357

  • Eligibility of sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors among patients with diabetes mellitus admitted for heart failure. ESC heart failure Sharma, A., Wu, J., Ezekowitz, J. A., Felker, G. M., Udell, J. A., Heidenreich, P. A., Fonarow, G. C., Mahaffey, K. W., Hernandez, A. F., DeVore, A. D. 2019

    Abstract

    Sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT)-2 inhibitors have been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular death and heart failure (HF) hospitalization in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and high cardiovascular risk in two large clinical outcome trials: empagliflozin in EMPA-REG OUTCOME and canagliflozin in CANVAS. The scope of eligibility for SGLT-2 inhibitors (empagliflozin and canagliflozin) among patients with type 2 DM and HF, based on clinical trial criteria and current US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) labelling criteria, remains unknown.Using data from the US Get With The Guidelines (GWTG)-Heart Failure registry, we evaluated the proportion of patients with DM and HF eligible for SGLT-2 inhibitor therapy based on the clinical trial criteria and the US FDA labelling criteria. The GWTG-HF registry is a quality improvement registry of patients admitted in hospital with HF in the USA. We included GWTG-HF registry participants meeting eligibility criteria hospitalized between August 2014 and 30 June 2017 from sites fully participating in the registry. The initial inclusion time point reflects when both drugs had FDA approval. Among the 139 317 patients (out of 407 317) with DM hospitalized with HF (in 460 hospitals; 2014 to 2017), the median age was 71 years, 47% (n = 65 685) were female, and 43% (n = 59 973) had HF with reduced ejection fraction. Overall, 43% (n = 59 943) were eligible for the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, 45% (n = 62 818) were eligible for the CANVAS trial, and 34% (n = 47 747) of patients were eligible for either SGLT-2 inhibitors based on the FDA labelling criteria. Among the FDA-eligible patients, 91.5% (n = 43 708) were eligible for either the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial or the CANVAS trial. Patients who were FDA eligible, compared with those who were not, were younger (70.0 vs. 72.0 years of age), more likely to be male (57.7 vs. 50.3%), and had less burden of co-morbidities.The majority of patients with DM who are hospitalized with HF are not eligible for SGLT-2 inhibitor therapies. Ongoing studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of SGLT-2 inhibitors among patients with HF may potentially broaden the population that may benefit from these therapies.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ehf2.12528

    View details for PubMedID 31747132

  • Improving risk stratification in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction by combining two validated risk scores. Open heart Boralkar, K. A., Kobayashi, Y., Moneghetti, K. J., Pargaonkar, V. S., Tuzovic, M., Krishnan, G., Wheeler, M. T., Banerjee, D., Kuznetsova, T., Horne, B. D., Knowlton, K. U., Heidenreich, P. A., Haddad, F. 2019; 6 (1): e000961

    Abstract

    Introduction: The Intermountain Risk Score (IMRS) was developed and validated to predict short-term and long-term mortality in hospitalised patients using demographics and commonly available laboratory data. In this study, we sought to determine whether the IMRS also predicts all-cause mortality in patients hospitalised with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and whether it is complementary to the Get with the Guidelines Heart Failure (GWTG-HF) risk score or N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP).Methods and results: We used the Stanford Translational Research Integrated Database Environment to identify 3847 adult patients with a diagnosis of HFpEF between January 1998 and December 2016. Of these, 580 were hospitalised with a primary diagnosis of acute HFpEF. Mean age was 76±16 years, the majority being female (58%), with a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus (36%) and a history of coronary artery disease (60%). Over a median follow-up of 2.0 years, 140 (24%) patients died. On multivariable analysis, the IMRS and GWTG-HF risk score were independently associated with all-cause mortality (standardised HRs IMRS (1.55 (95% CI 1.27 to 1.93)); GWTG-HF (1.60 (95% CI 1.27 to 2.01))). Combining the two scores, improved the net reclassification over GWTG-HF alone by 36.2%. In patients with available NT-proBNP (n=341), NT-proBNP improved the net reclassification of each score by 46.2% (IMRS) and 36.3% (GWTG-HF).Conclusion: IMRS and GWTG-HF risk scores, along with NT-proBNP, play a complementary role in predicting outcome in patients hospitalised with HFpEF.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/openhrt-2018-000961

    View details for PubMedID 31217994

  • Comparing the Barriers and Facilitators of Heart Failure Management as Perceived by Patients, Caregivers, and Clinical Providers. The Journal of cardiovascular nursing Trivedi, R. B., Slightam, C., Nevedal, A., Guetterman, T. C., Fan, V. S., Nelson, K. M., Rosland, A. M., Heidenreich, P. A., Timko, C., Asch, S. M., Piette, J. D. 2019

    Abstract

    Heart failure (HF) management requires the participation of patients, their significant others, and clinical providers. Each group may face barriers to HF management that may be unique or may overlap.The aim of this study was to compare the barriers and facilitators of HF management as perceived by patients, significant others, and clinical providers.Participants were recruited from a Veterans Health Administration facility. Eligible patients had a diagnosis of HF (ICD9 code 428.XX), 1 or more HF-related visit in the previous year, and a significant other who was their primary caregiver. Significant others were adults with no history of cognitive impairments caring for patients with HF. Providers were eligible if they cared for patients with HF. All participants completed semistructured interviews designed to elicit barriers to managing HF and strategies that they used to overcome these barriers. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using latent thematic analysis, and recruitment continued until thematic saturation was attained.A total of 17 couples and 12 providers were recruited. All 3 groups identified poor communication as a key barrier to HF management, including communication between patients and their significant other, between couples and providers, and providers with each other. Significant others noted that the lack of direct communication with clinical providers hindered their efforts to care for the patient. All 3 groups emphasized the importance of family members in optimizing adherence to HF self-management recommendations.Providers, patients, and significant others all play important and distinct roles in the management of HF. Tools to enhance communication and collaboration for all 3 and supporting the needs of significant others are missing components of current HF care.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/JCN.0000000000000591

    View details for PubMedID 31365440

  • Patient vs provider perspectives of 30-day hospital readmissions. BMJ open quality Smeraglio, A., Heidenreich, P. A., Krishnan, G., Hopkins, J., Chen, J., Shieh, L. 2019; 8 (1): e000264

    Abstract

    Objective: To compare patients' and providers' views on contributors to 30-day hospital readmissions.Design: Analysis of a qualitative interview survey between 18 May-30 June 2015.Setting: Interviews were conducted during the 30-day readmission hospitalisation at a single tertiary care academic hospital.Participants: We conducted 178 interviews of readmitted patients.Measures: We queried opinions of what factors patients believed contributed to their rehospitalisation and compared this with the perspective of the index admission provider. The primary outcome was the view that the readmission was preventable. A review by a RN (nurse) case manager also provided an assessment based on patient report, provider report and chart review.Results: Patients were more likely to view a readmission as preventable compared with physicians (p<0.0001). Patients identified system issues (defined as factors controlled by the hospital discharge process) as contributors to their readmission in 58% (103/178) of cases while providers identified system issues as the contributor to a patients' readmission in 2% (2/101) of cases. Patients with poor functional status were more likely to feel the cause of their readmission was due to system issues than patients with better functional status (p=0.03). A RN case manager review determined that in 48% (86/178) of cases the system had some amount of contribution to a patient's readmission. There was no significant difference in belief that the readmission was preventable between the RN case manager and the patient (p=0.47).Conclusions: Readmitted patients often feel that the hospital system contributed to their readmission. Providers did not recognise patient and RN case manager identified issues as contributors to hospital readmissions.

    View details for PubMedID 30687798

  • Association of Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction and Symptoms With Mortality After Elective Noncardiac Surgery Among Patients With Heart Failure. JAMA Lerman, B. J., Popat, R. A., Assimes, T. L., Heidenreich, P. A., Wren, S. M. 2019; 321 (6): 572?79

    Abstract

    Heart failure is an established risk factor for postoperative mortality, but how left ventricular ejection fraction and heart failure symptoms affect surgical outcomes is not fully described.To determine the risk of postoperative mortality among patients with heart failure at various levels of echocardiographic (left ventricular systolic dysfunction) and clinical (symptoms) severity compared with those without heart failure and to evaluate how risk varies across levels of surgical complexity.US multisite retrospective cohort study of all adult patients receiving elective, noncardiac surgery in the Veterans Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Project database from 2009 through 2016. A total of 609?735 patient records were identified and analyzed with 1 year of follow-up after having surgery (final study follow-up: September 1, 2017).Heart failure, left ventricular ejection fraction, and presence of signs or symptoms of heart failure within 30 days of surgery.The primary outcome was postoperative mortality at 90 days.Outcome data from 47?997 patients with heart failure (7.9%; mean [SD] age, 68.6 [10.1] years; 1391 women [2.9%]) and 561?738 patients without heart failure (92.1%; mean [SD] age, 59.4 [13.4] years; 50?862 women [9.1%]) were analyzed. Compared with patients without heart failure, those with heart failure had a higher risk of 90-day postoperative mortality (2635 vs 6881 90-day deaths; crude mortality risk, 5.49% vs 1.22%; adjusted absolute risk difference [RD], 1.03% [95% CI, 0.91%-1.15%]; adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.67 [95% CI, 1.57-1.76]). Compared with patients without heart failure, symptomatic patients with heart failure (n?=?5906) had a higher risk (597 deaths [10.11%]; adjusted absolute RD, 2.37% [95% CI, 2.06%-2.57%]; adjusted OR, 2.37 [95% CI, 2.14-2.63]). Asymptomatic patients with heart failure (n?=?42?091) (2038 deaths [crude risk, 4.84%]; adjusted absolute RD, 0.74% [95% CI, 0.63%-0.87%]; adjusted OR, 1.53 [95% CI, 1.44-1.63]), including the subset with preserved left ventricular systolic function (1144 deaths [4.42%]; adjusted absolute RD, 0.66% [95% CI, 0.54%-0.79%]; adjusted OR, 1.46 [95% CI, 1.35-1.57]), also experienced elevated risk.Among patients undergoing elective noncardiac surgery, heart failure with or without symptoms was significantly associated with 90-day postoperative mortality. These data may be helpful in preoperative discussions with patients with heart failure undergoing noncardiac surgery.

    View details for PubMedID 30747965

  • Value of Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio and Its Trajectory in Patients Hospitalized With Acute Heart Failure and Preserved Ejection Fraction. The American journal of cardiology Boralkar, K. A., Kobayashi, Y., Amsallem, M., Ataam, J. A., Moneghetti, K. J., Cauwenberghs, N., Horne, B. D., Knowlton, K. U., Maecker, H., Kuznetsova, T., Heidenreich, P. A., Haddad, F. 2019

    Abstract

    The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been proposed as a simple and routinely obtained marker of inflammation. This study sought to determine whether the NLR on admission as well as NLR trajectory would be complementary to the Get with the Guidelines Heart Failure (GWTG-HF) risk score in patients hospitalized with acute heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF).Using the Stanford Translational Research Database, we identified 443 patients between January 2002 and December 2013 hospitalized with acute HFpEF and with complete data of NLR both on admission and at discharge. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Mean age was 77?±?16 years, 58% were female, with a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus (35.4%), coronary artery disease (58.2%), systemic hypertension (96.6%) and history of atrial fibrillation (57.5%). Over a median follow-up of 2.2 years, 121 (27.3%) patients died. The median NLR on admission was 6.5 (IQR 3.6?-?11.1); a majority of patients decreased their NLR during the course of hospitalization. On multivariable Cox modeling, both NLR on admission (HR 1.18 95% CI (1.00?-?.38), p?=?0.04) and absolute NLR trajectory (HR 1.26 95% CI (1.10?-?1.45), p?=?0.001) were shown to be incremental to GWTG-HF risk score (p?

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2019.10.020

    View details for PubMedID 31753313

  • Comparison of the change in heart failure readmission and mortality rates between hospitals subject to hospital readmission reduction program penalties and critical access hospitals. American heart journal Sandhu, A. T., Heidenreich, P. A. 2018; 209: 63?67

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: The Hospital Readmission Reduction Program (HRRP), announced in 2010, penalizes hospitals with high readmissions for multiple conditions including heart failure.METHODS: We compared heart failure readmission and mortality rates in hospitals exposed to HRRP financial penalties with critical access hospitals (CAHs) not subject to the penalty between 2005 and 2016 using 3-year moving averages from Hospital Compare.RESULTS: After HRRP introduction, CAHs experienced a 0.60% annual decrease (95% CI: -0.61 to -0.59%) in heart failure readmissions. HRRP-exposed hospitals experienced an additional 0.13% annual decrease (95% CI: -0.14 to -0.12%) compared with CAHs. The association between HRRP penalties and mortality varied with model specifications.CONCLUSIONS: Using CAHs as a control group, we found the introduction of financial penalties was only associated with modest reductions in readmissions and an uncertain association with mortality. Cluster-randomized rollouts of health care policy interventions will allow us to better evaluate the impact of our interventions.

    View details for PubMedID 30685676

  • Glycated Hemoglobin and Outcomes of Heart Failure (from Get With the Guidelines-Heart Failure). The American journal of cardiology Echouffo-Tcheugui, J. B., Sheng, S., DeVore, A. D., Matsouaka, R. A., Hernandez, A. F., Yancy, C. W., Heidenreich, P. A., Bhatt, D. L., Fonarow, G. C. 2018

    Abstract

    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) is a risk factor for new onset heart failure (HF). There is however a paucity of data evaluating its association with outcomes in patients with established HF. We assessed the relation of HbA1C with outcomes among hospitalized HF patients. Among 41,776 HF patients from 263 hospitals participating to the Get with the Guidelines-HF registry between January 2009 and March 2016, we related HbA1C to outcomes (in-hospital mortality, length of hospital stay, discharge to home, 30-day mortality, 30-day readmission, and 1-year mortality), using generalized estimating equation to account for within-hospital clustering and potential confounders. There were 68% of HF patients with diabetes and median HbA1C was 7.1%. Each percent change in HbA1C was associated with higher odds of discharge to home for HbA1C levels <6.5% (covariate-adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.13 [95% confidence interval 1.04 to 1.12]) or ?6.5% (OR 1.05 [1.02 to 1.07]). After stratification by diabetes status, this association remained significant only among patients with diabetes (ORs for HbA1C levels <6.5%: 1.17 [1.07 to 1.27]; and ?6.5%: 1.06 [1.03 to 1.09]). Compared with the lowest HbA1C tertile (HbA1C ?6.1%), patients in the highest HbA1C tertile (HbA1C 7.3% to 19%) were more likely to have a length of hospital stay >4 days (OR 1.10 [1.02 to 1.18]) and to be discharged home (OR 1.23 [1.14 to 1.33]). There were no significant association between HbA1C and the following outcomes: in-hospital mortality, 30-day mortality, 30-day readmission, and 1-year mortality. In conclusion, among hospitalized HF patients, HbA1C was associated with prolonged hospital stay and home discharge, but not with readmission, short-term, or intermediate-term mortality.

    View details for PubMedID 30553509

  • Predictive models for identifying risk of readmission after index hospitalization for heart failure: A systematic review. European journal of cardiovascular nursing : journal of the Working Group on Cardiovascular Nursing of the European Society of Cardiology Mahajan, S. M., Heidenreich, P., Abbott, B., Newton, A., Ward, D. 2018; 17 (8): 675?89

    Abstract

    AIMS:: Readmission rates for patients with heart failure have consistently remained high over the past two decades. As more electronic data, computing power, and newer statistical techniques become available, data-driven care could be achieved by creating predictive models for adverse outcomes such as readmissions. We therefore aimed to review models for predicting risk of readmission for patients admitted for heart failure. We also aimed to analyze and possibly group the predictors used across the models.METHODS:: Major electronic databases were searched to identify studies that examined correlation between readmission for heart failure and risk factors using multivariate models. We rigorously followed the review process using PRISMA methodology and other established criteria for quality assessment of the studies.RESULTS:: We did a detailed review of 334 papers and found 25 multivariate predictive models built using data from either health system or trials. A majority of models was built using multiple logistic regression followed by Cox proportional hazards regression. Some newer studies ventured into non-parametric and machine learning methods. Overall predictive accuracy with C-statistics ranged from 0.59 to 0.84. We examined significant predictors across the studies using clinical, administrative, and psychosocial groups.CONCLUSIONS:: Complex disease management and correspondingly increasing costs for heart failure are driving innovations in building risk prediction models for readmission. Large volumes of diverse electronic data and new statistical methods have improved the predictive power of the models over the past two decades. More work is needed for calibration, external validation, and deployment of such models for clinical use.

    View details for PubMedID 30189748

  • Response by Kumbhani et al to Letters Regarding Article, "Association Between Hospital Volume, Processes of Care, and Outcomes in Patients Admitted With Heart Failure: Insights From Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure" CIRCULATION Kumbhani, D. J., Fonarow, G. C., Heidenreich, P. A., Schulte, P. J., Lu, D., Hernandez, A., Yancy, C., Bhatt, D. L. 2018; 138 (20): 2306?7
  • Managing the Economic Challenges in the Treatment of Heart Failure PROGRESS IN CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES Pina, I. L., Desai, N. R., Allen, L. A., Heidenreich, P. 2018; 61 (5-6): 476?83
  • Managing the Economic Challenges in the Treatment of Heart Failure. Progress in cardiovascular diseases Pina, I. L., Desai, N. R., Allen, L. A., Heidenreich, P. 2018; 61 (5-6): 476?83

    Abstract

    The economics of heart failure (HF) touches all patients with HF, their families, and the physicians and health systems that care for them. HF is specifically targeted by cost-reduction and care quality initiatives from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). The changing quality assessment and payment landscape is, and will continue to be, challenging for hospitals and HF specialists as they provide care for patients with this debilitating disease. Quality-based payment systems with evolving performance metrics are replacing traditional volume-based fee-for-service models. A critical objective of quality-based models is to improve care and reduce cost, but there are few data to support decision-making on how to improve. CMS payment programs and their implications for health systems treating HF were reviewed at a symposium at the Heart Failure Society of America conference in Nashville, Tennessee on September 15, 2018. This article constitutes the proceedings from that symposium.

    View details for PubMedID 30565564

  • Secular trends in success rate of catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation: The SMASH-AF cohort. American heart journal Perino, A. C., Leef, G. C., Cluckey, A., Yunus, F. N., Askari, M., Heidenreich, P. A., Narayan, S. M., Wang, P. J., Turakhia, M. P. 2018

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Approaches, tools, and technologies for atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation have evolved significantly since its inception. We sought to characterize secular trends in AF ablation success rates.METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of AF ablation from January 1, 1990, to August 1, 2016, searching PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane databases. Major exclusion criteria were insufficient outcome reporting and ablation strategies that were not prespecified and uniform. We stratified treatment arms by AF type (paroxysmal AF; nonparoxysmal AF) and analyzed single-procedure outcomes. Multivariate meta-regressions analyzed effects of study, patient, and procedure characteristics on success rate trends. Registered in PROSPERO (CRD42016036549).RESULTS: A total of 180 trials and observational studies with 28,118 patients met inclusion. For paroxysmal AF ablation studies, unadjusted success rate summary estimates ranged from 73.1% in 2003 to 77.1% in 2016, increasing by 0.9%/year (95% CI 0.4%-1.4%; P = .001; I2 = 90%). After controlling for study design and patient demographics, rate of improvement in success rate summary estimate increased (1.6%/year; 95% CI 0.9%-2.2%; P = .001; I2 = 87%). For nonparoxysmal AF ablation studies, unadjusted success rate summary estimates ranged from 70.0% in 2010 to 64.3% in 2016 (1.1%/year; 95% CI -1.3% to 3.5%; P = .37; I2 = 85%), with no improvement in multivariate analyses.CONCLUSIONS: Despite substantial research investment and health care expenditure, improvements in AF ablation success rates have been incremental. Meaningful improvements may require major paradigm or technology changes, and evaluation of clinical outcomes such as mortality and quality of life may prove to be important going forward.

    View details for PubMedID 30502925

  • The American Heart Association Heart Failure Summit, Bethesda, April 12, 2017 Proceedings and Calls to Action CIRCULATION-HEART FAILURE Peterson, P. N., Allen, L. A., Heidenreich, P. A., Albert, N. M., Pina, I. L., Amer Heart Assoc 2018; 11 (10): e004957

    Abstract

    The American Heart Association convened a meeting to summarize the changing landscape of heart failure (HF), anticipate upcoming challenges and opportunities to achieve coordinated identification and treatment, and to recommend areas in need of focused efforts. The conference involved representatives from clinical care organizations, governmental agencies, researchers, patient advocacy groups, and public and private healthcare partners, demonstrating the breadth of stakeholders interested in improving care and outcomes for patients with HF. The main purposes of this meeting were to foster dialog and brainstorm actions to close gaps in identifying people with or at risk for HF and reduce HF-related morbidity, mortality, and hospitalizations. This report highlights the key topics covered during the meeting, including (1) identification of patients with or at risk for HF, (2) tracking patients once diagnosed, (3) application of population health approaches to HF, (4) improved strategies for reducing HF hospitalization (not just rehospitalization), and (5) promoting HF self-management.

    View details for PubMedID 30354400

  • Trends in Hospice Discharge and Relative Outcomes Among Medicare Patients in the Get With The Guidelines Heart Failure Registry JAMA CARDIOLOGY Warraich, H. J., Xu, H., DeVore, A. D., Matsouaka, R., Heidenreich, P. A., Bhatt, D. L., Hernandez, A. F., Yancy, C. W., Fonarow, G. C., Allen, L. A. 2018; 3 (10): 917?26

    Abstract

    While 1 in 10 older patients hospitalized with heart failure (HF) die within 30 days, end-of-life care for this population is not well described.To assess rates of discharge to hospice, readmission after hospice, and survival in hospice in patients following hospital discharge.In this observational cohort analysis of patients in the multicenter American Heart Association Get With The Guidelines (GWTG)-HF registry linked to Medicare fee-for-service claims data, we analyzed patients 65 years and older discharged alive from the hospital between 2005 and 2014. We compared 4588 patients discharged to hospice with 4357 patients with advanced HF (ejection fraction ?25% and any of the following: inpatient inotrope use, serum sodium level ?130 mEq/L, blood urea nitrogen level ?45 mg/dL [to convert to micromoles per liter, multiply by 0.357], systolic blood pressure ?90 mm Hg, or comfort measures during hospitalization) not discharged to hospice and with 113?045 other patients with HF in the GWTG-HF registry. Data were analyzed from October 2017 to June 2018.Discharge to hospice, rehospitalization, and mortality.Of the 4588 patients discharged to hospice, 2556 (55.7%) were female and 4047 (88.2%) were white, and they had a median (interquartile range) age of 86 (80-90) years. Hospice accounted for 4588 of 121?990 discharges (3.8%), of which 2424 (52.8%) were discharges to home hospice and 2164 (47.2%) were to a hospice facility. Hospice discharges increased from 2.0% (109 of 5528) in 2005 to 4.9% (968 of 19?590) in 2014. Patients discharged to hospice were older, white, and more symptomatic compared with patients with advanced HF (n?=?4357) and other patients in the GWTG-HF registry (n?=?113?045). The median (interquartile range) postdischarge survival time in patients discharged to hospice was 11 (3-63) days compared with 318 (78-1105) days in patients with advanced HF and 754 (221-1868) days in other patients in the GWTG-HF registry. A total of 739 patients (34.1%) discharged to hospice facilities died in less than 72 hours, while 295 (12.2%) discharged to home hospice died in less than 72 hours; 690 patients (15.0%) discharged from hospice lived for 6 months or more. Among hospitals with more than 25 hospice discharges, the median (interquartile range) hospice discharge rate was 3.5% (2.0%-5.7%). Readmission at 30 days was lower in patients discharged to hospice (189 [4.1%]) compared with patients with advanced HF (1185 [27.2%]) and others in the GWTG-HF registry (25?022 [22.2%]). Nonwhite race and younger age were the strongest predictors of readmission from hospice.Hospice use has grown to about 4.9% of Medicare HF hospital discharges, with significant hospital-level variation. Almost a quarter of patients discharged to hospice die within 3 days of discharge, and about 4.1% of patients are readmitted to the hospital within 30 days.

    View details for PubMedID 30167645

  • Association of Healthcare Plan with atrial fibrillation prescription patterns CLINICAL CARDIOLOGY Chang, A., Askari, M., Fan, J., Heidenreich, P. A., Ho, P., Mahaffey, K. W., Ullal, A., Perino, A., Turakhia, M. P. 2018; 41 (9): 1136?43

    View details for DOI 10.1002/clc.23042

    View details for Web of Science ID 000446429700004

  • Association Between Offering Limited Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Echocardiograms and Overall Use of Echocardiography JAMA INTERNAL MEDICINE Sandhu, A. T., Parizo, J., Moradi-Ragheb, N., Heidenreich, P. A. 2018; 178 (9): 1270-+
  • Frequency of Statin Use in Patients With Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol >= 190 mg/dl from the Veterans Affairs Health System AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY Rodriguez, F., Knowles, J. W., Maron, D. J., Virani, S. S., Heidenreich, P. A. 2018; 122 (5): 756?61
  • Validity of Performance and Outcome Measures for Heart Failure CIRCULATION-HEART FAILURE Patel, J., Sandhu, A., Parizo, J., Moayedi, Y., Fonarow, G. C., Heidenreich, P. A. 2018; 11 (9)
  • Dual Healthcare System Use During Episodes of Acute Care Heart Failure Associated With Higher Healthcare Utilization and Mortality Risk JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION Axon, R., Gebregziabher, M., Everett, C. J., Heidenreich, P., Hunt, K. J. 2018; 7 (15)
  • Dual Healthcare System Use During Episodes of Acute Care Heart Failure Associated With Higher Healthcare Utilization and Mortality Risk. Journal of the American Heart Association Axon, R. N., Gebregziabher, M., Everett, C. J., Heidenreich, P., Hunt, K. J. 2018; 7 (15): e009054

    Abstract

    Background Individuals receiving cross-system care (dual users) have higher rates of healthcare utilization and worse outcomes for heart failure ( HF ) and other conditions. Individuals can be dual users or single-system users at different times, though, and little is known about utilization and mortality within discrete episodes of care. Methods and Results A retrospective cohort of 3439 patients with 5231 discrete episodes of HF exacerbation were identified between 2007 and 2011. Episodes encompassed the period from 2weeks before an initial HF emergency department ( ED ) visit or hospitalization, included any acute care visits within 30days after initial visit, and ended 30days after the last acute care visit in the episode chain. All-cause and HF -specific ED visits and hospitalization within 30days of index visit were analyzed using generalized estimating equations with robust variance. Hazard for death within episodes of acute illness was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models. In adjusted analyses, dual use acute HF episodes were associated with higher odds of all-cause ED visits (odds ratio 1.61, 95% confidence interval [ CI ], 1.33, 1.95), HF -specific ED visits, (odds ratio 1.54, 95% CI , 1.12, 2.13), all-cause hospitalization (odds ratio 1.89, 95% CI , 1.50, 2.38), and HF -specific hospitalization (odds ratio 1.62, 95% CI , 1.15-2.30) as compared with Veterans Health Administration-only episodes of acute HF care. Dual use episodes of care were associated with higher hazard for mortality (hazard ratio=1.52, 95% CI 1.07, 2.16) as compared with all-Veterans Health Administration episodes of care. Conclusions Episodes of acute HF care spanning across healthcare systems appear to be associated with higher risk of subsequent ED visits, hospitalization, and mortality.

    View details for PubMedID 30371248

  • Diabetes is Associated with Worse In-Hospital and 30-Day Post-Discharge Morbidity in Patients with Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: Findings from the Get With The Guidelines Heart Failure Registry McHugh, K., Wu, J., Matsouaka, R. A., DeVore, A. D., Fonarow, G. C., Heidenreich, P. A., Yancy, C. W., Green, J. B., Altman, N., Hernandez, A. F. CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE INC MEDICAL PUBLISHERS. 2018: S92
  • Discharge home health services referral and 30-day all-cause readmission in older adults with heart failure ARCHIVES OF MEDICAL SCIENCE Arundel, C., Sheriff, H., Bearden, D. M., Morgan, C. J., Heidenreich, P. A., Fonarow, G. C., Butler, J., Allman, R. M., Ahmed, A. 2018; 14 (5): 995?1002
  • US Department of Justice Investigations of Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators and Quality Improvement in Health Care. JAMA Heidenreich, P. A. 2018; 320 (1): 40?42

    View details for PubMedID 29971380

  • US Department of Justice Investigations of Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators and Quality Improvement in Health Care JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Heidenreich, P. A. 2018; 320 (1): 40?42
  • Association of the Affordable Care Act's Medicaid Expansion With Care Quality and Outcomes for Low-Income Patients Hospitalized With Heart Failure CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR QUALITY AND OUTCOMES Wadhera, R. K., Maddox, K., Fonarow, G. C., Zhao, X., Heidenreich, P. A., DeVore, A. D., Matsouaka, R. A., Hernandez, A. F., Yancy, C. W., Bhatt, D. L. 2018; 11 (7): e004729

    Abstract

    Heart failure (HF) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Despite advancement in the management of HF, outcomes remain suboptimal, particularly among the uninsured. In 2014, the Affordable Care Act expanded Medicaid eligibility, and millions of low-income adults gained insurance. Little is known about Medicaid expansion's effect on inpatient HF care.We used the American Heart Association's Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure registry to assess changes in inpatient care quality and outcomes among low-income patients (<65 years old) hospitalized for HF after Medicaid expansion, in expansion, and nonexpansion states. Patients were classified as low-income if covered by Medicaid, uninsured, or missing insurance. Expansion states were those that implemented expansion in 2014. Piecewise logistic multivariable regression models were constructed to track quarterly trends of quality and outcome measures in the pre (January 1, 2010-December 31, 2013) and postexpansion (January 1, 2014-June 30, 2017) periods. These measures were compared between expansion versus nonexpansion states during the postexpansion period. The cohort included 58?804 patients hospitalized across 391 sites. In states that expanded Medicaid, uninsured HF hospitalizations declined from 7.9% to 4.4%, and Medicaid HF hospitalizations increased from 18.3% to 34.6%. Defect-free HF care was increasing during the preexpansion period (adjusted odds ratio/quarter, 1.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.08) but did not change after expansion (adjusted odds ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.97-1.02). Patterns were similar for other quality measures. There were no quality measures for which the rate of improvement sped up after expansion. In-hospital mortality rates remained similar during the preexpansion (adjusted odds ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.96-1.02) and postexpansion periods (adjusted odds ratio, 1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.97-1.03). Among nonexpansion states, uninsured HF hospitalizations increased (11.6% to 16.7%) as did Medicaid HF hospitalizations (17.9% to 26.6%), and no quarterly improvement was observed for most quality measures in the post compared with preexpansion period. During the postexpansion period, defect-free care and mortality did not differ between expansion and nonexpansion states.Medicaid expansion was associated with a significant decline in uninsured HF hospitalizations but not improvements in quality of care or in-hospital mortality among sites participating in a national quality improvement initiative. Efforts beyond insurance expansion are needed to improve in-hospital outcomes for low-income patients with HF.

    View details for PubMedID 29946015

  • Diabetes and long-term outcomes of ischaemic stroke: findings from Get With The Guidelines-Stroke EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL Echouffo-Tcheugui, J. B., Xu, H., Matsouaka, R. A., Xian, Y., Schwamm, L. H., Smith, E. E., Bhatt, D. L., Hernandez, A. F., Heidenreich, P. A., Fonarow, G. C. 2018; 39 (25): 2376?86

    Abstract

    There is a paucity of data on the influence of diabetes on long-term outcomes after ischaemic stroke (IS). We assessed whether outcomes after IS differ between patients with and without diabetes.Patients aged ?65?years (n?=?409 060) in Get With The Guidelines-Stroke (nationwide registry of stroke patients from 1690 sites in the USA) were followed for 3?years post-discharge. The outcomes of interest were mortality, cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular hospitalizations, heart failure (HF), and recurrence of IS/transient ischaemic attack (TIA). Patients with diabetes (29.6%) were younger and had more comorbidities. At 3?years post-discharge after IS, diabetes was associated with higher risks of adverse outcomes: all-cause mortality [cumulative incidence 46.0% vs. 44.2%, absolute difference (AD) 1.8%; adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.24, 95% confidence interval 1.23-1.25], all-cause readmission (71.3% vs. 63.7%, AD 7.6%; aHR 1.22, 1.21-1.23), composite of mortality and all-cause readmission (84.1% vs. 79.3%, AD 4.8%; aHR 1.21, 1.20-1.22), composite of mortality and cardiovascular readmission (69.5% vs. 64.3%, AD 5.2%; aHR 1.19, 1.18-1.20), IS/TIA readmission (15.9% vs. 13.3%, AD 2.6%; aHR 1.18, 1.16-1.20), HF readmission (10.3% vs. 6.4%, AD 3.9%; aHR 1.60, 1.56-1.64), non-cardiovascular readmission (58.3% vs. 50.3%, AD 8.0%; aHR 1.28, 1.26-1.29), and non-IS/TIA readmission (67.6% vs. 59.7%, AD 7.9%; aHR 1.23, 1.22-1.25). Accounting for the initial severity of stroke using the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale as well as using propensity score matching method as a sensitivity analysis, did not modify the results.Among older IS patients diabetes was associated with increased risks of death, cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular hospitalizations, HF, and IS/TIA recurrence.

    View details for PubMedID 29438515

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6031049

  • Lean-Based Redesign of Multidisciplinary Rounds on General Medicine Service JOURNAL OF HOSPITAL MEDICINE Kane, M., Rohatgi, N., Heidenreich, P. A., Thakur, A., Winget, M., Shum, K., Hereford, J., Shieh, L., Lew, T., Hom, J., Chi, J., Weinacker, A., Seay-Morrison, T., Ahuja, N. 2018; 13 (7): 482?85

    View details for DOI 10.12788/jhm.2908

    View details for Web of Science ID 000437294500006

  • Racial Differences in Quality of Care and Outcomes After Acute Coronary Syndrome AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY Yong, C. M., Ungar, L., Abnousi, F., Asch, S. M., Heidenreich, P. A. 2018; 121 (12): 1489?95
  • Frequency of Statin Use in Patients With Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol ?190 mg/dl from the Veterans Affairs Health System. The American journal of cardiology Rodriguez, F., Knowles, J. W., Maron, D. J., Virani, S. S., Heidenreich, P. A. 2018

    Abstract

    Patients with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ?190 mg/dl have severe hypercholesterolemia and are at markedly increased risk for adverse cardiovascular events. This study sought to examine the prevalence and treatment of patients with uncontrolled severe hypercholesterolemia in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Health System. The study population was comprised of VA outpatients ?21 years of age without atherosclerotic disease or diabetes mellitus and an index LDL-C ?190 mg/dl during April 2011 to March 2014. Patients needed to have filled medications at the VA within the past 6 months. Patient and facility-level predictors of statin use, high-intensity statin use, and statin intensification were analyzed using multivariate logistic regressions. There were a total of 63,576 patients meeting inclusion criteria, including 8,553 (13.5%) women and 26,879 (29.0%) nonwhite patients. The mean (±S.D.) age was 55 (±13) years and the mean of the most recent LDL-C values was 207 ± 22 mg/dl. Only 52% of all eligible patients were on any statin therapy and 9.7% received high-intensity statin therapy. High-intensity statin use increased from 8.6% in 2011 to 13.6% in 2014 (p < 0.001). In adjusted analysis, patients <35 or >75 years of age were less likely to be on a statin (p < 0.001). Women were less likely to be treated than men, odds ratio?=?0.88; 95% confidence interval (0.83, 0.92). Similar patterns were observed for predictors of high-intensity statin use and statin intensification. In conclusion, only half of high-risk VA patients with uncontrolled severe hypercholesterolemia were treated with statins and a small minority was on high-intensity statin therapy.

    View details for PubMedID 30055758

  • Association of Hospital Performance Based on 30-Day Risk-Standardized Mortality Rate With Long-term Survival After Heart Failure Hospitalization An Analysis of the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure Registry JAMA CARDIOLOGY Pandey, A., Patel, K., Liang, L., DeVore, A. D., Matsouaka, R., Bhatt, D. L., Yancy, C. W., Hernandez, A. F., Heidenreich, P. A., de Lemos, J. A., Fonarow, G. C. 2018; 3 (6): 489?97

    Abstract

    Among patients hospitalized with heart failure (HF), the long-term clinical implications of hospitalization at hospitals based on 30-day risk-standardized mortality rates (RSMRs) is not known.To evaluate the association of hospital-specific 30-day RSMR with long-term survival among patients hospitalized with HF in the American Heart Association Get With The Guidelines-HF registry.The longitudinal observational study included 106?304 patients with HF who were admitted to 317 centers participating in the Get With The Guidelines-HF registry from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2013, and had Medicare-linked follow-up data. Hospital-specific 30-day RSMR was calculated using a hierarchical logistic regression model. In the model, 30-day mortality rate was a binary outcome, patient baseline characteristics were included as covariates, and the hospitals were treated as random effects. The association of 30-day RSMR-based hospital groups (low to high 30-day RSMR: quartile 1 [Q1] to Q4) with long-term (1-year, 3-year, and 5-year) mortality was assessed using adjusted Cox models. Data analysis took place from June 29, 2017, to February 19, 2018.Thirty-day RSMR for participating hospitals.One-year, 3-year, and 5-year mortality rates.Of the 106?304 patients included in the analysis, 57?552 (54.1%) were women and 84?595 (79.6%) were white, and the median (interquartile range) age was 81 (74-87) years. The 30-day RSMR ranged from 8.6% (Q1) to 10.7% (Q4). Hospitals in the low 30-day RSMR group had greater availability of advanced HF therapies, cardiac surgery, and percutaneous coronary interventions. In the primary landmarked analyses among 30-day survivors, there was a graded inverse association between 30-day RSMR and long-term mortality (Q1 vs Q4: 5-year mortality, 73.7% vs 76.8%). In adjusted analysis, patients admitted to hospitals in the high 30-day RSMR group had 14% (95% CI, 10-18) higher relative hazards of 5-year mortality compared with those admitted to hospitals in the low 30-day RSMR group. Similar findings were observed in analyses of survival from admission, with 22% (95% CI, 18-26) higher relative hazards of 5-year mortality for patients admitted to Q4 vs Q1 hospitals.Lower hospital-level 30-day RSMR is associated with greater 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year survival for patients with HF. These differences in 30-day survival continued to accrue beyond 30 days and persisted long term, suggesting that 30-day RSMR may be a useful HF performance metric to incentivize quality care and improve long-term outcomes.

    View details for PubMedID 29532056

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5875302

  • Trends in Noncardiovascular Comorbidities Among Patients Hospitalized for Heart Failure Insights From the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure Registry CIRCULATION-HEART FAILURE Sharma, A., Zhao, X., Hammill, B. G., Hernandez, A. F., Fonarow, G. C., Felker, G., Yancy, C. W., Heidenreich, P. A., Ezekowitz, J. A., DeVore, A. D. 2018; 11 (6): e004646

    Abstract

    The increase in medical complexity among patients hospitalized with heart failure (HF) may be reflected by an increase in concomitant noncardiovascular comorbidities. Among patients hospitalized with HF, the temporal trends in the prevalence of noncardiovascular comorbidities have not been well described.We used data from 207?984 patients in the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure registry (from 2005 to 2014) to evaluate the prevalence and trends of noncardiovascular comorbidities (chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder/asthma, anemia, diabetes mellitus, obesity [body mass index ?30 kg/m2], and renal impairment) among patients hospitalized with HF. Medicare beneficiaries aged ?65 years were used to assess 30-day mortality. The prevalence of 0, 1, 2, and ?3 noncardiovascular comorbidities was 18%, 30%, 27%, 25%, respectively. From 2005 to 2014, there was a decline in patients with 0 noncardiovascular comorbidities (22%-16%; P<0.0001) and an increase in patients with ?3 noncardiovascular comorbidities (18%-29%; P<0.0001). Among Medicare beneficiaries, there was an increased 30-day adjusted mortality risk among patients with 1 noncardiovascular comorbidity (hazard ratio, 1.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.24; P<0.0001), 2 noncardiovascular comorbidities (hazard ratio, 1.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-1.44; P<0.0001), and ?3 noncardiovascular comorbidities (hazard ratio, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.51-1.75; P<0.0001). Similar trends were seen for in-hospital mortality.Patients admitted in hospital for HF have an increasing number of noncardiovascular comorbidities over time, which are associated with worse outcomes. Strategies addressing the growing burden of noncardiovascular comorbidities may represent an avenue to improve outcomes and should be included in the delivery of in-hospital HF care.

    View details for PubMedID 29793934

  • A Hospital Level Analysis of 30-Day Readmission Performance for Heart Failure Patients and Long-Term Survival: Findings from Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Jalnapurkar, S., Zhao, X., Heidenreich, P. A., Bhatt, D. L., Smith, E. E., DeVore, A. D., Hernandez, A. F., Matsouaka, R., Yancy, C. W., Fonarow, G. C. 2018; 200: 127?33

    Abstract

    Medicare utilizes 30-day risk-standardized readmission rates (RSRR) as a measure of hospital quality and applies penalties based on this measure. The objective of this study was to identify the relationship between hospital performance on 30-day RSRR in heart failure (HF) patients and long-term patient survival.Data were collected from Get With The Guidelines (GWTG)-HF and linked with Medicare data. Based on hospital performance for 30-day RSRR, hospitals were grouped into performance quartiles: top 25% (N=11,181), 25-50% (N=10,367), 50-75% (N=8729), and bottom 25% (N=7180). The primary outcome was mortality at 3 years applying Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted for patient and hospital characteristics.The overall 30-day readmission rate was 19.8% and the 3-year mortality rates were 61.8%, 61.0%, 62.6%, and 59.9% for top 25%, 25-50%, 50-75%, and bottom 25% hospitals for 30-day RSRR performance, respectively. Compared to bottom 25% performing hospitals, adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for 3-year mortality were HR 0.96 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.90-1.01), HR 0.89 (95% CI 0.84-0.94), HR 1.01 (95% CI 0.95-1.06) for the top 25%, 25-50% and 50-75% hospitals respectively. Median survival time was highest for the bottom 25% hospitals on the 30-day RSRR metric.Hospital performance on 30-day readmissions in HF has no or little association with risk adjusted 3-year mortality or median survival. There is a compelling need to utilize more meaningful and patient-centered outcome measures for reporting and incentivizing quality care for HF.

    View details for PubMedID 29898841

  • Geographic and racial representation and reported success rates of studies of catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation: Findings from the SMASH-AF meta-analysis study cohort JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY Leef, G. C., Perino, A. C., Cluckey, A., Yunus, F. N., Askari, M., Heidenreich, P. A., Narayan, S. M., Wang, P. J., Turakhia, M. P. 2018; 29 (5): 747?55

    View details for DOI 10.1111/jce.13439

    View details for Web of Science ID 000433580000013

  • Clinical Implications of Ablation of Drivers for Atrial Fibrillation A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis CIRCULATION-ARRHYTHMIA AND ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY Baykaner, T., Rogers, A. J., Meckler, G. L., Zaman, J., Navara, R., Rodrigo, M., Alhusseini, M., Kowalewski, C. B., Viswanathan, M. N., Narayan, S. M., Clopton, P., Wang, P. J., Heidenreich, P. A. 2018; 11 (5)
  • Association Between Hospital Volume, Processes of Care, and Outcomes in Patients Admitted With Heart Failure Insights From Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure CIRCULATION Kumbhani, D. J., Fonarow, G. C., Heidenreich, P. A., Schulte, P. J., Lu, D., Hernandez, A., Yancy, C., Bhatt, D. L. 2018; 137 (16): 1661-+

    Abstract

    Hospital volume is frequently used as a structural metric for assessing quality of care, but its utility in patients admitted with acute heart failure (HF) is not well characterized. Accordingly, we sought to determine the relationship between admission volume, process-of-care metrics, and short- and long-term outcomes in patients admitted with acute HF.Patients enrolled in the Get With The Guidelines-HF registry with linked Medicare inpatient data at 342 hospitals were assessed. Volume was assessed both as a continuous variable, and quartiles based on the admitting hospital annual HF case volume, as well: 5 to 38 (quartile 1), 39 to 77 (quartile 2), 78 to 122 (quartile 3), 123 to 457 (quartile 4). The main outcome measures were (1) process measures at discharge (achievement of HF achievement, quality, reporting, and composite metrics); (2) 30-day mortality and hospital readmission; and (3) 6-month mortality and hospital readmission. Adjusted logistic and Cox proportional hazards models were used to study these associations with hospital volume.A total of 125?595 patients with HF were included. Patients admitted to high-volume hospitals had a higher burden of comorbidities. On multivariable modeling, lower-volume hospitals were significantly less likely to be adherent to HF process measures than higher-volume hospitals. Higher hospital volume was not associated with a difference in in-hospital (odds ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94-1.05; P=0.78) or 30-day mortality (hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.97-1.01; P=0.26), or 30-day readmissions (hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.97-1.00; P=0.10). There was a weak association of higher volumes with lower 6-month mortality (hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.97-0.99; P=0.001) and lower 6-month all-cause readmissions (hazard ratio, 0.98; 95%, CI 0.97-1.00; P=0.025).Our analysis of a large contemporary prospective national quality improvement registry of older patients with HF indicates that hospital volume as a structural metric correlates with process measures, but not with 30-day outcomes, and only marginally with outcomes up to 6 months of follow-up. Hospital profiling should focus on participation in systems of care, adherence to process metrics, and risk-standardized outcomes rather than on hospital volume itself.

    View details for PubMedID 29378692

  • Association of Electronic Health Record Use With Quality of Care and Outcomes in Heart Failure: An Analysis of Get With The GuidelinesHeart Failure JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION Selvaraj, S., Fonarow, G. C., Sheng, S., Matsouaka, R. A., DeVore, A. D., Heidenreich, P. A., Hernandez, A. F., Yancy, C. W., Bhatt, D. L. 2018; 7 (7)

    Abstract

    Adoption of electronic health record (EHR) systems has increased significantly across the nation. Whether EHR use has translated into improved quality of care and outcomes in heart failure (HF) is not well studied.We examined participants from the Get With The Guidelines-HF registry who were admitted with HF in 2008 (N=21 222), using various degrees of EHR implementation (no EHR, partial EHR, and full EHR). We performed multivariable logistic regression to determine the relation between EHR status and several in-hospital quality metrics and outcomes. In a substudy of Medicare participants (N=8421), we assessed the relation between EHR status and rates of 30-day mortality, readmission, and a composite outcome. In the cohort, the mean age was 71±15 years, 49% were women, and 64% were white. The mean ejection fraction was 39±17%. Participants were admitted to hospitals with no EHR (N=1484), partial EHR (N=13 473), and full EHR (N=6265). There was no association between EHR status and several quality metrics (aside from ? blocker at discharge) or in-hospital outcomes on multivariable adjusted logistic regression (P>0.05 for all comparisons). In the Medicare cohort, there was no association between EHR status and 30-day mortality, readmission, or the combined outcome.In a large registry of hospitalized patients with HF, there was no association between degrees of EHR implementation and several quality metrics and 30-day postdischarge death or readmission. Our results suggest that EHR may not be sufficient to improve HF quality or related outcomes.

    View details for PubMedID 29602768

  • Government continues to have an important role in promoting cardiovascular health AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Tomaselli, G., Roach, W. H., Pina, I. L., Oster, M. E., Dietz, W. H., Horton, K., Borden, W. B., Brownell, K., Gibbons, R. J., Otten, J. J., Lee, C. S., Hill, C., Heidenreich, P. A., Siscovick, D. S., Whitsel, L. P. 2018; 198: 160?65

    View details for PubMedID 29653638

  • Heart failure management with ambulatory pulmonary artery pressure monitoring TRENDS IN CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICINE Sandhu, A. T., Heidenreich, P. A. 2018; 28 (3): 212?19
  • Early Ambulation Among Hospitalized Heart Failure Patients Is Associated With Reduced Length of Stay and 30-Day Readmissions. Circulation. Heart failure Fleming, L. M., Zhao, X., DeVore, A. D., Heidenreich, P. A., Yancy, C. W., Fonarow, G. C., Hernandez, A. F., Kociol, R. D. 2018; 11 (4): e004634

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Early ambulation (EA) is associated with improved outcomes for mechanically ventilated and stroke patients. Whether the same association exists for patients hospitalized with acute heart failure is unknown. We sought to determine whether EA among patients hospitalized with heart failure is associated with length of stay, discharge disposition, 30-day post discharge readmissions, and mortality.METHODS AND RESULTS: The study population included 369 hospitals and 285653 patients with heart failure enrolled in the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure registry. We used multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equations at the hospital level to identify predictors of EA and determine the association between EA and outcomes. Sixty-five percent of patients ambulated by day 2 of the hospital admission. Patient-level predictors of EA included younger age, male sex, and hospitalization outside of the Northeast (P<0.01 for all). Hospital size and academic status were not predictive. Hospital-level analysis revealed that those hospitals with EA rates in the top 25% were less likely to have a long length of stay (defined as >4 days) compared with those in the bottom 25% (odds ratio, 0.83; confidence interval, 0.73-0.94; P=0.004). Among a subgroup of fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries, we found that hospitals in the highest quartile of rates of EA demonstrated a statistically significant 24% lower 30-day readmission rates (P<0.0001). Both end points demonstrated a dose-response association and statistically significant P for trend test.CONCLUSIONS: Multivariable-adjusted hospital-level analysis suggests an association between EA and both shorter length of stay and lower 30-day readmissions. Further prospective studies are needed to validate these findings.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.117.004634

    View details for PubMedID 29643066

  • Racial Differences in Quality of Care and Outcomes After Acute Coronary Syndrome. The American journal of cardiology Yong, C. M., Ungar, L., Abnousi, F., Asch, S. M., Heidenreich, P. A. 2018

    Abstract

    Guideline adherence and variation in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) outcomes by race in the modern era of drug-eluting stents (DES) are not well understood. Previous studies also fail to capture rapidly growing minority populations, such as Asians. A retrospective analysis of 689,238 hospitalizations for ACS across all insurance types from 2008 to 2011 from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project database was performed to determine whether quality of ACS care and mortality differ by race (white, black, Asian, Hispanic, or Native American), with adjustment for patient clinical and demographic characteristics and clustering by hospital. We found that black patients had the lowest in-hospital mortality rates (5% vs 6% to 7% for other races, p<0.0001, odds ratio [OR] 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.97 to 1.07), despite low rates of timely angiography in ST-elevation myocardial infarction and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction, and lower use of DES (30% vs 38% to 40% for other races, p<0.0001). In contrast, Asian patients had the highest in-hospital mortality rates (7% vs 5% to 7% for other races, p<0.0001, odds ratio 1.13, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.20, relative to white patients), despite higher rates of timely angiography in ST-elevation myocardial infarction and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction, and the highest use of DES (74% vs 63% to 68% for other races, p<0.0001). Asian patients had the worst in-hospital mortality outcomes after ACS, despite high use of early invasive treatments. Black patients had better in-hospital outcomes despite receiving less guideline-driven care.

    View details for PubMedID 29655881

  • THE COMPLEMENTARY VALUE OF THE GET WITH THE GUIDELINES: HEART FAILURE RISK SCORE AND LABORATORY MARKERS AT DISCHARGE IN PREDICTING MORTALITY IN PATIENTS HOSPITALIZED WITH HEART FAILURE WITH PRESERVED EJECTION FRACTION Boralkar, K., Kobayashi, Y., Pargaonkar, V., Moneghetti, K., Tuzovic, M., Krishnan, G., Amsallem, M., Kouznetsova, T., Horne, B., Knowlton, K., Heidenreich, P., Haddad, F. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2018: 839
  • APPLYING NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING OF ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY REPORTS TO DESCRIBE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF HEART FAILURE Tisdale, R., Heidenreich, P. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2018: 712
  • Geographic and racial representation and reported success rates of studies of catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation: Findings from the SMASH-AF meta-analysis study cohort. Journal of cardiovascular electrophysiology Leef, G. C., Perino, A. C., Cluckey, A., Yunus, F. N., Askari, M., Heidenreich, P. A., Narayan, S. M., Wang, P. J., Turakhia, M. P. 2018

    Abstract

    INTRODUCTION: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of geographic and racial representation and reported success rates of studies of catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF).METHODS AND RESULTS: We searched PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane databases from 1/1/1990 to 8/1/2016 for trials and observational studies reporting AF ablation outcomes. Major exclusion criteria were insufficient reporting of outcomes, non-English language articles, and ablation strategies that were not prespecified and uniform. We described geographic and racial representation and single-procedure ablation success rates by country, controlling for patient demographics and study design characteristics. The analysis cohort included 306 studies (49,227 patients) from 28 countries. Over half of the paroxysmal (PAF) and nonparoxysmal AF (NPAF) treatment arms were conducted in 5 and 3 countries, respectively. Reporting of race or ethnicity demographics and outcomes were rare (1 study, 0.3%) and nonexistent, respectively. Unadjusted success rates by country ranged from 63.5% to 83.0% for PAF studies and 52.7% to 71.6% for NPAF studies, with substantial variation in patient demographics and study design. After controlling for covariates, South Korea and the United States had higher PAF ablation success rates, with large residual heterogeneity. NPAF ablation success rates were statistically similar by country.CONCLUSIONS: Studies of AF ablation have substantial variation in patient demographics, study design, and reported outcomes by country. There is limited geographic representation of trials and observational studies of AF ablation and a paucity of race- or ethnicity-stratified results. Future AF ablation studies and registries should aim to have broad representation by race, geography, and ethnicity to ensure generalizability.

    View details for PubMedID 29364570

  • Clinical Implications of Ablation of Drivers for Atrial Fibrillation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Circulation. Arrhythmia and electrophysiology Baykaner, T., Rogers, A. J., Meckler, G. L., Zaman, J., Navara, R., Rodrigo, M., Alhusseini, M., Kowalewski, C. A., Viswanathan, M. N., Narayan, S. M., Clopton, P., Wang, P. J., Heidenreich, P. A. 2018; 11 (5): e006119

    Abstract

    The outcomes from pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) for atrial fibrillation (AF) are suboptimal, but the benefits of additional lesion sets remain unproven. Recent studies propose ablation of AF drivers improves outcomes over PVI, yet with conflicting reports in the literature. We undertook a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to determine outcomes from ablation of AF drivers in addition to PVI or as a stand-alone procedure.Database search was done using the terms atrial fibrillation and ablation or catheter ablation and driver or rotor or focal impulse or FIRM (Focal Impulse and Rotor Modulation). We pooled data using random effects model and assessed heterogeneity with I2 statistic.Seventeen studies met inclusion criteria, in a cohort size of 3294 patients. Adding AF driver ablation to PVI reported freedom from AF of 72.5% (confidence interval [CI], 62.1%-81.8%; P<0.01) and from all arrhythmias of 57.8% (CI, 47.5%-67.7%; P<0.01). AF driver ablation when added to PVI or as stand-alone procedure compared with controls produced an odds ratio of 3.1 (CI, 1.3-7.7; P=0.02) for freedom from AF and an odds ratio of 1.8 (CI, 1.2-2.7; P<0.01) for freedom from all arrhythmias in 4 controlled studies. AF termination rate was 40.5% (CI, 30.6%-50.9%) and predicted favorable outcome from ablation(P<0.05).In controlled studies, the addition of AF driver ablation to PVI supports the possible benefit of a combined approach of AF driver ablation and PVI in improving single-procedure freedom from all arrhythmias. However, most studies are uncontrolled and are limited by substantial heterogeneity in outcomes. Large multicenter randomized trials are needed to precisely define the benefits of adding driver ablation to PVI.

    View details for PubMedID 29743170

  • Discharge home health services referral and 30-day all-cause readmission in older adults with heart failure. Archives of medical science : AMS Arundel, C., Sheriff, H., Bearden, D. M., Morgan, C. J., Heidenreich, P. A., Fonarow, G. C., Butler, J., Allman, R. M., Ahmed, A. 2018; 14 (5): 995?1002

    Abstract

    Heart failure (HF) is the leading cause of hospital readmission. Medicare home health services provide intermittent skilled nursing care to homebound Medicare beneficiaries. We examined whether discharge home health referral is associated with a lower risk of 30-day all-cause readmission in HF.Of the 8049 Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized for acute HF and discharged alive from 106 Alabama hospitals, 6406 (76%) patients were not admitted from nursing homes and were discharged home without discharge hospice referrals. Of these, 1369 (21%) received a discharge home health referral. Using propensity scores for home health referral, we assembled a matched cohort of 1253 pairs of patients receiving and not receiving home health referrals, balanced on 33 baseline characteristics.The 2506 matched patients had a mean age of 78 years, 61% were women, and 27% were African American. Thirty-day all-cause readmission occurred in 28% and 19% of matched patients receiving and not receiving home health referrals, respectively (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.29-1.80; p < 0.001). Home health referral was also associated with a higher risk of 30-day all-cause mortality (HR = 2.32; 95% CI: 1.58-3.41; p < 0.001) but not with 30-day HF readmission (HR = 1.28; 95% CI: 0.99-1.64; p = 0.056). HRs (95% CIs) for 1-year all-cause readmission, all-cause mortality, and HF readmission are 1.24 (1.13-1.36; p < 0.001), 1.37 (1.20-1.57; p < 0.001) and 1.09 (0.95-1.24; p = 0.216), respectively.Hospitalized HF patients who received discharge home health services referral had a higher risk of 30-day and 1-year all-cause readmission and all-cause mortality, but not of HF readmission.

    View details for PubMedID 30154880

  • Association of Healthcare Plan with Atrial Fibrillation Prescription Patterns. Clinical cardiology Chang, A. Y., Askari, M., Fan, J., Heidenreich, P. A., Ho, P. M., Mahaffey, K. W., Ullal, A. J., Perino, A. C., Turakhia, M. P. 2018

    Abstract

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is treated by many types of physician specialists, including primary care physicians (PCPs). Health plans have different policies for how patients encounter these providers, and these may affect selection of AF treatment strategy.We hypothesized that healthcare plans with PCP-gatekeeping to specialist access may be associated with different pharmacologic treatments for AF.We performed a retrospective cohort study using a commercial pharmaceutical claims database. We utilized logistic regression models to compare odds of prescription of oral anticoagulant (OAC), non-vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulant (NOAC), rate control, and rhythm control medications used to treat AF between patients with PCP-gated healthcare plans (e.g. HMO, EPO, POS) and patients with non-PCP-gated healthcare plans (e.g. PPO, CHDP, HDHP, Comprehensive) between 2007 and 2012. We also calculated median time to receipt of therapy within 90 days of index AF diagnosis.We found similar odds of OAC prescription at 90 days following new AF diagnosis in patients with PCP-gated plans compared to those with non-PCP-gated plans (OR: OAC 1.01, p=0.84; warfarin 1.05, p=0.08). Relative odds were similar for rate control (1.17, p<0.01) and rhythm control agents (0.93, p=0.03). However, PCP-gated plan patients had slightly lower likelihood of being prescribed NOACs (0.82, p=0.001) than non-gated plan patients. Elapsed time until receipt of medication was similar between PCP-gated and non-gated groups across drug classes.Pharmaceutical claims data do not suggest that PCP-gatekeeping by healthcare plans is a structural barrier to AF therapy, although it was associated with lower use of NOACs.

    View details for PubMedID 30098034

  • Automating Quality Measures for Heart Failure Using Natural Language Processing: A Descriptive Study in the Department of Veterans Affairs JMIR MEDICAL INFORMATICS Garvin, J., Kim, Y., Gobbel, G., Matheny, M. E., Redd, A., Bray, B. E., Heidenreich, P., Bolton, D., Heavirland, J., Kelly, N., Reeves, R., Kalsy, M., Goldstein, M., Meystre, S. M. 2018; 6 (1): e5

    Abstract

    We developed an accurate, stakeholder-informed, automated, natural language processing (NLP) system to measure the quality of heart failure (HF) inpatient care, and explored the potential for adoption of this system within an integrated health care system.To accurately automate a United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) quality measure for inpatients with HF.We automated the HF quality measure Congestive Heart Failure Inpatient Measure 19 (CHI19) that identifies whether a given patient has left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <40%, and if so, whether an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin-receptor blocker was prescribed at discharge if there were no contraindications. We used documents from 1083 unique inpatients from eight VA medical centers to develop a reference standard (RS) to train (n=314) and test (n=769) the Congestive Heart Failure Information Extraction Framework (CHIEF). We also conducted semi-structured interviews (n=15) for stakeholder feedback on implementation of the CHIEF.The CHIEF classified each hospitalization in the test set with a sensitivity (SN) of 98.9% and positive predictive value of 98.7%, compared with an RS and SN of 98.5% for available External Peer Review Program assessments. Of the 1083 patients available for the NLP system, the CHIEF evaluated and classified 100% of cases. Stakeholders identified potential implementation facilitators and clinical uses of the CHIEF.The CHIEF provided complete data for all patients in the cohort and could potentially improve the efficiency, timeliness, and utility of HF quality measurements.

    View details for PubMedID 29335238

  • Heart failure management with ambulatory pulmonary artery pressure monitoring. Trends in cardiovascular medicine Sandhu, A. T., Heidenreich, P. A. 2018; 28 (3): 212?19

    Abstract

    Remote monitoring strategies have been developed to improve ambulatory care of heart failure patients and reduce heart failure hospitalizations. This article evaluates the CardioMEMS device, an implantable wireless pulmonary artery pressure monitor. We provide a historical review of remote monitoring in heart failure along with an in-depth analysis of the rationale, evidence, and limitations of the CardioMEMS device.

    View details for PubMedID 28988604

  • Lean-Based Redesign of Multidisciplinary Rounds on General Medicine Service. Journal of hospital medicine Kane, M., Rohatgi, N., Heidenreich, P., Thakur, A., Winget, M., Shum, K., Hereford, J., Shieh, L., Lew, T., Horn, J., Chi, J., Weinacker, A., Seay-Morrison, T., Ahuja, N. 2018

    Abstract

    Multidisciplinary rounds (MDR) facilitate timely communication amongst the care team and with patients. We used Lean techniques to redesign MDR on the teaching general medicine service.To examine if our Lean-based new model of MDR was associated with change in the primary outcome of length of stay (LOS) and secondary outcomes of discharges before noon, documentation of estimated discharge date (EDD), and patient satisfaction.This is a pre-post study. The preperiod (in which the old model of MDR was followed) comprised 4000 patients discharged between September 1, 2013, and October 22, 2014. The postperiod (in which the new model of MDR was followed) comprised 2085 patients between October 23, 2014, and April 30, 2015.Lean-based redesign of MDR.LOS, discharges before noon, EDD, and patient satisfaction.There was no change in the mean LOS. Discharges before noon increased from 6.9% to 10.7% (P < .001). Recording of EDD increased from 31.4% to 41.3% (P < .001). There was no change in patient satisfaction.Lean-based redesign of MDR was associated with an increase in discharges before noon and in recording of EDD.

    View details for PubMedID 29394300

  • The interaction between rural/urban status and dual use status among veterans with heart failure RURAL AND REMOTE HEALTH Hunt, K. J., Gebregziahber, M., Everett, C. J., Heidenreich, P. A., Axon, R. 2018; 18 (2): 4495

    Abstract

    Dual healthcare system use is associated with higher rates of healthcare utilization, but the influence of rurality on this phenomenon is unclear. This study aimed to determine the extent to which rurality in the USA modifies the likelihood for acute healthcare use among veterans with heart failure (HF).Using merged Veterans Affairs (VA), Medicare, and state-level administrative data, a retrospective cohort study of 4985 veterans with HF was performed. Negative binomial regression with interaction term for dual use and geographic location was used to estimate and compare the associations between dual use (as compared to VA-only use) and emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and 30-day hospital readmissions in rural/highly rural veterans versus urban veterans.The association between dual use compared to VA-only use and ED visits was stronger in rural/highly rural veterans (RR=1.28 (95%CI: 1.21,1.35)) than in urban veterans (rate ratio (RR)=1.17 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11,1.22)) (interaction p-value=0.0109), while the association between dual use and all-cause hospitalizations was similar in rural/highly rural veterans (RR=2.00 (95%CI: 1.87, 2.14)) and in urban veterans (RR=1.87 (95%CI: 1.77,1.98)). The association between dual use and all-cause 30-day hospital readmission was also similar in rural/highly rural versus urban veterans.Rurality significantly modifies the likelihood of ED visits for HF, although this effect was not observed for hospitalizations or hospital readmissions. While other patient- or system-level factors may more heavily influence hospitalization and readmission in this population, dual use appears to be a marker for higher healthcare utilization and worse outcomes for both urban and rural veterans.

    View details for PubMedID 29742355

  • Patient and facility variation in costs of catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation. Journal of cardiovascular electrophysiology Perino, A. C., Fan, J., Schmitt, S., Kaiser, D. W., Heidenreich, P. A., Narayan, S. M., Wang, P. J., Chang, A. Y., Turakhia, M. P. 2018

    Abstract

    Cost-effectiveness or value of cardiovascular therapies may be undermined by unwarranted cost variation, particularly for heterogeneous procedures such as catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF). We sought to characterize cost variation of AF ablation in the U.S. health care system and the relationship between cost and outcomes.We performed a retrospective cohort study using data from the MarketScan® commercial claims and Medicare supplemental databases including patients who received an AF ablation from 2007 through 2011. We aggregated encounter cost, reflecting total payments received for the encounter, to the facility level to calculate median facility cost. We classified procedures as outpatient or inpatient and assessed for association between cost and 30-day and one-year outcomes. The analysis cohort included 9,415 AF ablations (59±11 years; 28% female; 52% outpatient) occurring at 327 facilities, with large cost variation across facilities (median: $25,100; 25th percentile: $18,900, 75th percentile: $35,600, 95th percentile: $57,800). Among outpatient procedures, there was reduced health care utilization in higher cost quintiles with reductions in rehospitalization at 30-days (Quintile 1: 16.1%, Quintile 5: 8.8%, p < 0.001) and one-year (Quintile 1: 34.8%, Quintile 5: 25.6%, p < 0.001), which remained significant in multivariate analysis.Although median costs of AF ablation are below amounts used in prior cost-effectiveness studies that demonstrated good value, large facility variation in cost suggests opportunities for cost reduction. However, for outpatient encounters, association of cost to modestly improved outcomes suggests cost containment strategies could have variable effects. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

    View details for PubMedID 29864193

  • Association of the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program Implementation With Readmission and Mortality Outcomes in Heart Failure JAMA CARDIOLOGY Gupta, A., Allen, L. A., Bhatt, D. L., Cox, M., DeVore, A. D., Heidenreich, P. A., Hernandez, A. F., Peterson, E. D., Matsouaka, R. A., Yancy, C. W., Fonarow, G. C. 2018; 3 (1): 44?53

    Abstract

    Public reporting of hospitals' 30-day risk-standardized readmission rates following heart failure hospitalization and the financial penalization of hospitals with higher rates have been associated with a reduction in 30-day readmissions but have raised concerns regarding the potential for unintended consequences.To examine the association of the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP) with readmission and mortality outcomes among patients hospitalized with heart failure within a prospective clinical registry that allows for detailed risk adjustment.Interrupted time-series and survival analyses of index heart failure hospitalizations were conducted from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2014. This study included 115?245 fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries across 416 US hospital sites participating in the American Heart Association Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure registry. Data analysis took place from January 1, 2017, to June 8, 2017.Time intervals related to the HRRP were before the HRRP implementation (January 1, 2006, to March 31, 2010), during the HRRP implementation (April 1, 2010, to September 30, 2012), and after the HRRP penalties went into effect (October 1, 2012, to December 31, 2014).Risk-adjusted 30-day and 1-year all-cause readmission and mortality rates.The mean (SD) age of the study population (n = 115?245) was 80.5 (8.4) years, 62 927 (54.6%) were women, and 91 996 (81.3%) were white and 11 037 (9.7%) were black. The 30-day risk-adjusted readmission rate declined from 20.0% before the HRRP implementation to 18.4% in the HRRP penalties phase (hazard ratio (HR) after vs before the HRRP implementation, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.87-0.95; P?

    View details for PubMedID 29128869

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5833526

  • Heart Failure With Preserved, Borderline, and Reduced Ejection Fraction 5-Year Outcomes JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Shah, K. S., Xu, H., Matsouaka, R. A., Bhatt, D. L., Heidenreich, P. A., Hernandez, A. F., Devore, A. D., Yancy, C. W., Fonarow, G. C. 2017; 70 (20): 2476?86

    Abstract

    Patients with heart failure (HF) have a poor prognosis and are categorized by ejection fraction (EF).This study sought to characterize differences in outcomes in patients hospitalized with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) (EF ?50%), heart failure with borderline ejection fraction (HFbEF) (EF 41% to 49%), and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) (EF ?40%).Data from GWTG-HF (Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure) were linked to Medicare data for longitudinal follow-up. Multivariable models were constructed to examine 5-year outcomes and to compare survival to median survival of the U.S.A total of 39,982 patients from 254 hospitals who were admitted for HF between 2005 and 2009 were included: 18,299 (46%) had HFpEF, 3,285 (8.2%) had HFbEF, and 18,398 (46%) had HFrEF. Overall, median survival was 2.1 years. In risk-adjusted survival analysis, all 3 groups had similar 5-year mortality (HFrEF 75.3% vs. HFpEF 75.7%; hazard ratio: 0.99 [95% confidence interval: 0.958 to 1.022]; HFbEF 75.7% vs. HFpEF 75.7%; hazard ratio: 0.99 [95% confidence interval: 0.947 to 1.046]). In risk-adjusted analyses, the composite of mortality and rehospitalization was similar for all subgroups. Cardiovascular and HF readmission rates were higher in those with HFrEF and HFbEF compared with those with HFpEF. When compared with the U.S. population, HF patients across all age and EF groups had markedly lower median survival.Among patients hospitalized with HF, patients across the EF spectrum have a similarly poor 5-year survival with an elevated risk for cardiovascular and HF admission. These findings underscore the need to improve treatment of patients with HF.

    View details for PubMedID 29141781

  • Age Differences in Hospital Mortality for Acute Myocardial Infarction: Implications for Hospital Profiling ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE Dharmarajan, K., McNamara, R. L., Wang, Y., Masoudi, F. A., Ross, J. S., Spatz, E. E., Desai, N. R., de Lemos, J. A., Fonarow, G. C., Heidenreich, P. A., Bhatt, D. L., Bernheim, S. M., Slattery, L. E., Khan, Y. M., Curtis, J. P. 2017; 167 (8): 555-+

    Abstract

    Publicly reported hospital risk-standardized mortality rates (RSMRs) for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are calculated for Medicare beneficiaries. Outcomes for older patients with AMI may not reflect general outcomes.To examine the relationship between hospital 30-day RSMRs for older patients (aged ?65 years) and those for younger patients (aged 18 to 64 years) and all patients (aged ?18 years) with AMI.Retrospective cohort study.986 hospitals in the ACTION (Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Network) Registry-Get With the Guidelines.Adults hospitalized for AMI from 1 October 2010 to 30 September 2014.Hospital 30-day RSMRs were calculated for older, younger, and all patients using an electronic health record measure of AMI mortality endorsed by the National Quality Forum. Hospitals were ranked by their 30-day RSMRs for these 3 age groups, and agreement in rankings was plotted. The correlation in hospital AMI achievement scores for each age group was also calculated using the Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (HVBP) Program method computed with the electronic health record measure.267 763 and 276 031 AMI hospitalizations among older and younger patients, respectively, were identified. Median hospital 30-day RSMRs were 9.4%, 3.0%, and 6.2% for older, younger, and all patients, respectively. Most top- and bottom-performing hospitals for older patients were neither top nor bottom performers for younger patients. In contrast, most top and bottom performers for older patients were also top and bottom performers for all patients. Similarly, HVBP achievement scores for older patients correlated weakly with those for younger patients (R = 0.30) and strongly with those for all patients (R = 0.92).Minority of U.S. hospitals.Hospital mortality rankings for older patients with AMI inconsistently reflect rankings for younger patients. Incorporation of younger patients into assessment of hospital outcomes would permit further examination of the presence and effect of age-related quality differences.American College of Cardiology.

    View details for PubMedID 28973634

  • Using 30-Day Mortality to Measure Quality of Heart Failure Care JACC-HEART FAILURE Heidenreich, P. 2017; 5 (10): 753?55

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jchf.2017.08.016

    View details for Web of Science ID 000411610300009

    View details for PubMedID 28958350

  • 2017 AHA/ACC Clinical Performance and Quality Measures for Adults With ST-Elevation and Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Performance Measures CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR QUALITY AND OUTCOMES Jneid, H., Addison, D., Bhatt, D. L., Fonarow, G. C., Gokak, S., Grady, K. L., Green, L. A., Heidenreich, P. A., Ho, P., Jurgens, C. Y., King, M. L., Kumbhani, D. J., Pancholy, S., Albert, N. M., Barnes, G. D., Chan, P. S., Curtis, L. H., Gilstrap, L., Gurvitz, M., O'Brien, S., Olin, J., Randolph, T., Russo, A. M., Thomas, R. J., Varosy, P. D., Yeh, R., Zaheeruddin, S., Amer Coll Cardiology, Amer Heart Assoc Task Force Perfom, Writing Comm Members 2017; 10 (10)
  • Clinical Effectiveness of Hydralazine-Isosorbide Dinitrate in African-American Patients With Heart Failure JACC-HEART FAILURE Ziaeian, B., Fonarow, G. C., Heidenreich, P. A. 2017; 5 (9): 632?39

    Abstract

    This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of hydralazine-isosorbide dinitrate (H-ISDN) in African Americans with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF).Among African-American patients with HFrEF, H-ISDN was found to improve quality of life and lower HF-related hospitalization and mortality rates in the A-HEFT (African-American Heart Failure Trial). Few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of this therapy in clinical practice.Veterans Affairs patients with a hospital admission for HF between 2007 and 2013 were screened. Inclusion criteria included African-American race, left ventricular ejection fraction <40%, and receipt of Veterans Affairs medications. Exclusions were documented contraindications to H-ISDN, creatinine >2.0 mg/dl, or intolerance to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers. Adjusted hazard ratios were calculated for patients who received H-ISDN 6-months before admission compared with patients who did not receive H-ISDN, by using inverse probability weighting of propensity scores and a time to death analysis for 18 months of follow-up. Propensity scores were generated using patients' characteristics, left ventricular ejection fraction, laboratory values, and hospital characteristics.The final cohort included 5,168 African-American patients with HF (mean age 65.2 years), with 15.2% treated with H-ISDN before index admission. After 18 months, there were 1,275 reported deaths (24.7%). The adjusted mortality rate at 18 months was 22.1% for patients receiving H-ISDN treatment and 25.2% for untreated patients (p = 0.009); adjusted hazard ratio: 0.85 (95% confidence interval: 0.73 to 1.00; p = 0.057).H-ISDN remains underused in African-American patients with HFrEF. In this cohort, the study found that H-ISDN use was associated with lower mortality rates in African-American patients with HFrEF when controlling for patient selection by using an inverse probability weighting of propensity scores.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jchf.2017.04.008

    View details for Web of Science ID 000408585700003

    View details for PubMedID 28711446

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5581201

  • Are Drug Eluting Stents Worth Triple Therapy? Journal of the American Heart Association Heidenreich, P. 2017; 6 (8)

    View details for DOI 10.1161/JAHA.117.006983

    View details for PubMedID 28862966

  • Correlation of diastolic dysfunction echocardiogram with mortality and morbidity in heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction Bahrami, H., Heidenreich, P. OXFORD UNIV PRESS. 2017: 130
  • Health Informatics Improves Heart Failure Data Capture for Quality Measures, Research and Decision Support in VA Garvin, J. H., Kim, Y., Heidenreich, P., Nativi-Nicolau, J., Inampudi, C., Zeng-Treitler, Q., Gobbel, G. T., Meystre, S. M. CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE INC MEDICAL PUBLISHERS. 2017: S113
  • Treating Specialty and Outcomes in Newly Diagnosed Atrial Fibrillation From the TREAT-AF Study JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Perino, A. C., Fan, J., Schmitt, S. K., Askari, M., Kaiser, D. W., Deshmukh, A., Heidenreich, P. A., Swan, C., Narayan, S. M., Wang, P. J., Turakhia, M. P. 2017; 70 (1): 78?86

    Abstract

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) occurs in many clinical contexts and is diagnosed and treated by clinicians across many specialties. This approach has resulted in treatment variations.The goal of this study was to evaluate the association between treating specialty and AF outcomes among patients newly diagnosed with AF.Using data from the TREAT-AF (Retrospective Evaluation and Assessment of Therapies in AF) study from the Veterans Health Administration, patients with newly diagnosed, nonvalvular AF between 2004 and 2012 were identified who had at least 1 outpatient encounter with primary care or cardiology within 90 days of the AF diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate the association between treating specialty and AF outcomes.Among 184,161 patients with newly diagnosed AF (age 70 ± 11 years; 1.7% women; CHA2DS2-VASc score 2.6 ± 1.7), 40% received cardiology care and 60% received primary care only. After adjustment for covariates, cardiology care was associated with reductions in stroke (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.86 to 0.96; p < 0.001) and death (HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.88 to 0.91; p < 0.0001) and increases in hospitalizations for AF/supraventricular tachycardia (HR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.35 to 1.42; p < 0.0001) and myocardial infarction (HR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.00 to 1.05; p < 0.04). The propensity-matched cohort had similar results. In mediation analysis, oral anticoagulation prescription within 90 days of diagnosis may have mediated reductions in stroke but did not mediate reductions in survival.In patients with newly diagnosed AF, cardiology care was associated with improved outcomes, potentially mediated by early prescription of oral anticoagulation therapy. Although hypothesis-generating, these data warrant serious consideration and study of health care system interventions at the time of new AF diagnosis.

    View details for PubMedID 28662810

  • Association Between Previous Use of Antiplatelet Therapy and Intracerebral Hemorrhage Outcomes STROKE Khan, N. I., Siddiqui, F. M., Goldstein, J. N., Cox, M., Xian, Y., Matsouaka, R. A., Heidenreich, P. A., Peterson, E. D., Bhatt, D. L., Fonarow, G. C., Schwamm, L. H., Smith, E. E. 2017; 48 (7): 1810-+

    Abstract

    Although the use of antiplatelet therapy (APT) is associated with the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), there are limited data on prestroke APT and outcomes, particularly among patients on combination APT (CAPT). We hypothesized that the previous use of antiplatelet agents is associated with increased mortality in ICH.We analyzed data of 82?576 patients with ICH who were not on oral anticoagulant therapy from 1574 Get with the Guidelines-Stroke hospitals between October 2012 and March 2016. Patients were categorized as not on APT, on single-APT (SAPT), and CAPT before hospital presentation with ICH. We described baseline characteristics, comorbidities, hospital characteristics and outcomes, overall and stratified by APT use.Before the diagnosis of ICH, 65.8% patients were not on APT, 29.5% patients were on SAPT, and 4.8% patients were on CAPT. There was an overall modest increased in-hospital mortality in the APT group versus no APT group (24% versus 23%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.10). Although patients on SAPT and CAPT were older and had higher risk profiles in terms of comorbidities, there was no significant difference in the in-hospital mortality among patients on SAPT versus those not on any APT (23% versus 23%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.01; 95% confidence interval, 0.97-1.05). However, in-hospital mortality was higher among those on CAPT versus those not on APT (30% versus 23%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.39-1.63).Our study suggests that among patients with ICH, previous use of CAPT, but not SAPT, was associated with higher risk for in-hospital mortality.

    View details for PubMedID 28596454

  • Warfarin utilisation and anticoagulation control in patients with atrial fibrillation and chronic kidney disease HEART Yang, F., Hellyer, J. A., Than, C., Ullal, A. J., Kaiser, D. W., Heidenreich, P. A., Hoang, D. D., Winkelmayer, W. C., Schmitt, S., Frayne, S. M., Phibbs, C. S., Turakhia, M. P. 2017; 103 (11): 818-826

    Abstract

    To evaluate warfarin prescription, quality of international normalised ratio (INR) monitoring and of INR control in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD).We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with newly diagnosed AF in the Veterans Administration (VA) healthcare system. We evaluated anticoagulation prescription, INR monitoring intensity and time in and outside INR therapeutic range (TTR) stratified by CKD.Of 123?188 patients with newly diagnosed AF, use of warfarin decreased with increasing severity of CKD (57.2%-46.4%), although it was higher among patients on dialysis (62.3%). Although INR monitoring intensity was similar across CKD strata, the proportion with TTR?60% decreased with CKD severity, with only 21% of patients on dialysis achieving TTR?60%. After multivariate adjustment, the magnitude of TTR reduction increased with CKD severity. Patients on dialysis had the highest time markedly out of range with INR <1.5 or >3.5 (30%); 12% of INR time was >3.5, and low TTR persisted for up to 3?years.There is a wide variation in anticoagulation prescription based on CKD severity. Patients with moderate-to-severe CKD, including dialysis, have substantially reduced TTR, despite comparable INR monitoring intensity. These findings have implications for more intensive warfarin management strategies in CKD or alternative therapies such as direct oral anticoagulants.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/heartjnl-2016-309266

    View details for Web of Science ID 000401028400006

  • Patient Ratings of Veterans Affairs and Affiliated Hospitals AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MANAGED CARE Heidenreich, P. A., Zapata, A., Shieh, L., Oliva, N., Sahay, A. 2017; 23 (6): 382-+

    Abstract

    Hospital Compare, a website maintained by CMS, allows comparisons of outcomes and processes of care but not of patient satisfaction for hospitals within the Veteran Affairs (VA) Healthcare System. Therefore, we sought to compare online hospital ratings between VA hospitals and their local affiliated hospitals.Observational analysis.We identified 39 VA hospitals and a non-VA affiliated hospital with at least 2 online Yelp ratings. We determined the difference in the mean rating (VA-affiliate rating) with weighting by the number of ratings for each hospital. We used multivariate regression to compare mean Yelp ratings between VA and non-VA affiliate hospitals, adjusting for hospital characteristics (bed size, teaching status, and accreditation).The mean patient rating for VA hospitals (± standard deviation) was higher (3.64 ± 1.0) than the rating for affiliated hospitals (3.09 ± 0.8; P = .0036). There was no significant correlation in rating between a VA hospital and its affiliate (r = 0.07; P = .59). After adjustment for hospital characteristics, the adjusted rating difference (VA-affiliate hospitals) was 0.65 (95% confidence interval, 0.18-1.12).VA hospitals had higher patient ratings than their non-VA affiliated hospitals, a finding not explained by bed size or teaching status.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000405277900010

    View details for PubMedID 28817300

  • Scope of Sacubitril/Valsartan Eligibility After Heart Failure Hospitalization Findings From the GWTG-HF Registry (Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure) CIRCULATION Parikh, K. S., Lippmann, S. J., Greiner, M., Heidenreich, P. A., Yancy, C. W., Fonarow, G. C., Hernandez, A. F. 2017; 135 (21): 2077?80

    View details for PubMedID 28533321

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5475261

  • Race/Ethnic Differences in Outcomes Among Hospitalized Medicare Patients With Heart Failure and Preserved Ejection Fraction. JACC. Heart failure Ziaeian, B., Heidenreich, P. A., Xu, H., DeVore, A. D., Matsouaka, R. A., Hernandez, A. F., Bhatt, D. L., Yancy, C. W., Fonarow, G. C. 2017

    Abstract

    This study analyzed HFpEF patient characteristics and clinical outcomes according to race/ethnicity and adjusted for patient and hospital characteristics along with socioeconomic status (SES).The proportion of hospitalizations for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has increased over the last decade. Whether the short- and long-term outcomes differ between racial/ethnic groups is not well described.The Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure registry was linked to Medicare administrative data to identify hospitalized patients with HFpEF ?65 years of age with left ventricular ejection fraction ?50% between 2006 and 2014. Cox proportional hazards models were used to report hazard ratios (HRs) for 30-day and 1-year readmission and mortality rates with sequential adjustments for patient characteristics, hospital characteristics, and SES.The final cohort included 53,065 patients with HFpEF. Overall 30-day mortality was 5.87%; at 1 year, it was 33.1%. The 30-day all-cause readmission rate was 22.2%, and it was 67.0% at 1 year. After adjusting for patient characteristics, hospital characteristics, and SES, 30-day mortality was lower for black patients (HR: 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71 to 0.98; p = 0.031) and Hispanic patients (HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.64 to 0.96; p = 0.017) compared with white patients. One-year mortality was lower for black patients (HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.87 to 0.99; p = 0.031), Hispanic patients (HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.75 to 0.91; p < 0.001), and Asian patients (HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.66 to 0.88; p < 0.001) compared with white patients. Black patients had a higher risk of readmission at 30 days (HR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.16; p = 0.012) and 1 year (HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.20; p < 0.001) compared with white patients.Black, Hispanic, and Asian patients had a lower mortality risk after a hospitalization for HFpEF compared with white patients; black patients had higher readmission rates. These differences in mortality and readmission risk according to race/ethnicity persisted after adjusting for patient characteristics, SES, and hospital factors.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jchf.2017.02.012

    View details for PubMedID 28501527

  • Estimation of Eligibility for PCSK9 Inhibitors and Associated Costs Based on the FOURIER Trial: Insights from the Department of Veterans Affairs. Circulation Virani, S. S., Akeroyd, J. M., Nambi, V., Heidenreich, P. A., Morris, P. B., Nasir, K., Michos, E. D., Bittner, V. A., Petersen, L. A., Ballantyne, C. M. 2017

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.117.028503

    View details for PubMedID 28465286

  • Impact of Current Versus Previous Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Guidelines on the Proportion of Patients With Heart Failure Eligible for Therapy JACC-HEART FAILURE Lyons, K. J., Ezekowitz, J. A., Liang, L., Heidenreich, P. A., Yancy, C. W., DeVore, A. D., Hernandez, A. F., Fonarow, G. C. 2017; 5 (5): 388-392

    Abstract

    This study sought to ascertain the impact of heart failure (HF) guideline change on the number of patients eligible to undergo cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT).The 2013 HF guideline of the American College of Cardiology Foundation and American Heart Association (ACCF/AHA) narrowed the recommendations for CRT. The impact of this guideline change on the number of eligible patients for CRT has not been described.Using data from Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure between 2012 and 2015, this study evaluated the proportion of hospitalized patients with HF who were eligible for CRT on the basis of historical and current guideline recommendations. The authors identified 25,102 hospitalizations for HF that included patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ?35% from 283 hospitals. Patients with a medical, system-related, or patient-related reason for not undergoing CRT were excluded.Overall, 49.1% (n = 12,336) of patients with HF, an LVEF ?35%, and no documented contraindication were eligible for CRT on the basis of historical guidelines, and 33.1% (n = 8,299) of patients were eligible for CRT on the basis of current guidelines, a 16.1% absolute reduction in eligibility (p < 0.0001). Patients eligible for CRT on the basis of current guidelines were more likely to have CRT with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator or CRT with pacing only placed or prescribed at discharge (57.8% vs. 54.9%; p < 0.0001) compared with patients eligible for CRT on the basis of historical guidelines.In this population of patients with HF, an LVEF ?35%, and no documented contraindication for CRT, the current ACCF/AHA HF guidelines reduce the proportion of patients eligible for CRT by approximately 15%.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/Hchf.2017.02.018

    View details for Web of Science ID 000400634100012

    View details for PubMedID 28449799

  • Intensity of Statin Treatment and Mortality-Reply. JAMA cardiology Rodriguez, F., Maron, D. J., Heidenreich, P. A. 2017

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamacardio.2017.0549

    View details for PubMedID 28445560

  • Cost-Effectiveness of Sacubitril-Valsartan in Patients Who Have Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction. Annals of internal medicine Sandhu, A. T., Ollendorf, D. A., Chapman, R. H., Pearson, S. D., Heidenreich, P. A. 2017; 166 (8): 607-608

    View details for DOI 10.7326/L17-0044

    View details for PubMedID 28418550

  • Early Adoption of Sacubitril/Valsartan for Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction Insights From Get With the Guidelines-Heart Failure (GWTG-HF) JACC-HEART FAILURE Luo, N., Fonarow, G. C., Lippmann, S. J., Mi, X., Heidenreich, P. A., Yancy, C. W., Greiner, M. A., Hammill, B. G., Hardy, N. C., Turner, S. J., Laskey, W. K., Curtis, L. H., Hernandez, A. F., Mentz, R. J., O'Brien, E. C. 2017; 5 (4): 305-309

    Abstract

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and variation in angiotensin receptor/neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) prescription among a real-world population with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF).The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved sacubitril/valsartan for patients with HFrEF in July 2015. Little is known about the early patterns of use of this novel therapy.The study included patients discharged alive from hospitals in Get With the Guidelines-Heart Failure (GWTG-HF), a registry of hospitalized patients with heart failure, between July 2015 and June 2016 who had documentation of whether ARNIs were prescribed at discharge. Patient and hospital characteristics were compared among patients with HFrEF (ejection fraction ?40%) with and without ARNI prescription at discharge, excluding those with documented contraindications to ARNIs. To evaluate hospital variation, hospitals with at least 10 eligible hospitalizations during the study period were assessed.Of 21,078 patients hospitalized with HFrEF during the study period, 495 (2.3%) were prescribed ARNIs at discharge. Patients prescribed ARNIs were younger (median age 65 years vs. 70 years; p < 0.001), had lower ejection fractions (median 23% vs. 25%; p < 0.001), and had higher use of aldosterone antagonists (45% vs. 31%; p < 0.001) at discharge. At the 241 participating hospitals with 10 or more eligible admissions, 125 (52%) reported no discharge prescriptions of ARNIs.Approximately 2.3% of patients hospitalized for HFrEF in a national registry were prescribed ARNI therapy in the first 12 months following Food and Drug Administration approval. Further study is needed to identify and overcome barriers to implementing new evidence into practice, such as ARNI use among eligible patients with HFrEF.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jchf.2016.12.018

    View details for Web of Science ID 000398335800010

    View details for PubMedID 28359417

  • RACIAL DIFFERENCES IN QUALITY OF CARE AND OUTCOMES AFTER ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME Yong, C. M., Ungar, L., Abnousi, F., Bibbins-Domingo, K., Knight, S., Asch, S., Heidenreich, P. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2017: 2569
  • SUCCESS RATES BY ABLATION LESION SET OF CATHETER ABLATION FOR PAROXYSMAL ATRIAL FIBRILLATION: FINDINGS FROM THE SMASH-AF META-ANALYSIS STUDY COHORT Cluckey, A., Yunus, F., Leef, G., Askari, M., Schuit, E., Heidenreich, P., Turakhia, M., Perino, A. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2017: 370
  • INCLUSION OF WOMEN IN STUDIES OF CATHETER ABLATION FOR ATRIAL FIBRILLATION: FINDINGS FROM THE SMASH-AF META-ANALYSIS STUDY COHORT Yunus, F., Leef, G., Cluckey, A., Askari, M., Schuit, E., Heidenreich, P., Turakhia, M., Perino, A. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2017: 537
  • SECULAR TRENDS IN REPORTED SUCCESS RATES OF CATHETER ABLATION FOR NON-PAROXYSMAL ATRIAL FIBRILLATION: FINDINGS FROM THE SMASH-AF META-ANALYSIS STUDY COHORT Leef, G., Cluckey, A., Yunus, F., Askari, M., Schuit, E., Heidenreich, P., Turakhia, M., Perino, A. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2017: 451
  • PREDICTORS OF STATIN USE FOR PATIENTS WITH LDL CHOLESTEROL ABOVE 190MG/DL: INSIGHTS FROM THE VETERANS AFFAIRS HEALTH CARE SYSTEM Rodriguez, F., Knowles, J., Maron, D., Virani, S., Heidenreich, P. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2017: 1693
  • Prescription of Guideline-Recommended Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator and Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Among Patients Hospitalized With Heart Failure and Varying Degrees of Renal Function. American journal of cardiology Pun, P. H., Sheng, S., Sanders, G., DeVore, A. D., Friedman, D., Fonarow, G. C., Heidenreich, P. A., Yancy, C. W., Hernandez, A. F., Al-Khatib, S. M. 2017; 119 (6): 886-892

    Abstract

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) reduce mortality in many patients with heart failure (HF), but the current use and effectiveness of ICD/CRT in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are uncertain. We examined associations between kidney function and guideline-recommended prescription of ICD/CRT in the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure registry, a performance improvement program for hospitalized patients with HF. We compared differences in ICD and CRT prescription between the following categories of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; mL/min/1.73 m(2)): ?60, 59 to 30, <30, and dialysis dependent. From 2008 through 2014, 26,286 patients were eligible for ICD or CRT, and 16,123(61%) had an eGFR <60. De novo ICD and CRT prescription in this group was low at 45% and 30.5%, respectively. Compared to patients with eGFR ?60, patients with eGFR 30 to 59 were more likely to receive an ICD (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.08, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.01 to 1.14), whereas dialysis patients were less likely (aOR 0.61, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.76). Worse kidney function was associated with a decreased likelihood of CRT prescription (aOR 0.97 per 10 ml/min eGFR decrease, p = 0.03). During the study period, the likelihood of both ICD and CRT prescription increased over time among patients with CKD (ICD aOR 1.12, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.18; CRT aOR 1.14, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.23, per year). Prescription of an ICT/CRT was associated with greater 1-year survival in all eGFR groups. In conclusion, there are significant CKD-based differences in prescription of ICD and CRT in HF. However, given the current state of evidence, it is unclear whether improved prescription of ICD and CRT in the CKD population will result in improvement in outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2016.11.043

    View details for PubMedID 28160975

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5329118

  • Adoption of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Cholesterol Management Guideline in Cardiology Practices Nationwide. JAMA cardiology Pokharel, Y., Tang, F., Jones, P. G., Nambi, V., Bittner, V. A., Hira, R. S., Nasir, K., Chan, P. S., Maddox, T. M., Oetgen, W. J., Heidenreich, P. A., Borden, W. B., Spertus, J. A., Petersen, L. A., Ballantyne, C. M., Virani, S. S. 2017

    Abstract

    The 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Cholesterol Management Guideline recommends moderate-intensity to high-intensity statin therapy in eligible patients.To examine adoption of the 2013 ACC/AHA guideline in US cardiology practices.Among 161 cardiology practices, trends in the use of moderate-intensity to high-intensity statin and nonstatin lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) were analyzed before (September 1, 2012, to November 1, 2013) and after (February 1, 2014, to April 1, 2015) publication of the 2013 ACC/AHA guideline among 4 mutually exclusive risk groups within the ACC Practice Innovation and Clinical Excellence Registry. Interrupted time series analysis was used to evaluate for differences in trend in use of moderate-intensity to high-intensity statin and nonstatin LLT use in hierarchical logistic regression models. Participants were a population-based sample of 1?105?356 preguideline patients (2?431?192 patient encounters) and 1?116?472 postguideline patients (2?377?219 patient encounters). Approximately 97% of patients had atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD).Moderate-intensity to high-intensity statin and nonstatin LLT use before and after publication of the 2013 ACC/AHA guideline.Time trend in the use of moderate-intensity to high-intensity statin and nonstatin LLT.In the study cohort, the mean (SD) age was 69.6 (12.1) years among 1?105?356 patients (40.2% female) before publication of the guideline and 70.0 (11.9) years among 1?116?472 patients (39.8% female) after publication of the guideline. Although there was a trend toward increasing use of moderate-intensity to high-intensity statins overall and in the ASCVD cohort, such a trend was already present before publication of the guideline. No significant difference in trend in the use of moderate-intensity to high-intensity statins was observed in other groups. The use of moderate-intensity to high-intensity statin therapy was 62.1% (before publication of the guideline) and 66.6% (after publication of the guideline) in the overall cohort, 62.7% (before publication) and 67.0% (after publication) in the ASCVD cohort, 50.6% (before publication) and 52.3% (after publication) in the cohort with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (ie, ?190 mg/dL), 52.4% (before publication) and 55.2% (after publication) in the diabetes cohort, and 41.9% (before publication) and 46.9% (after publication) in the remaining group with 10-year ASCVD risk of 7.5% or higher. In hierarchical logistic regression models, there was a significant increase in the use of moderate-intensity to high-intensity statins in the overall cohort (4.8%) and in the ASCVD cohort (4.3%) (P?

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamacardio.2016.5922

    View details for PubMedID 28249067

  • Trends in Palliative Care Use in Elderly Men and Women With Severe Heart Failure in the United States Reply JAMA CARDIOLOGY Mandawat, A., Heidenreich, P. A., Bhatt, D. L. 2017; 2 (3): 344?45

    View details for PubMedID 27926749

  • Extraction of left ventricular ejection fraction information from various types of clinical reports JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL INFORMATICS Kim, Y., Garvin, J. H., Goldstein, M. K., Hwang, T. S., Redd, A., Bolton, D., Heidenreich, P. A., Meystre, S. M. 2017; 67: 42?48

    Abstract

    Efforts to improve the treatment of congestive heart failure, a common and serious medical condition, include the use of quality measures to assess guideline-concordant care. The goal of this study is to identify left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) information from various types of clinical notes, and to then use this information for heart failure quality measurement. We analyzed the annotation differences between a new corpus of clinical notes from the Echocardiography, Radiology, and Text Integrated Utility package and other corpora annotated for natural language processing (NLP) research in the Department of Veterans Affairs. These reports contain varying degrees of structure. To examine whether existing LVEF extraction modules we developed in prior research improve the accuracy of LVEF information extraction from the new corpus, we created two sequence-tagging NLP modules trained with a new data set, with or without predictions from the existing LVEF extraction modules. We also conducted a set of experiments to examine the impact of training data size on information extraction accuracy. We found that less training data is needed when reports are highly structured, and that combining predictions from existing LVEF extraction modules improves information extraction when reports have less structured formats and a rich set of vocabulary.

    View details for PubMedID 28163196

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5575914

  • Initiation, Continuation, or Withdrawal of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/Angiotensin Receptor Blockers and Outcomes in Patients Hospitalized With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction. Journal of the American Heart Association Gilstrap, L. G., Fonarow, G. C., Desai, A. S., Liang, L., Matsouaka, R., DeVore, A. D., Smith, E. E., Heidenreich, P., Hernandez, A. F., Yancy, C. W., Bhatt, D. L. 2017; 6 (2)

    Abstract

    Guidelines recommend continuation or initiation of guideline-directed medical therapy, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers (ACEi/ARB), in hospitalized patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction.Using the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure Registry, we linked clinical data from 16 052 heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (ejection fraction ?40%) patients with Medicare claims data. We divided ACEi/ARB-eligible patients into 4 categories based on admission and discharge ACEi/ARB use: continued (reference group), started, discontinued, or not started on therapy. A multivariable Cox proportional hazard model was used to determine the association between ACEi/ARB category and outcomes. Most, 90.5%, were discharged on ACEi/ARB (59.6% continued and 30.9% newly started). Of those discharged without ACEi/ARB, 1.9% were discontinued, and 7.5% were eligible but not started. Thirty-day mortality was 3.5% for patients continued and 4.1% for patients started on ACEi/ARB. In contrast, 30-day mortality was 8.8% for patients discontinued (adjusted hazard ratio [HRadj] 1.92; 95% CI 1.32-2.81; P<0.001) and 7.5% for patients not started (HRadj 1.50; 95% CI 1.12-2.00; P=0.006). The 30-day readmission rate was lowest among patients continued or started on therapy. One-year mortality was 28.2% for patients continued and 29.7% for patients started on ACEi/ARB compared to 41.6% for patients discontinued (HRadj 1.35; 95% CI 1.13-1.61; P<0.001) and 41.7% (HRadj 1.28; 95% CI 1.14-1.43; P<0.001) for patients not started on therapy.Compared with continuation, withdrawal of ACEi/ARB during heart failure hospitalization is associated with higher rates of postdischarge mortality and readmission, even after adjustment for severity of illness.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/JAHA.116.004675

    View details for PubMedID 28189999

  • Factors Associated With and Prognostic Implications of Cardiac Troponin Elevation in Decompensated Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction: Findings From the American Heart Association Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure Program. JAMA cardiology Pandey, A., Golwala, H., Sheng, S., DeVore, A. D., Hernandez, A. F., Bhatt, D. L., Heidenreich, P. A., Yancy, C. W., de Lemos, J. A., Fonarow, G. C. 2017; 2 (2): 136-145

    Abstract

    Elevated levels of cardiac troponins are associated with adverse clinical outcomes among patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced ejection fraction. However, the clinical significance of troponin elevation in the setting of decompensated HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is not well established.To determine the clinical predictors of troponin elevation and its association with in-hospital and long-term outcomes among patients with decompensated HFpEF.Observational analysis of Get With The Guidelines-HF registry participants who were admitted for decompensated HFpEF (ejection fraction ?50%) from January 2009 through December 2014 and who had quantitative or categorical (elevated vs normal based on institution's reference laboratory) measures of troponin level (troponin T or troponin I, as available).In-hospital outcomes (mortality, length of stay, and discharge destination) and postdischarge outcomes (30-day mortality, 30-day readmission rate, 1-year mortality).We included 34?233 patients with HFpEF from 224 sites with measured troponin levels (33.4% men; median age, 79 years): 78.6% (n?=?26?896) with troponin I and 21.4% (n?=?7319) with troponin T measurements. Among these, 22.6% (n?=?7732) had elevation in troponin levels. In adjusted analysis, higher serum creatinine level, black race, older age, and ischemic heart disease were associated with troponin elevation. Elevated troponin was associated with higher odds of in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR], 2.19; 95% CI, 1.88-2.56), greater length of stay (length of stay >4 days OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.29-1.47), and lower likelihood of discharge to home (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.61-0.71) independent of other clinical predictors and measured confounders. Presence of elevated troponin I levels was also significantly associated with increased risk of 30-day mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.59; 95% CI, 1.42-1.80), 30-day all-cause readmission (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.01-1.25), and 1-year mortality HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.26-1.45).Troponin elevation among patients with acutely decompensated HFpEF is associated with worse in-hospital and postdischarge outcomes, independent of other predictive variables. Future studies are needed to determine if measurement of troponin levels among patients with decompensated HFpEF may be useful for risk stratification.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamacardio.2016.4726

    View details for PubMedID 28030747

  • 2016 AHA/ACC Clinical Performance and Quality Measures for Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Performance Measures CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR QUALITY AND OUTCOMES Al-Khatib, S. M., Yancy, C. W., Solis, P., Becker, L., Benjamin, E. J., Carrillo, R. G., Ezekowitz, J. A., Fonarow, G. C., Kantharia, B. K., Kleinman, M., Nichol, G., Varosy, P. D., Heidenreich, P. A., Albert, N. M., Chan, P. S., Curtis, L. H., Ferguson, T. B., Fonarow, G. C., Gurvitz, M., Jurgens, C. Y., O'Brien, S., Russo, A. M., Thomas, R. 2017; 10 (2)
  • Impact of an Expanded Hospital Recognition Program for Stroke Quality of Care. Journal of the American Heart Association Heidenreich, P. A., Zhao, X., Hernandez, A. F., Schwamm, L. H., Smith, E., Reeves, M., Peterson, E. D., Fonarow, G. C. 2017; 6 (1)

    Abstract

    In 2009, the Get With The Guidelines-Stroke (GWTG-Stroke) program offered additional recognition if hospitals performed well on certain stroke quality measures. We sought to determine whether quality of care for all hospitals participating in GWTG-Stroke improved with this expanded recognition program.We examined hospital-level performance on 6 quality of care (process) measures and 1 defect-free composite quality measure for stroke following expansion of the existing performance measure recognition program. Compliance with all measures improved following launch of the expanded program, and this rate increased significantly for all 9 measures. When evaluated as the relative rate of increase in use over time, process improvement slowed significantly (P<0.05) following launch of the program for 2 measures, and accelerated significantly for 1 measure. However, when evaluated as a gap in care, the decrease in the quality gap was greater following launch of the program for 5 of 6 (83%) measures. There was no evidence that other processes of stroke care suffered as the result of the increase in measures and expanded recognition program.While care for stroke continues to improve in this country, expanded hospital process performance recognition had mixed results in accelerating this improvement. However, the quality gap continues to shrink among those participating in provider performance programs.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/JAHA.116.004278

    View details for PubMedID 28110310

  • Impact of Baseline Stroke Risk and Bleeding Risk on Warfarin International Normalized Ratio Control in Atrial Fibrillation (from the TREAT-AF Study) AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY Hellyer, J. A., Azarbal, F., Than, C. T., Fan, J., Schmitt, S. K., Yang, F., Frayne, S. M., Phibbs, C. S., Yong, C., Heidenreich, P. A., Turakhia, M. P. 2017; 119 (2): 268-274

    Abstract

    Warfarin prevents stroke and prolongs survival in patients with atrial fibrillation and flutter (AF, collectively) but can cause hemorrhage. The time in international normalized ratio (INR) therapeutic range (TTR) mediates stroke reduction and bleeding risk. This study sought to determine the relation between baseline stroke, bleeding risk, and TTR. Using data from The Retrospective Evaluation and Assessment of Therapies in Atrial Fibrillation (TREAT-AF) retrospective cohort study, national Veterans Health Administration records were used to identify patients with newly diagnosed AF from 2003 to 2012 and subsequent initiation of warfarin. Baseline stroke and bleeding risk was determined by calculating CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scores, respectively. Main outcomes were first-year and long-term TTR and INR monitoring rate. In 167,190 patients, the proportion of patients with TTR (>65%) decreased across increasing strata of CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED. After covariate adjustment, odds of achieving TTR >65% were significantly associated with high CHA2DS2-VASc or HAS-BLED score. INR monitoring rate was similar across risk strata. In conclusion, increased baseline stroke and bleeding risk is associated with poor INR control, despite similar rates of INR monitoring. These findings may paradoxically limit warfarin's efficacy and safety in high-risk patients and may explain observed increased bleeding and stroke rates in this cohort.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2016.09.045

    View details for PubMedID 27836133

  • Cardiovascular Testing and Clinical Outcomes in Emergency Department Patients With Chest Pain. JAMA internal medicine Sandhu, A. T., Heidenreich, P. A., Bhattacharya, J., Bundorf, M. K. 2017

    Abstract

    Noninvasive testing and coronary angiography are used to evaluate patients who present to the emergency department (ED) with chest pain, but their effects on outcomes are uncertain.To determine whether cardiovascular testing-noninvasive imaging or coronary angiography-is associated with changes in the rates of coronary revascularization or acute myocardial infarction (AMI) admission in patients who present to the ED with chest pain without initial findings of ischemia.This retrospective cohort analysis used weekday (Monday-Thursday) vs weekend (Friday-Sunday) presentation as an instrument to adjust for unobserved case-mix variation (selection bias) between 2011 and 2012. National claims data (Truven MarketScan) was used. The data included a total of 926?633 privately insured patients ages 18 to 64 years who presented to the ED with chest pain without initial diagnosis consistent with acute ischemia.Noninvasive testing or coronary angiography within 2 days or 30 days of presentation.The primary end points were coronary revascularization (percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass graft surgery) and AMI admission at 7, 30, 180, and 365 days. The secondary end points were coronary angiography and coronary artery bypass grafting in those who underwent angiography.The patients were ages 18 to 64 years with an average age of 44.4 years. A total of 536?197 patients (57.9%) were women. Patients who received testing (224?973) had increased risk at baseline and had greater risk of AMI admission than those who did not receive testing (701?660) (0.35% vs 0.14% at 30 days). Weekday patients (571?988) had similar baseline comorbidities to weekend patients (354?645) but were more likely to receive testing. After risk factor adjustment, testing within 30 days was associated with a significant increase in coronary angiography (36.5 per 1000 patients tested; 95% CI, 21.0-52.0) and revascularization (22.8 per 1000 patients tested; 95% CI, 10.6-35.0) at 1 year but no significant change in AMI admissions (7.8 per 1000 patients tested; 95% CI, -1.4 to 17.0). Testing within 2 days was also associated with a significant increase in coronary revascularization but no difference in AMI admissions.Cardiac testing in patients with chest pain was associated with increased downstream testing and treatment without a reduction in AMI admissions, suggesting that routine testing may not be warranted. Further research into whether specific high-risk subgroups benefit from testing is needed.

    View details for PubMedID 28654959

  • A Validated Risk Model for 30-Day Readmission for Heart Failure Mahajan, S. M., Burman, P., Newton, A., Heidenreich, P. A., Gundlapalli, A. V., Jaulent, M. C., Zhao, D. IOS PRESS. 2017: 506?10

    Abstract

    One of the goals of the Precision Medicine Initiative launched in the United States in 2016 is to use innovative tools and sources in data science. We realized this goal by implementing a use case that identified patients with heart failure at Veterans Health Administration using data from the Electronic Health Records from multiple health domains between 2005 and 2013. We applied a regularized logistic regression model and predicted 30-day readmission risk for 1210 unique patients. Our validation cohort resulted in a C-statistic of 0.84. Our top predictors of readmission were prior diagnosis of heart failure, vascular and renal diseases, and malnutrition as comorbidities, compliance with outpatient follow-up, and low socioeconomic status. This validated risk prediction scheme delivered better performance than the published models so far (C-Statistics: 0.69). It can be used to stratify patients for readmission and to aid clinicians in delivering precise health interventions.

    View details for DOI 10.3233/978-1-61499-830-3-506

    View details for Web of Science ID 000449471200105

    View details for PubMedID 29295146

  • THE COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF NEW INTERVENTIONS FOR HEART FAILURE Heidenreich, P. A. KARGER. 2017: 256
  • Safety and Clinical Outcomes of Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY Ullal, A. J., Kaiser, D. W., Fan, J., Schmitt, S. K., Than, C. T., Winkelmayer, W. C., Heidenreich, P. A., Piccini, J. P., Perez, M. V., Wang, P. J., Turakhia, M. P. 2017; 28 (1): 39-48

    Abstract

    Data regarding catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is limited. We therefore assessed the association of CKD with common safety and clinical outcomes in a nationwide sample of ablation recipients.Using MarketScan(®) Commercial Claims and Medicare Supplemental Databases, we evaluated 30-day safety and 1-year clinical outcomes in patients who underwent a first AF ablation procedure between 2007 and 2011. We calculated frequency of common 30-day complications and calculated frequencies, incidence rates, and Cox proportional hazards for outcomes at 1-year postablation.Of 21,091 patients included, 1,593 (7.6%) had CKD. Patients with CKD were older (64 years vs. 59 years, P < 0.001) with higher CHA2 DS2 -VASc scores (3.2 vs. 1.8, P < 0.001). At 30 days postablation, patients with CKD had similar rates of stroke/TIA (0.13% vs. 0.13%, P = 0.99), perforation/tamponade (3.2% vs. 3.1%, P = 0.83), and vascular complications (2.4% vs. 2.2%, P = 0.59) as patients without CKD, but were more likely to be hospitalized for heart failure (2.1% vs. 0.4%, P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, there were no significant differences in hazards of AF hospitalization (adjusted HR: 1.02, 95%CI: 0.87-1.20), cardioversion (adjusted HR: 0.99, 95%CI: 0.87-1.12), or repeat AF ablation (adjusted HR: 0.89, 95%CI: 0.76-1.06) at 1 year.Among patients selected for AF ablation, those with and without CKD had similar rates of postprocedural complications although they were more likely to be re-admitted for heart failure. CKD was not independently associated with AF hospitalization, cardioversion, and repeat ablation. These findings can inform clinical decision-making in patients with AF and CKD.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/jce.13118

    View details for Web of Science ID 000393901900004

  • A 15-year review of the Stanford Internal Medicine Residency Program: predictors of resident satisfaction and dissatisfaction ADVANCES IN MEDICAL EDUCATION AND PRACTICE Kahn, J. S., Witteles, R. M., Mahaffey, K. W., Desai, S. A., Ozdalga, E., Heidenreich, P. A. 2017; 8: 559?66

    Abstract

    Satisfaction with training and with educational experiences represents important internal medicine (IM) programmatic goals. Graduates from IM residency programs are uniquely poised to provide insights into their educational and training experiences and to assess whether these experiences were satisfactory and relevant to their current employment.We surveyed former IM residents from the training program held during the years 2000-2015 at the Department of Medicine, Stanford University. The first part of the survey reviewed the IM residency program and the second part sought identifying data regarding gender, race, ethnicity, work, relationships, and financial matters. The primary outcome was satisfaction with the residency experience.Of the 405 individuals who completed the Stanford IM residency program in the study period, we identified 384 (95%) former residents with a known email address. Two hundred and one (52%) former residents responded to the first part and 185 (48%) answered both the parts of the survey. The mean age of the respondents was 36.9 years; 44% were female and the mean time from IM residency was 6.1 (±4.3) years. Fifty-eight percent reported extreme satisfaction with their IM residency experience. Predictors associated with being less than extremely satisfied included insufficient outpatient experience, insufficient international experience, insufficient clinical research experience, and insufficient time spent with family and peers.The residents expressed an overall high satisfaction rate with their IM training. The survey results provided insights for improving satisfaction with IM residency training that includes diversifying and broadening IM training experiences.

    View details for PubMedID 28814910

  • Association of 30-Day Readmission Metric for Heart Failure Under the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program With Quality of Care and Outcomes JACC-HEART FAILURE Pandey, A., Golwala, H., Xu, H., DeVore, A. D., Matsouaka, R., Pencina, M., Kumbhani, D. J., Hernandez, A. F., Bhatt, D. L., Heidenreich, P. A., Yancy, C. W., de Lemos, J. A., Fonarow, G. C. 2016; 4 (12): 935-946

    Abstract

    This study sought to determine whether processes of care and long-term clinical outcomes for heart failure (HF) admissions across Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure (GWTG-HF) program participating centers differ according to HF-specific risk-adjusted 30-day readmission rates (excess readmission ratio [ERR]) as determined by the Hospital Readmission Reduction Program (HRRP).HRRP penalizes hospitals with higher than expected risk-adjusted 30-day readmission rates (ERR >1) for common conditions including HF. However, it is unclear whether the differences in this metric of hospital performance used by HRRP and related penalties are associated with measured quality of care and long-term outcomes.We analyzed data from the GWTG-HF registry linked to Medicare claims from July 2008 to June 2011. Using publically available data on HF-ERR in 2013, we stratified the participating centers into groups with low (HF-ERR ?1) versus high (HF-ERR >1) risk-adjusted readmission rates. We compared the care quality, in-hospital, and 1-year clinical outcomes across the 2 groups in unadjusted and multivariable adjusted analysis.The analysis included 171 centers with 43,143 participants; 49% of centers had high risk-adjusted 30-day readmission rates (HF-ERR >1). There were no differences between the low and high risk-adjusted 30-day readmission groups in median adherence rate to all performance measures (95.7% vs. 96.5%; p = 0.37) or median percentage of defect-free care (90.0% vs. 91.1%; p = 0.47). The composite 1-year outcome of death or all-cause readmission rates was also not different between the 2 groups (median 62.9% vs. 65.3%; p = 0.10). The high HF-ERR group had higher 1-year all-cause readmission rates (median 59.1% vs. 54.7%; p = 0.01). However, the 1-year mortality rates were lower among high versus low HF-ERR group with a trend toward statistical significance (median 28.2% vs. 31.7%; p = 0.07).Quality of care and clinical outcomes were comparable among hospitals with high versus low risk-adjusted 30-day HF readmission rates. These findings raise questions about the validity of the HRRP performance metric in identifying and penalizing low-performance centers.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000389561500006

  • Temporal trends and factors associated with diabetes mellitus among patients hospitalized with heart failure: Findings from Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure registry AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Echouffo-Tcheugui, J. B., Xu, H., DeVore, A. D., Schulte, P. J., Butler, J., Yancy, C. W., Bhatt, D. L., Hernandez, A. F., Heidenreich, P. A., Fonarow, G. C. 2016; 182: 9-20

    Abstract

    The contribution of diabetes to the burden of heart failure (HF) remains largely undescribed. Assessing diabetes temporal trends among US patients hospitalized with HF and their relation with quality measures in real-world practice can help to define this burden.Using data from the Get With the Guidelines-Heart Failure registry, we assessed temporal trends in diabetes prevalence among patients with HF and in subgroups with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF; EF < 40%), borderline EF (HFbEF; 40%?EF <50%), or preserved EF (HFpEF; EF ? 50%), hospitalized between 2005 and 2015. Logistic regression was used to assess whether in-hospital outcomes and HF quality of care were related to trends.Among 364,480 HF hospitalizations, 160,171 had diabetes (44.0% overall, 41.8% in HFrEF, 46.7% in HFbEF, 45.5% in HFpEF). There was a temporal increase in diabetes frequency in HF patients (43.2%-45.8%; Ptrend <.0001), including among those with HFrEF (42.0%-43.6%; Ptrend <.0001), HFbEF (46.0%-49.2%; Ptrend <.0001), or HFpEF (43.6%-46.8%, Ptrend <.0001). Diabetic patients had a longer hospital stay (adjusted odds ratio 1.14, 95% CI 1.12-1.16), but lower in-hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio 0.93 [0.89-0.97]) compared with those without diabetes, with limited differences in quality measures. Temporal trends in diabetes were not associated with in-hospital mortality or length of stay. There were no temporal interactions of most HF quality measures with diabetes status.Approximately 44% of hospitalized HF patients have diabetes, and this proportion has been increasing over the past 10years, particularly among those patients with new-onset HFpEF.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2016.07.025

    View details for Web of Science ID 000389136600002

    View details for PubMedID 27914505

  • Use of high-intensity statins for patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in the Veterans Affairs Health System: Practice impact of the new cholesterol guidelines AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Rodriguez, F., Lin, S., Maron, D. J., Knowles, J. W., Virani, S. S., Heidenreich, P. A. 2016; 182: 97-102

    Abstract

    The November 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol guidelines recommend the use of high-intensity statins for patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). We sought to determine how these guidelines are being adopted at the Veterans Affairs (VA) Health System and identify treatment gaps.We examined administrative data from the VA 12 months prior to the index dates of April 1, 2013, and after April 1, 2014, to identify patients ?75 years of age with ?2 codes for ASCVD. We identified those on high-intensity statin therapy (atorvastatin 40 mg or 80 mg, rosuvastatin 20 mg or 40 mg, and simvastatin 80 mg) during the 6 months after the index date.The study sample included 331,927 and 326,759 eligible adults with ASCVD before and after the release of the new guidelines, respectively. Overall, high-intensity statin use increased from 28% to 35% after guideline release. High-intensity statin use was lowest in Hispanics and Native Americans, although all groups showed an increase over time. Among those on low- or moderate-intensity statin therapy, 15.6% were intensified to a high-intensity statin after guideline release. Groups less likely to undergo statin intensification were older adults (odds ratio=0.78 for each 10-year increase, 95% CI 0.76-0.81), women (odds ratio=0.86, 95% CI 0.75-0.99), and certain minority groups. Academic teaching hospitals and hospitals on the West Coast were more likely to intensify statins after release of the new guidelines.High-intensity statin use increased in the VA following release of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol treatment guidelines, although disparities persist for certain patient groups including older adults, women, and certain minority groups.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2016.09.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000389136600012

    View details for PubMedID 27914506

  • Association of 30-Day Readmission Metric for Heart Failure Under the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program With Quality of Care and Outcomes. JACC. Heart failure Pandey, A., Golwala, H., Xu, H., DeVore, A. D., Matsouaka, R., Pencina, M., Kumbhani, D. J., Hernandez, A. F., Bhatt, D. L., Heidenreich, P. A., Yancy, C. W., de Lemos, J. A., Fonarow, G. C. 2016; 4 (12): 935-946

    Abstract

    This study sought to determine whether processes of care and long-term clinical outcomes for heart failure (HF) admissions across Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure (GWTG-HF) program participating centers differ according to HF-specific risk-adjusted 30-day readmission rates (excess readmission ratio [ERR]) as determined by the Hospital Readmission Reduction Program (HRRP).HRRP penalizes hospitals with higher than expected risk-adjusted 30-day readmission rates (ERR >1) for common conditions including HF. However, it is unclear whether the differences in this metric of hospital performance used by HRRP and related penalties are associated with measured quality of care and long-term outcomes.We analyzed data from the GWTG-HF registry linked to Medicare claims from July 2008 to June 2011. Using publically available data on HF-ERR in 2013, we stratified the participating centers into groups with low (HF-ERR ?1) versus high (HF-ERR >1) risk-adjusted readmission rates. We compared the care quality, in-hospital, and 1-year clinical outcomes across the 2 groups in unadjusted and multivariable adjusted analysis.The analysis included 171 centers with 43,143 participants; 49% of centers had high risk-adjusted 30-day readmission rates (HF-ERR >1). There were no differences between the low and high risk-adjusted 30-day readmission groups in median adherence rate to all performance measures (95.7% vs. 96.5%; p = 0.37) or median percentage of defect-free care (90.0% vs. 91.1%; p = 0.47). The composite 1-year outcome of death or all-cause readmission rates was also not different between the 2 groups (median 62.9% vs. 65.3%; p = 0.10). The high HF-ERR group had higher 1-year all-cause readmission rates (median 59.1% vs. 54.7%; p = 0.01). However, the 1-year mortality rates were lower among high versus low HF-ERR group with a trend toward statistical significance (median 28.2% vs. 31.7%; p = 0.07).Quality of care and clinical outcomes were comparable among hospitals with high versus low risk-adjusted 30-day HF readmission rates. These findings raise questions about the validity of the HRRP performance metric in identifying and penalizing low-performance centers.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jchf.2016.07.003

    View details for PubMedID 27908393

  • Warfarin utilisation and anticoagulation control in patients with atrial fibrillation and chronic kidney disease. Heart Yang, F., Hellyer, J. A., Than, C., Ullal, A. J., Kaiser, D. W., Heidenreich, P. A., Hoang, D. D., Winkelmayer, W. C., Schmitt, S., Frayne, S. M., Phibbs, C. S., Turakhia, M. P. 2016

    Abstract

    To evaluate warfarin prescription, quality of international normalised ratio (INR) monitoring and of INR control in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD).We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with newly diagnosed AF in the Veterans Administration (VA) healthcare system. We evaluated anticoagulation prescription, INR monitoring intensity and time in and outside INR therapeutic range (TTR) stratified by CKD.Of 123?188 patients with newly diagnosed AF, use of warfarin decreased with increasing severity of CKD (57.2%-46.4%), although it was higher among patients on dialysis (62.3%). Although INR monitoring intensity was similar across CKD strata, the proportion with TTR?60% decreased with CKD severity, with only 21% of patients on dialysis achieving TTR?60%. After multivariate adjustment, the magnitude of TTR reduction increased with CKD severity. Patients on dialysis had the highest time markedly out of range with INR <1.5 or >3.5 (30%); 12% of INR time was >3.5, and low TTR persisted for up to 3?years.There is a wide variation in anticoagulation prescription based on CKD severity. Patients with moderate-to-severe CKD, including dialysis, have substantially reduced TTR, despite comparable INR monitoring intensity. These findings have implications for more intensive warfarin management strategies in CKD or alternative therapies such as direct oral anticoagulants.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/heartjnl-2016-309266

    View details for PubMedID 27852694

  • Depressive Symptoms, Cardiac Disease Severity, and Functional Status in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease (from the Heart and Soul Study). American journal of cardiology Schopfer, D. W., Regan, M., Heidenreich, P. A., Whooley, M. A. 2016; 118 (9): 1287-1292

    Abstract

    Patient-reported health status is highly valued as a key measure of health care quality, yet little is known about the extent to which it is determined by subjective perception compared with objective measures of disease severity. We sought to compare the associations of depressive symptoms and objective measures of cardiac disease severity with perceived functional status in patients with stable coronary artery disease. We assessed depressive symptoms, severity of cardiovascular disease, and perceived functional status in a cross-sectional study of 1,023 patients with stable coronary artery disease. We compared the extent to which patient-reported functional status was influenced by depressive symptoms versus objective measures of disease severity. We then evaluated perceived functional status as a predictor of subsequent cardiovascular hospitalizations during 8.8 years of follow-up. Patients with depressive symptoms were more likely to report poor functional status than those without depressive symptoms (44% vs 17%; p <0.001). After adjustment for traditional risk factors and co-morbid conditions, independent predictors of poor functional status were depressive symptoms (odds ratio [OR] 2.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.89 to 3.79), poor exercise capacity (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.65 to 3.19), and history of heart failure (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.29). Compared with patients who had class I functional status, those with class II functional status had a 96% greater rate (hazard ratio 1.96, 95% CI 1.15 to 3.34) and those with class III or IV functional status had a 104% greater rate (hazard ratio 2.04, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.73) of hospitalization for HF, adjusted for baseline demographic characteristics, co-morbidities, cardiac disease severity, and depressive symptoms. In conclusion, depressive symptoms and cardiac disease severity were independently associated with patient-reported functional status. This suggests that perceived functional status may be as strongly influenced by depressive symptoms as it is by cardiovascular disease severity.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2016.07.062

    View details for PubMedID 27665203

  • Hospitalized Patients with Heart Failure and Common Bacterial Infections: A Nationwide Analysis of Concomitant Clostridium Difficile Infection Rates and In-Hospital Mortality. Journal of cardiac failure Mamic, P., Heidenreich, P. A., Hedlin, H., Tennakoon, L., Staudenmayer, K. L. 2016; 22 (11): 891-900

    Abstract

    Patients with heart failure (HF) are frequently hospitalized with common bacterial infections. It is unknown whether they experience concomitant Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) more frequently than patients without HF, and whether CDI affects their mortality.We used 2012 National Inpatient Sample data to determine the rate of CDI and associated in-hospital mortality for hospitalized patients with comorbid HF and urinary tract infection (UTI), pneumonia (PNA), or sepsis. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Weighted data are presented.There were an estimated 5,851,582 patient hospitalizations with discharge diagnosis of UTI, PNA, or sepsis in 2012 in the United States. Of these, 23.4% had discharge diagnosis of HF. Patients with HF were on average older and had more comorbidities. CDI rates were higher in hospitalizations with discharge diagnosis of HF compared with those without HF (odds ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 1.10-1.16) after controlling for patient demographics and comorbidities and hospital characteristics. Among HF hospitalizations with UTI, PNA, or sepsis, those with concomitant CDI had a higher in-hospital mortality than those without concomitant CDI (odds ratio 1.81, 95% confidence interval 1.71-1.92) after controlling for the covariates outlined previously.HF is associated with higher CDI rates among hospitalized patients with other common bacterial infections, even when adjusting for other known risk factors for CDI. Among these patients with comorbid HF, CDI is associated with markedly higher in-hospital mortality. These findings may suggest an opportunity to improve outcomes for hospitalized patients with HF and common bacterial infections, possibly through improved Clostridium difficile screening and prophylaxis protocols.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cardfail.2016.06.005

    View details for PubMedID 27317844

  • Asians suffer the highest in-hospital mortality rates after acute coronary syndrome despite high use of early invasive procedures Yong, C., Abnousi, F., Asch, S., Heidenreich, P. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2016: B40
  • Safety and Clinical Outcomes of Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease. Journal of cardiovascular electrophysiology Ullal, A. J., Kaiser, D. W., Fan, J., Schmitt, S., Than, C. T., Winkelmayer, W. C., Heidenreich, P. A., Piccini, J. P., Perez, M. V., Wang, P. J., Turakhia, M. P. 2016

    Abstract

    Data regarding catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is limited. We therefore assessed the association of CKD with common safety and clinical outcomes in a nationwide sample of ablation recipients.Using MarketScan(®) Commercial Claims and Medicare Supplemental Databases, we evaluated 30-day safety and 1-year clinical outcomes in patients who underwent a first AF ablation procedure between 2007 and 2011. We calculated frequency of common 30-day complications and calculated frequencies, incidence rates, and Cox proportional hazards for outcomes at 1-year postablation.Of 21,091 patients included, 1,593 (7.6%) had CKD. Patients with CKD were older (64 years vs. 59 years, P < 0.001) with higher CHA2 DS2 -VASc scores (3.2 vs. 1.8, P < 0.001). At 30 days postablation, patients with CKD had similar rates of stroke/TIA (0.13% vs. 0.13%, P = 0.99), perforation/tamponade (3.2% vs. 3.1%, P = 0.83), and vascular complications (2.4% vs. 2.2%, P = 0.59) as patients without CKD, but were more likely to be hospitalized for heart failure (2.1% vs. 0.4%, P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, there were no significant differences in hazards of AF hospitalization (adjusted HR: 1.02, 95%CI: 0.87-1.20), cardioversion (adjusted HR: 0.99, 95%CI: 0.87-1.12), or repeat AF ablation (adjusted HR: 0.89, 95%CI: 0.76-1.06) at 1 year.Among patients selected for AF ablation, those with and without CKD had similar rates of postprocedural complications although they were more likely to be re-admitted for heart failure. CKD was not independently associated with AF hospitalization, cardioversion, and repeat ablation. These findings can inform clinical decision-making in patients with AF and CKD.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/jce.13118

    View details for PubMedID 27782345

  • Prediction of 30-Day All-Cause Readmissions in Patients Hospitalized for Heart Failure: Comparison of Machine Learning and Other Statistical Approaches. JAMA cardiology Frizzell, J. D., Liang, L., Schulte, P. J., Yancy, C. W., Heidenreich, P. A., Hernandez, A. F., Bhatt, D. L., Fonarow, G. C., Laskey, W. K. 2016

    Abstract

    Several attempts have been made at developing models to predict 30-day readmissions in patients with heart failure, but none have sufficient discriminatory capacity for clinical use. Machine-learning (ML) algorithms represent a novel approach and may have potential advantages over traditional statistical modeling.To develop models using a ML approach to predict all-cause readmissions 30 days after discharge from a heart failure hospitalization and to compare ML model performance with models developed using "conventional" statistically based methods.Models were developed using ML algorithms, specifically, a tree-augmented naive Bayesian network, a random forest algorithm, and a gradient-boosted model and compared with traditional statistical methods using 2 independently derived logistic regression models (a de novo model and an a priori model developed using electronic health records) and a least absolute shrinkage and selection operator method. The study sample was randomly divided into training (70%) and validation (30%) sets to develop and test model performance. This was a registry-based study, and the study sample was obtained by linking patients from the Get With the Guidelines Heart Failure registry with Medicare data. After applying appropriate inclusion and exclusion criteria, 56?477 patients were included in our analysis. The study was conducted between January 4, 2005, and December 1, 2010, and analysis of the data was conducted between November 25, 2014, and June 30, 2016.C statistics were used for comparison of discriminatory capacity across models in the validation sample.The overall 30-day rehospitalization rate was 21.2% (11?959 of 56?477 patients). For the tree-augmented naive Bayesian network, random forest, gradient-boosted, logistic regression, and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator models, C statistics for the validation sets were similar: 0.618, 0.607, 0.614, 0.624, and 0.618, respectively. Applying the previously validated electronic health records model to our study sample yielded a C statistic of 0.589 for the validation set.Use of a number of ML algorithms did not improve prediction of 30-day heart failure readmissions compared with more traditional prediction models. Although there will likely be further applications of ML approaches in prognostic modeling, our study fits within the literature of limited predictive ability for heart failure readmissions.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamacardio.2016.3956

    View details for PubMedID 27784047

  • Guideline-Appropriate Care and In-Hospital Outcomes in Patients With Heart Failure in Teaching and Nonteaching Hospitals: Findings From Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure. Circulation. Cardiovascular quality and outcomes Patel, D. B., Shah, R. M., Bhatt, D. L., Liang, L., Schulte, P. J., DeVore, A. D., Hernandez, A. F., Heidenreich, P. A., Yancy, C. W., Fonarow, G. C. 2016

    Abstract

    Despite increasing awareness regarding evidence-based guidelines, considerable gaps exist for heart failure (HF) quality of care at teaching hospitals (TH) and nonteaching hospitals (NTH). We analyzed data from Get With The Guidelines (GWTG)-HF to compare the rates and trends of guideline-recommended care at TH and NTH for patients with HF.Baseline patient characteristics, performance measures, and in-hospital outcomes were compared between 197?187 HF patients admitted to TH and 106?924 patients admitted to NTH between 2005 and 2014. Patients treated in TH were younger and were more likely to be black and uninsured. Defect-free care (defined as 100% compliance with performance measures) was similar in both group of hospitals (crude rates: 88% at TH versus 86% at NTH, adjusted odds ratio 0.99, 95% confidence interval 0.73-1.34) as were individual performance measures: discharge instruction, documentation of ejection fraction, use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor antagonists, use of ?-blocker, and smoking cessation counseling. During the study period, there was improvement in adherence with performance measures over time, with no significant difference at TH (adjusted odds ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval 1.11-1.30; P<0.01) and NTH (adjusted odds ratio 1.09, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.17; P=0.01; interaction P value 0.07).Data from the GWTG-HF program suggest that there was improving and comparable adherence with HF performance measures and use of guideline-recommended therapies irrespective of hospital teaching status.

    View details for PubMedID 27780849

  • Temporal Trends in Care and Outcomes of Patients Receiving Fibrinolytic Therapy Compared to Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Insights From the Get With The Guidelines Coronary Artery Disease (GWTG-CAD) Registry. Journal of the American Heart Association Hira, R. S., Bhatt, D. L., Fonarow, G. C., Heidenreich, P. A., Ju, C., Virani, S. S., Bozkurt, B., Petersen, L. A., Hernandez, A. F., Schwamm, L. H., Eapen, Z. J., Albert, M. A., Liang, L., Matsouaka, R. A., Peterson, E. D., Jneid, H. 2016; 5 (10)

    Abstract

    Timely reperfusion after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) improves survival. Guidelines recommend primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) within 90 minutes of arrival at a PCI-capable hospital. The alternative is fibrinolysis within 30 minutes for those in those for whom timely transfer to a PCI-capable hospital is not feasible.We identified STEMI patients receiving reperfusion therapy at 229 hospitals participating in the Get With the Guidelines-Coronary Artery Disease (GWTG-CAD) database (January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2008). Temporal trends in the use of fibrinolysis and PPCI, its timeliness, and in-hospital mortality outcomes were assessed. We also assessed predictors of fibrinolysis versus PPCI and compliance with performance measures. Defect-free care was defined as 100% compliance with all performance measures. We identified 29 190 STEMI patients, of whom 2441 (8.4%) received fibrinolysis; 38.2% of these patients achieved door-to-needle times ?30 minutes. Median door-to-needle times increased from 36 to 60 minutes (P=0.005) over the study period. Among PPCI patients, median door-to-balloon times decreased from 94 to 64 minutes (P<0.0001) over the same period. In-hospital mortality was higher with fibrinolysis than with PPCI (4.6% vs 3.3%, P=0.001) and did not change significantly over time. Patients receiving fibrinolysis were less likely to receive defect-free care compared with their PPCI counterparts.Use of fibrinolysis for STEMI has decreased over time with concomitant worsening of door-to-needle times. Over the same time period, use of PPCI increased with improvement in door-to-balloon times. In-hospital mortality was higher with fibrinolysis than with PPCI. As reperfusion for STEMI continues to shift from fibrinolysis to PPCI, it will be critical to ensure that door-to-needle times and outcomes do not worsen.

    View details for PubMedID 27792640

  • Temporal Trends in Care and Outcomes of Patients Receiving Fibrinolytic Therapy Compared to Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Insights From the Get With The Guidelines Coronary Artery Disease (GWTG-CAD) Registry JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION Hira, R. S., Bhatt, D. L., Fonarow, G. C., Heidenreich, P. A., Ju, C., Virani, S. S., Bozkurt, B., Petersen, L. A., Hernandez, A. F., Schwamm, L. H., Eapen, Z. J., Albert, M. A., Liang, L., Matsouaka, R. A., Peterson, E. D., Jneid, H. 2016; 5 (10)
  • Lack of Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Measurement Following a High B-type Natriuretic Peptide Value. Critical pathways in cardiology Heidenreich, P. A., Gholami, P., Lin, S. 2016; 15 (3): 112-113

    Abstract

    The objective of this study was to determine how often providers did not obtain a recommended measure of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) following a high B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) value when the LVEF was not known to be low (<40%). Such patients may benefit from life-prolonging treatment.We identified consecutive patients (inpatient or outpatient) with a BNP value of at least 200 pg/mL within a single VA health care system (3 inpatient facilities and 8 community clinics) during a 10-month period (September 2008-June 2009). We performed chart review to determine results of any imaging study performed (inside or outside the health system) prior to or after the high BNP value.Of the 296 patients with a high BNP, 212 were not known to have a low LVEF. Of these, 99 (47%) did not have the guideline recommended follow-up LVEF study. Among those that survived at least 6 months following BNP and a follow-up echocardiogram was indicated (no prior LVEF or prior LVEF was > 40%), mortality was 20% if an echocardiogram was performed within 6 months of the BNP and 27% if it was not performed within 6 months of BNP testing (P = 0.21).Approximately half of patients with a high BNP and an LVEF not known to be low did not have a follow-up guideline recommended LVEF study and may have unrecognized heart failure. Our findings suggest that a trial is warranted of a clinical pathway where those patients with a high BNP and without appropriate follow-up are randomized to have their physician receive a notification of the high BNP value.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/HPC.0000000000000077

    View details for PubMedID 27465007

  • Heart failure medications prescribed at discharge for patients with left ventricular assist devices. American heart journal Shreibati, J. B., Sheng, S., Fonarow, G. C., DeVore, A. D., Yancy, C. W., Bhatt, D. L., Schulte, P., Peterson, E. D., Hernandez, A., Heidenreich, P. A. 2016; 179: 99-106

    Abstract

    Real-world use of traditional heart failure (HF) medications for patients with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) is not well known.We conducted a retrospective, observational analysis of 1,887 advanced HF patients with and without LVADs from 32 LVAD hospitals participating in the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure registry from January 2009 to March 2015. We examined HF medication prescription at discharge, temporal trends, and predictors of prescription among patients with an in-hospital (n = 258) or prior (n = 171) LVAD implant, and those with advanced HF but no LVAD, as defined by a left ventricular ejection fraction ?25% and in-hospital receipt of intravenous inotropes or vasopressin receptor antagonists (n = 1,458).For ?-blocker and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers (ACEI/ARB), discharge prescriptions were 58.9% and 53.5% for new LVAD patients, 53.8% and 42.9% for prior LVAD patients, and 73.4% and 63.2% for patients without LVAD support, respectively (both P < .0001). Aldosterone antagonist prescription quadrupled among LVAD patients during the study period (P < .0001), whereas ACEI/ARB use decreased nearly 20 percentage points (60.0% to 41.4%, P = .0003). In the multivariable analysis of LVAD patients, patient age was inversely associated with ?-blocker, ACEI/ARB, and aldosterone antagonist prescription.Traditional HF therapies were moderately prescribed at discharge to patients with LVADs and were more frequently prescribed to patients with advanced HF without LVAD support. Moderate prescription rates suggest clinical uncertainty in the use of antiadrenergic medication in this population. Further research is needed on the optimal medical regimen for patients with LVADs.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2016.06.011

    View details for PubMedID 27595684

  • Trends in the Use of Guideline-Directed Therapies Among Dialysis Patients Hospitalized With Systolic Heart Failure Findings From the American Heart Association Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure Program JACC-HEART FAILURE Pandey, A., Golwala, H., DeVore, A. D., Lu, D., Madden, G., Bhatt, D. L., Schulte, P. J., Heidenreich, P. A., Yancy, C. W., Hernandez, A. F., Fonarow, G. C. 2016; 4 (8): 649-661

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to determine the temporal trends in the adherence to heart failure (HF)-related process of care measures and clinical outcomes among patients with acute decompensated HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD).Previous studies have demonstrated significant underuse of evidence-based HF therapies among patients with coexisting ESRD and HFrEF. However, it is unclear if the proportional use of evidence-based medical therapies and associated clinical outcomes among these patients has changed over time.Get With The Guidelines-HF study participants who were admitted for acute HFrEF between January 2005 and June 2014 were stratified into 3 groups on the basis of their admission renal function: normal renal function, renal insufficiency without dialysis, and dialysis. Temporal change in proportional adherence to the HF-related process of care measures and incidence of clinical outcomes (1-year mortality, HF hospitalization, and all-cause hospitalization) during the study period was evaluated across the 3 renal function groups.The study included 111,846 patients with HFrEF from 390 participating centers, of whom 19% had renal insufficiency but who did not require dialysis, and 3% were on dialysis. There was a significant temporal increase in adherence to evidence-based medical therapies (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker: p trend <0.0001, ?-blockers: p trend = 0.0089; post-discharge follow-up referral: p trend <0.0001) and defect-free composite care (p trend <0.0001) among dialysis patients. An improvement in adherence to these measures was also observed among patients with normal renal function and patients with renal insufficiency without a need for dialysis. There was no significant change in cumulative incidence of clinical outcomes over time among the HF patients on dialysis.In a large contemporary cohort of HFrEF patients with ESRD, adherence to the HF process of care measures has improved significantly over the past 10 years. Unlike patients with normal renal function, there was no significant change in 1-year clinical outcomes over time among HF patients on dialysis.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jchf.2016.03.002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000383406500006

  • Trends in Palliative Care Use in Veterans With Severe Heart Failure Using a Large National Cohort JAMA CARDIOLOGY Mandawat, A., Heidenreich, P. A., Mandawat, A., Bhatt, D. L. 2016; 1 (5): 616?19

    View details for PubMedID 27434266

  • Automated Heart Failure Quality Measurement with Natural Language Processing Garvin, J. H., Kim, Y., Gobbel, G. T., Matheny, M. E., Redd, A., Bray, B. E., Heidenreich, P., Kalsy, M., Goldstein, M. K., Bolton, D., Nativi-Nicolau, J., Meystre, S. M. CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE INC MEDICAL PUBLISHERS. 2016: S92
  • Trends in the Use of Guideline-Directed Therapies Among Dialysis Patients Hospitalized With Systolic Heart Failure: Findings From the American Heart Association Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure Program. JACC. Heart failure Pandey, A., Golwala, H., DeVore, A. D., Lu, D., Madden, G., Bhatt, D. L., Schulte, P. J., Heidenreich, P. A., Yancy, C. W., Hernandez, A. F., Fonarow, G. C. 2016; 4 (8): 649-661

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to determine the temporal trends in the adherence to heart failure (HF)-related process of care measures and clinical outcomes among patients with acute decompensated HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD).Previous studies have demonstrated significant underuse of evidence-based HF therapies among patients with coexisting ESRD and HFrEF. However, it is unclear if the proportional use of evidence-based medical therapies and associated clinical outcomes among these patients has changed over time.Get With The Guidelines-HF study participants who were admitted for acute HFrEF between January 2005 and June 2014 were stratified into 3 groups on the basis of their admission renal function: normal renal function, renal insufficiency without dialysis, and dialysis. Temporal change in proportional adherence to the HF-related process of care measures and incidence of clinical outcomes (1-year mortality, HF hospitalization, and all-cause hospitalization) during the study period was evaluated across the 3 renal function groups.The study included 111,846 patients with HFrEF from 390 participating centers, of whom 19% had renal insufficiency but who did not require dialysis, and 3% were on dialysis. There was a significant temporal increase in adherence to evidence-based medical therapies (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker: p trend <0.0001, ?-blockers: p trend = 0.0089; post-discharge follow-up referral: p trend <0.0001) and defect-free composite care (p trend <0.0001) among dialysis patients. An improvement in adherence to these measures was also observed among patients with normal renal function and patients with renal insufficiency without a need for dialysis. There was no significant change in cumulative incidence of clinical outcomes over time among the HF patients on dialysis.In a large contemporary cohort of HFrEF patients with ESRD, adherence to the HF process of care measures has improved significantly over the past 10 years. Unlike patients with normal renal function, there was no significant change in 1-year clinical outcomes over time among HF patients on dialysis.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jchf.2016.03.002

    View details for PubMedID 27179827

  • Patient and Facility Variation in Costs of VA Heart Failure Patients JACC-HEART FAILURE Yoon, J., Fonarow, G. C., Groeneveld, P. W., Teerlink, J. R., Whooley, M. A., Sahay, A., Heidenreich, P. A. 2016; 4 (7): 551-558

    Abstract

    This study sought to determine the variation in annual health care costs among patients with heart failure in the Veterans Affairs (VA) system.Heart failure is associated with considerable use of health care resources, but little is known about patterns in patient characteristics related to higher costs.We obtained VA utilization and cost records for all patients with a diagnosis of heart failure in fiscal year 2010. We compared total VA costs by patient demographic factors, comorbid conditions, and facility where they were treated in bivariate analyses. We regressed total costs on patient factors alone, VA facility alone, and all factors combined to determine the relative contribution of patient factors and facility to explaining cost differences.There were 117,870 patients with heart failure, and their mean annual VA costs were $30,719 (SD 49,180) with more than one-half of their costs from inpatient care. Patients at younger ages, of Hispanic or black race/ethnicity, diagnosed with comorbid drug use disorders, or who died during the year had the highest costs (all p < 0.01). There was variation in costs by facility as mean adjusted costs ranged from approximately $15,000 to $48,000. In adjusted analyses, patient factors alone explained more of the variation in health care costs (R(2) = 0.116) compared with the facility where the patient was treated (R(2) = 0.018).A large variation in costs of heart failure patients was observed across facilities, although this was explained largely by patient factors. Improving the efficiency of VA resource utilization may require increased scrutiny of high-cost patients to determine if adequate value is being delivered to those patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jchf.2016.01.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000379282400005

    View details for PubMedID 26970829

  • Impact of the Hospital to Home Initiative on Readmissions in the VA Health Care System. Quality management in health care Heidenreich, P. A., Sahay, A., Oliva, N., Gholami, P., Lin, S., Mittman, B. S., Rumsfeld, J. S. 2016; 25 (3): 129-133

    Abstract

    Hospital to Home (H2H) is a national quality improvement initiative sponsored by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement and the American College of Cardiology, with the goal of reducing readmission for patients hospitalized with heart disease. We sought to determine the impact of H2H within the Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system.Using a controlled interrupted time series, we determined the association of VA hospital enrollment in H2H with the primary outcome of 30-day all-cause readmission following a heart failure hospitalization. VA heart failure providers were surveyed to determine quality improvement projects initiated in response to H2H. Secondary outcomes included initiation of recommended H2H projects, follow-up within 7 days, and total hospital days at 30 days and 1 year.Sixty-five of 104 VA hospitals (66%) enrolled in the national H2H initiative. Hospital characteristic associated with H2H enrollment included provision of tertiary care, academic affiliation, and greater use of home monitoring. There was no significant difference in mean 30-day readmission rates (20.0% ± 5.0% for H2H vs 19.3% ± 5.9% for non-H2H hospitals; P = .48) The mean fraction of patients with a cardiology visit within 7 days was slightly higher for H2H hospitals (3.0% ± 2.4% for H2H vs 2.0% ± 1.9% for non-H2H hospitals; P = .05). Patients discharged from H2H hospitals had fewer mean hospitals days during the following year (7.6% ± 2.6% for H2H vs 9.2% ± 3.0 for non-H2H; P = .01) early after launch of H2H, but the effect did not persist.VA hospitals enrolling in H2H had slightly more early follow-up in cardiology clinic but no difference in 30-day readmission rates compared with hospitals not enrolling in H2H.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/QMH.0000000000000105

    View details for PubMedID 27367213

  • Precipitating Clinical Factors, Heart Failure Characterization, and Outcomes in Patients Hospitalized With Heart Failure With Reduced, Borderline, and Preserved Ejection Fraction JACC-HEART FAILURE Kapoor, J. R., Kapoor, R., Ju, C., Heidenreich, P. A., Eapen, Z. J., Hernandez, A. F., Butler, J., Yancy, C. W., Fonarow, G. C. 2016; 4 (6): 464-472

    Abstract

    This study assessed the comparative frequency of precipitating clinical factors leading to hospitalization among heart failure (HF) patients with reduced, borderline, and preserved ejection fraction (EF) BACKGROUND: There are few data assessing the comparative frequency of clinical factors leading to HF among hospitalized among patients with reduced, borderline, and preserved EF.We analyzed the factors potentially contributing to HF hospitalization among 99,825 HF admissions from 305 hospitals in the Get With The Guidelines-HF (GWTG-HF) database between January 2005 and September 2013 and assessed their association with length of stay and in-hospital mortality.Mean patient age was 72.6 ± 14.2 years, 49% were female, and mean EF was 39.3 ± 17.2%. Common factors included pneumonia/respiratory process (28.2%), arrhythmia (21.7%), medication noncompliance (15.8%), worsening renal failure (14.7%), and uncontrolled hypertension (14.5%). In patients with borderline EF (EF 40% to 49%), pneumonia was associated with longer hospital stay, whereas dietary and medication noncompliance were associated with reduced length of stay. In patients with preserved EF (EF ?50% or qualitative assessment of normal or mild dysfunction), pneumonia, weight gain, and worsening renal function were independently associated with longer lengths of stay. Worsening renal function and pneumonia were independently associated with higher in-hospital mortality in all HF groups, and acute pulmonary edema was associated with higher mortality in reduced EF. Dietary noncompliance (14.7%) was associated with reduced mortality for all groups but reached statistical significance in the subgroups of reduced (odds ratio [OR]: 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.46 to 0.91) and preserved systolic function (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.33 to 0.83). Patients presenting with ischemia had a higher mortality rate (OR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.69; and 1.72; 95% CI: 1.27 to 2.33, respectively, in the 2 groups).Potential precipitating factors among patients hospitalized with HF vary by EF group and are independently associated with clinical outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jchf.2016.02.017

    View details for Web of Science ID 000377423900008

    View details for PubMedID 27256749

  • Response to Letter Regarding Article, "Temporal Trends and Variation in Early Scheduled Follow-up After a Hospitalization for Heart Failure: Findings from Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure CIRCULATION-HEART FAILURE DeVore, A. D., Cox, M., Eapen, Z. J., Yancy, C. W., Bhatt, D. L., Heidenreich, P. A., Peterson, E. D., Fonarow, G. C., Hernandez, A. F. 2016; 9 (6)

    View details for PubMedID 27296399

  • Cost-Effectiveness of Percutaneous Closure of the Left Atrial Appendage in Atrial Fibrillation Based on Results From PROTECT AF Versus PREVAIL CIRCULATION-ARRHYTHMIA AND ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY Freeman, J. V., Hutton, D. W., Barnes, G. D., Zhu, R. P., Owens, D. K., Garber, A. M., Go, A. S., Hlatky, M. A., Heidenreich, P. A., Wang, P. J., Al-Ahmad, A., Turakhia, M. P. 2016; 9 (6)
  • Cost-Effectiveness of Percutaneous Closure of the Left Atrial Appendage in Atrial Fibrillation Based on Results From PROTECT AF Versus PREVAIL CIRCULATION-ARRHYTHMIA AND ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY Freeman, J. V., Hutton, D. W., Barnes, G. D., Zhu, R. P., Owens, D. K., Garber, A. M., Go, A. S., Hlatky, M. A., Heidenreich, P. A., Wang, P. J., Al-Ahmad, A., Turakhia, M. P. 2016; 9 (6)

    Abstract

    Randomized trials of left atrial appendage (LAA) closure with the Watchman device have shown varying results, and its cost effectiveness compared with anticoagulation has not been evaluated using all available contemporary trial data.We used a Markov decision model to estimate lifetime quality-adjusted survival, costs, and cost effectiveness of LAA closure with Watchman, compared directly with warfarin and indirectly with dabigatran, using data from the long-term (mean 3.8 year) follow-up of Percutaneous Closure of the Left Atrial Appendage Versus Warfarin Therapy for Prevention of Stroke in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation (PROTECT AF) and Prospective Randomized Evaluation of the Watchman LAA Closure Device in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation (PREVAIL) randomized trials. Using data from PROTECT AF, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios compared with warfarin and dabigatran were $20?486 and $23?422 per quality-adjusted life year, respectively. Using data from PREVAIL, LAA closure was dominated by warfarin and dabigatran, meaning that it was less effective (8.44, 8.54, and 8.59 quality-adjusted life years, respectively) and more costly. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50?000 per quality-adjusted life year, LAA closure was cost effective 90% and 9% of the time under PROTECT AF and PREVAIL assumptions, respectively. These results were sensitive to the rates of ischemic stroke and intracranial hemorrhage for LAA closure and medical anticoagulation.Using data from the PROTECT AF trial, LAA closure with the Watchman device was cost effective; using PREVAIL trial data, Watchman was more costly and less effective than warfarin and dabigatran. PROTECT AF enrolled more patients and has substantially longer follow-up time, allowing greater statistical certainty with the cost-effectiveness results. However, longer-term trial results and postmarketing surveillance of major adverse events will be vital to determining the value of the Watchman in clinical practice.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCEP.115.003407

    View details for PubMedID 27307517

  • Trends in 30-Day Readmission Rates for Patients Hospitalized With Heart Failure Findings From the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure Registry CIRCULATION-HEART FAILURE Bergethon, K. E., Ju, C., DeVore, A. D., Hardy, N. C., Fonarow, G. C., Yancy, C. W., Heidenreich, P. A., Bhatt, D. L., Peterson, E. D., Hernandez, A. F. 2016; 9 (6)

    Abstract

    Reducing hospital readmissions for patients with heart failure is a national priority, and quality improvement campaigns are targeting reductions of ?20%. However, there are limited data on whether such targets have been met.We analyzed data from the American Heart Association's Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure registry linked to Medicare claims between 2009 and 2012 to describe trends and relative reduction of rates of 30-day all-cause readmission among patients with heart failure. A total of 21,264 patients with heart failure were included from 70 US sites from January 2009 to October 2012. Overall hospital-level, risk-adjusted, 30-day all-cause readmission rates declined slightly, from 20.0% (SD, 1.3%) in 2009 to 19.0% (SD, 1.2%) in 2012 (P=0.001). Only 1 in 70 (1.4%) hospitals achieved the 20% relative reduction in 30-day risk-adjusted readmission rates. A multivariable linear regression model was used to determine hospital-level factors associated with relative improvements in 30-day risk-adjusted readmissions between 2009 and 2012. Teaching hospitals had higher relative readmission rates as compared with their peers, and hospitals that used postdischarge heart failure disease management programs had lower relative readmission rates.Although there has been slight improvement in 30-day all-cause readmission rates during the past 4 years in patients with heart failure, few hospitals have seen large success.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.115.002594

    View details for Web of Science ID 000378139000003

    View details for PubMedID 27301467

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4928632

  • Comparison of performance on Hospital Compare process measures and patient outcomes between hospitals that do and do not participate in Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Network Registry-Get With The Guidelines AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Mathews, R., Fonarow, G. C., Li, S., Peterson, E. D., Rumsfeld, J. S., Heidenreich, P. A., Roe, M. T., Oetgen, W. J., Jollis, J. G., Cannon, C. P., de Lemos, J. A., Wang, T. Y. 2016; 175: 1-8

    Abstract

    Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Network Registry-Get With The Guidelines (ACTION Registry-GWTG) was designed to measure and improve the treatment and outcomes of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), yet it is unknown whether performance of Medicare Hospital Compare metrics and outcomes differ between hospitals participating versus those not participating in the registry.Using 2007 to 2010 Hospital Compare data, we matched participating to nonparticipating hospitals based on teaching status, size, percutaneous coronary intervention capability, and baseline (2007) Hospital Compare AMI process measure performance. We used linear mixed modeling to compare 2010 Hospital Compare process measure adherence, 30-day risk-adjusted mortality, and readmission rates. We repeated these analyses after stratification according to baseline performance level.Compared with nonparticipating hospitals, those participating were larger (median 288 vs 139 beds, P < .0001), more often teaching hospitals (18.8% vs 6.3%, P < .0001), and more likely had interventional catheterization lab capabilities (85.7% vs 34.0%, P < .0001). Among 502 matched pairs of participating and nonparticipating hospitals, we found high levels of process measure adherence in both 2007 and 2010, with minimal differences between them. Rates of 30-day mortality and readmission in 2010 were also similar between both groups. Results were consistent across strata of baseline performance level.In this observational analysis, there were no significant differences in the performance of Hospital Compare process measures or outcomes between hospitals in Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Network Registry-Get With The Guidelines and other hospitals not in the registry. However, baseline performance on the Hospital Compare process measures was very high in both groups, suggesting the need for new quality improvement foci to further improve patient outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2016.01.008

    View details for PubMedID 27179718

  • Barriers and Facilitators to Scaling Up Outpatient Palliative Care JOURNAL OF PALLIATIVE MEDICINE Bekelman, D. B., Rabin, B. A., Nowels, C. T., Sahay, A., Heidenreich, P. A., Fischer, S. M., Main, D. S. 2016; 19 (4): 456-459
  • Dual health care system use is associated with higher rates of hospitalization and hospital readmission among veterans with heart failure AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Axon, R., Gebregziabher, M., Everett, C. J., Heidenreich, P., Hunt, K. J. 2016; 174: 157?63

    Abstract

    Heart failure (HF) frequently causes hospital admission and readmission. Patients receiving care from multiple providers and facilities (dual users) may risk higher health care utilization and worse health outcomes.To determine rates of emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and hospital readmissions relative to dual use among HF patients, we analyzed a retrospective cohort of 13,977 veterans with HF hospitalized at the Veterans Affairs (VA) or non-VA facilities from 2007 to 2011; we analyzed rates of acute health care utilization using zero-inflated negative binomial regression.Compared to VA-only users and dual users, individuals receiving all of their ED and hospital care outside the VA tended to be older, more likely to be non-Hispanic white and married, and less likely to have high levels of service connected disability. Compared to VA-only users, dual users had significantly higher rates of ED visits for HF as a primary diagnosis (adjusted rate ratio 1.15, 95% CI 1.04-1.27), hospitalization for HF (adjusted rate ratio 1.4, 95% CI 1.26-1.56), hospital readmission after HF hospitalization (all cause) (1.46, 95% CI 1.30-1.65), and HF-specific hospital readmission after HF hospitalization (1.46, 95% CI 1.31-1.63). With the exception of hospitalization for any primary diagnosis, non-VA-only users had significantly lower rates of ED visits, hospitalization, and readmission compared to VA-only users.Dual use is associated with higher rates of health care utilization among patients with HF. Interventions should be devised to encourage continuity of care where possible and to improve the effectiveness and safety of dual use in instances where it is necessary or desired.

    View details for PubMedID 26995383

  • Differences and Trends in DNR Among California Inpatients With Heart Failure. Journal of cardiac failure Phadke, A., Heidenreich, P. A. 2016; 22 (4): 312-315

    Abstract

    Do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders reflect an important means of respecting patient autonomy while minimizing the risk of nonbeneficial interventions. We sought to clarify trends and differences in rates of DNR orders for patients hospitalized with heart failure.We used statewide data from California's Healthcare Cost and Utilization dataset (2007-2010) to determine trends in DNR orders within 24 hours of admission for patients with a primary discharge diagnosis of heart failure.Among 347,541 hospitalizations for heart failure, the rate of DNR order within 24 hours increased from 10.4% in 2007 to 11.3% in 2010 (P < .0001). After adjustment, DNR status correlated with older age, female gender, white race, frequent comorbidities (Charlson Score), and residence in higher income area (P?

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cardfail.2015.12.005

    View details for PubMedID 26700659

  • Barriers and Facilitators to Scaling Up Outpatient Palliative Care. Journal of palliative medicine Bekelman, D. B., Rabin, B. A., Nowels, C. T., Sahay, A., Heidenreich, P. A., Fischer, S. M., Main, D. S. 2016; 19 (4): 456-459

    Abstract

    The Institute of Medicine recommends people with serious advanced illness have access to skilled palliative care. However, the predominant delivery model of nonhospice palliative care is inpatient, consultative care focused on the end of life, with a small specialist palliative care workforce.The study objective was to understand organizational factors that could influence the adoption and scale-up of outpatient palliative care in chronic advanced illness, using the example of heart failure.This was a cross-sectional qualitative study. Participants were 17 health care providers and local, regional, and national health system leaders from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) who were considering whether and how to adopt and sustain outpatient palliative care. Individual interviews using semistructured questions assessed domains of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Science.Most providers and leaders perceived outpatient palliative care as high priority in the VHA given its patient-centeredness and potential to decrease health care use and costs associated with conditions like heart failure. They also supported a collaborative care team model of outpatient palliative care delivery where a palliative care specialist collaborates with medical nurses and social workers. They reported lack of performance measures/incentives for patient-centered care processes and outcomes as a potential barrier to implementation. Features of outpatient palliative care viewed as important for successful adoption and scale-up included coordination and communication with other providers, ease of integration into existing programs, and evidence of improving quality of care while not substantially increasing overall health care costs.Incentives such as performance measures and collaboration with local VHA providers and leaders could improve adoption and scale-up of outpatient palliative care.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/jpm.2015.0280

    View details for PubMedID 26974489

  • Barriers to Adoption of Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists in Patients With Heart Failure: A Mixed-Methods Study JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION Dev, S., Hoffman, T. K., Kavalieratos, D., Heidenreich, P., Wu, W., Schwenke, D. C., Tracy, S. J. 2016; 5 (3)

    Abstract

    Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) are the most underutilized pharmacotherapy for heart failure. Minimal data are available on the barriers to MRA adoption from the perspective of prescribing clinicians.A mixed-methods study consisting of a survey (n=50), focus groups (n=39), interviews (n=6) with clinicians at a single US Department of Veterans Affairs medical center served to ascertain barriers to optimal use of MRAs. Participants were drawn from 6 groups: cardiology providers, cardiology fellows, hospitalists, clinical pharmacists, internal medicine residents, and primary care providers. Qualitative data were iteratively coded with qualitative data analysis software. The survey response rate was 17.3%. Overall, 51% of survey respondents were unfamiliar with eplerenone, and 6% were unfamiliar with spironolactone. In addition, 30% of respondents reported that they would order a laboratory test >2 weeks after a new MRA prescription, although that is beyond the guideline recommendation. Most providers correctly identified New York Heart Association class 3 and 4 patients as MRA eligible, but only 42% identified class 2 patients as MRA eligible. Through analysis of focus groups, we identified 8 barriers to MRA use in 3 categories: patient-based barriers (concerns about polypharmacy and comorbidities, adverse effects, perceived patient nonadherence), provider-based barriers (unclear roles and responsibilities, coordination and transitions of care, lack of experience or familiarity with MRAs), and system-based barriers (system overload and provider time constraints, lack of systematic follow-up procedures).Eight primary barriers to MRA adoption at the provider, patient, and health system levels were identified from the prescriber perspective. These barriers can inform the creation of multilevel interventions that will be required to close the gap in MRA adoption.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/JAHA.115.002493

    View details for Web of Science ID 000385312200007

    View details for PubMedID 27032719

  • Heart Failure Patients Need More Than Heart Failure Care JACC-HEART FAILURE Heidenreich, P. 2016; 4 (3): 194?96

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jchf.2016.01.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000371651600004

    View details for PubMedID 26940627

  • Organizational Structure for Chronic Heart Failure and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MANAGED CARE Rinne, S. T., Liu, C., Wong, E. S., Hebert, P. L., Heidenreich, P., Bastian, L. A., Au, D. H. 2016; 22 (3): E82-?

    Abstract

    In contrast to chronic heart failure (CHF), measures of quality of care for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are poor. Our objective was to examine differences in organizational structure available to support quality of care for patients with CHF and COPD.We performed 2 nationwide surveys exploring organizational structure for the management of CHF and COPD. We surveyed the chief of medicine and the chief of cardiology and pulmonary medicine at 120 Veterans Affairs facilities in the United States.Analogous questions about organizational structure that enhanced adherence to guideline-based care were compared between CHF and COPD surveys.We found large and notable differences in the organizational structure for disease management, with systematically less attention given to COPD than CHF. These differences were evident in multiple processes of care. Key differences included fewer facilities: having COPD clinics than CHF clinics (12.7% vs 50.8%; P < .01), relating performance measures with COPD providers than CHF providers (17.1% vs 70%; P < .01), and having home monitoring programs for COPD than for CHF (50.5% vs 87.4%; P < .01).Despite the growing burden of COPD, less organizational structure existed for COPD than CHF. Lack of organizational structure for COPD likely impedes an organization's abilities to encourage high-quality care and avoid recently implemented hospital readmission penalties. Our results suggest the need to develop a systematic approach for healthcare systems to provide essential organizational structure based on the burden of disease in the population.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000373573700001

    View details for PubMedID 26978239

  • Clinical Effectiveness of Hydralazine-Isosorbide Dinitrate Therapy in Patients With Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: Findings From the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure Registry CIRCULATION-HEART FAILURE Khazanie, P., Liang, L., Curtis, L. H., Butler, J., Eapen, Z. J., Heidenreich, P. A., Bhatt, D. L., Peterson, E. D., Yancy, C. W., Fonarow, G. C., Hernandez, A. F. 2016; 9 (2): 1-9

    Abstract

    In clinical trials, hydralazine-isosorbide dinitrate (H-ISDN) for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction reduced morbidity and mortality among black patients and patients with intolerance to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers. The effectiveness of H-ISDN in clinical practice is unknown.Using data from a clinical registry linked with Medicare claims, we examined the use and outcomes of H-ISDN between 2005 and 2011 among older patients hospitalized with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. We adjusted for demographic and clinical characteristics using Cox proportional hazards models and inverse probability weighting. Among 4663 eligible patients, 22.7% of black patients and 18.2% of patients not on an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker were newly prescribed H-ISDN therapy at discharge. By 3 years, the cumulative incidence rates of mortality and readmission were similar between treated and untreated patients. After multivariable adjustment, 3-year outcomes remained similar for mortality [black patients: hazard ratio (HR), 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.75-1.13; other patients: HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.79-1.09], all-cause readmission (black patients: HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.84-1.13; other patients: HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.90-1.17), and cardiovascular readmission (black patients: HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.82-1.19; other patients: HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.81-1.09). A post hoc analysis of Medicare Part D data revealed low postdischarge adherence to therapy.Guideline-recommended initiation of H-ISDN therapy at hospital discharge was uncommon, and adherence was low. For both black patients and patients of other races, there were no differences in outcomes between those treated and untreated at discharge.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.115.002444

    View details for Web of Science ID 000370369300001

    View details for PubMedID 26867758

  • Temporal Trends and Variation in Early Scheduled Follow-Up After a Hospitalization for Heart Failure Findings from Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure CIRCULATION-HEART FAILURE DeVore, A. D., Cox, M., Eapen, Z. J., Yancy, C. W., Bhatt, D. L., Heidenreich, P. A., Peterson, E. D., Fonarow, G. C., Hernandez, A. F. 2016; 9 (1)

    Abstract

    Previous data demonstrate early follow-up (ie, within 7 days of discharge) after a hospitalization for heart failure is associated with a lower risk of readmission, yet is uncommon and varies widely across hospitals. Limited data exist on whether the use of early follow-up after discharge has improved over time.We used data from Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure (GWTG-HF) linked to Medicare claims to examine temporal trends in early follow-up and to assess for patient and hospital characteristics associated with early scheduled follow-up. In the overall GWTG-HF cohort, we studied 52,438 patients discharged from 239 hospitals from 2009 to 2012. Scheduled early follow-up at the time of hospital discharge rose from 51% to 65% over time (P<0.001). After multivariable adjustment, patients with older age (odds ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.07), certain comorbidities (anemia, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease), and the use of anticoagulation at discharge (odds ratio, 1.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.22) were associated with greater likelihood for early scheduled follow-up. Patients treated in hospitals located in the Midwest (odds ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.50-0.91) were less likely to have early scheduled follow-up. In a subset of patients with linked Medicare claims, we observed smaller improvements in actual early follow-up visits over time from 26% to 30% (P=0.005).From 2009 to 2012, there was improvement in early scheduled outpatient follow-up and, in the subset analyzed, improvement in actual early follow-up visits for hospitalized patients with heart failure. However, substantial opportunities remain for improving heart failure transitional care.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.115.002344

    View details for Web of Science ID 000368618600001

  • Racial Differences in Quality of Anticoagulation Therapy for Atrial Fibrillation (from the TREAT-AF Study). The American journal of cardiology Yong, C., Azarbal, F., Abnousi, F., Heidenreich, P. A., Schmitt, S., Fan, J., Than, C. T., Ullal, A. J., Yang, F., Phibbs, C. S., Frayne, S. M., Ho, P. M., Shore, S., Mahaffey, K. W., Turakhia, M. P. 2016; 117 (1): 61?68

    Abstract

    The influence of race on quality of anticoagulation control is not well described. We examined the association between race, international normalized ratio (INR) monitoring intensity, and INR control in warfarin-treated patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Using data from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), we performed a retrospective cohort study of 184,161 patients with a new diagnosis of AF/flutter from 2004 to 2012 who received any VHA prescription within 90 days of diagnosis. The primary predictor was race, ascertained from multiple VHA and linked Medicare demographic files. The primary outcome was first-year and long-term time in therapeutic range (TTR) of INR 2.0 to 3.0. Secondary outcomes were INR monitoring intensity and warfarin persistence. Of the 116,021 patients who received warfarin in the cohort, INR monitoring intensity was similar across racial groups. However, TTR was lowest in blacks and highest in whites (first year 0.49 ± 0.23 vs 0.57 ± 0.21, p <0.001; long term 0.52 ± 0.20 vs 0.59 ± 0.18, p <0.001); 64% of whites and 49% of blacks had long-term TTR >55% (p <0.001). After adjusting for site and patient-level covariates, black race was associated with lower first-year and long-term TTRs (4.2% and 4.1% below the conditional mean, relative to whites; p <0.0001 for both). One-year warfarin persistence was slightly lower in blacks compared to whites (58% vs 60%, p <0.0001). In conclusion, in patients with AF anticoagulated with warfarin, differences in INR control are most evident among blacks, underscoring the need to determine if other types of intensive management or warfarin alternatives may be necessary to improve anticoagulation among vulnerable AF populations.

    View details for PubMedID 26552504

  • Temporal Trends and Variation in Early Scheduled Follow-Up After a Hospitalization for Heart Failure: Findings from Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure. Circulation. Heart failure DeVore, A. D., Cox, M., Eapen, Z. J., Yancy, C. W., Bhatt, D. L., Heidenreich, P. A., Peterson, E. D., Fonarow, G. C., Hernandez, A. F. 2016; 9 (1)

    Abstract

    Previous data demonstrate early follow-up (ie, within 7 days of discharge) after a hospitalization for heart failure is associated with a lower risk of readmission, yet is uncommon and varies widely across hospitals. Limited data exist on whether the use of early follow-up after discharge has improved over time.We used data from Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure (GWTG-HF) linked to Medicare claims to examine temporal trends in early follow-up and to assess for patient and hospital characteristics associated with early scheduled follow-up. In the overall GWTG-HF cohort, we studied 52,438 patients discharged from 239 hospitals from 2009 to 2012. Scheduled early follow-up at the time of hospital discharge rose from 51% to 65% over time (P<0.001). After multivariable adjustment, patients with older age (odds ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.07), certain comorbidities (anemia, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease), and the use of anticoagulation at discharge (odds ratio, 1.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.22) were associated with greater likelihood for early scheduled follow-up. Patients treated in hospitals located in the Midwest (odds ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.50-0.91) were less likely to have early scheduled follow-up. In a subset of patients with linked Medicare claims, we observed smaller improvements in actual early follow-up visits over time from 26% to 30% (P=0.005).From 2009 to 2012, there was improvement in early scheduled outpatient follow-up and, in the subset analyzed, improvement in actual early follow-up visits for hospitalized patients with heart failure. However, substantial opportunities remain for improving heart failure transitional care.

    View details for PubMedID 26754624

  • Gender Differences in Clinical Outcomes after Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation. JACC. Clinical electrophysiology Kaiser, D. W., Fan, J., Schmitt, S., Than, C. T., Ullal, A. J., Piccini, J. P., Heidenreich, P. A., Turakhia, M. P. 2016; 2 (6): 703?10

    Abstract

    To explore gender differences in real-world outcomes after catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF).Compared to men, women with AF have greater thromboembolic risk and tend to be more symptomatic. Catheter ablation is generally more effective than antiarrhythmic drug therapy alone. However, there is limited data on the influence of gender on AF ablation outcomes.We analyzed medical claims of 45 million United States patients enrolled in a variety of employee-sponsored and fee-for-service plans. We identified patients who underwent an AF ablation from 2007 to 2011 and evaluated 30-day safety and one-year effectiveness outcomes.Of the 21,091 patients who underwent an AF ablation, 7,460 (29%) were female. Women, compared to men, were older (62±11 vs. 58±11 years), had higher CHADS2 (1.2±1.1 vs. 1.0±1.0), higher CHA2DS2-VASc (2.9±1.5 vs. 1.6±1.4), and higher Charlson comorbidity index scores (1.2±1.3 vs. 1.0±1.2)(p<0.001 for all). Following ablation, women had higher risk of 30-day complications of hemorrhage (2.7 vs. 2.0%,p<0.001) and tamponade (3.8 vs. 2.9%,p<0.001). In multivariable analyses, women were more likely to have a re-hospitalization for AF (adjusted HR 1.12,p=0.009), but less likely to have repeat AF ablation (adjusted HR 0.92,p=0.04) or cardioversion (adjusted HR 0.75,p<0.001).Women have increased hospitalization rates after AF ablation and are more likely to have a procedural complication. Despite the higher rate of hospital admissions for AF after ablation, women were less likely to undergo repeat ablation or cardioversion. These data call for greater examination of barriers and facilitators to sustain rhythm control strategies in women.

    View details for PubMedID 29623299

  • Should We Start Community Screening for Left Ventricular Dysfunction? JOURNAL OF CARDIAC FAILURE Heidenreich, P. A. 2016; 22 (1): 24?25

    View details for PubMedID 26592982

  • Automating Guidelines for Clinical Decision Support: Knowledge Engineering and Implementation. AMIA ... Annual Symposium proceedings. AMIA Symposium Tso, G. J., Tu, S. W., Oshiro, C., Martins, S., Ashcraft, M., Yuen, K. W., Wang, D., Robinson, A., Heidenreich, P. A., Goldstein, M. K. 2016; 2016: 1189-1198

    Abstract

    As utilization of clinical decision support (CDS) increases, it is important to continue the development and refinement of methods to accurately translate the intention of clinical practice guidelines (CPG) into a computable form. In this study, we validate and extend the 13 steps that Shiffman et al.(5) identified for translating CPG knowledge for use in CDS. During an implementation project of ATHENA-CDS, we encoded complex CPG recommendations for five common chronic conditions for integration into an existing clinical dashboard. Major decisions made during the implementation process were recorded and categorized according to the 13 steps. During the implementation period, we categorized 119 decisions and identified 8 new categories required to complete the project. We provide details on an updated model that outlines all of the steps used to translate CPG knowledge into a CDS integrated with existing health information technology.

    View details for PubMedID 28269916

  • Automating Performance Measures and Clinical Practice Guidelines: Differences and Complementarities. AMIA ... Annual Symposium proceedings. AMIA Symposium Tu, S. W., Martins, S., Oshiro, C., Yuen, K., Wang, D., Robinson, A., Ashcraft, M., Heidenreich, P. A., Goldstein, M. K. 2016; 2016: 1199-1208

    Abstract

    Through close analysis of two pairs of systems that implement the automated evaluation of performance measures (PMs) and guideline-based clinical decision support (CDS), we contrast differences in their knowledge encoding and necessary changes to a CDS system that provides management recommendations for patients failing performance measures. We trace the sources of differences to the implementation environments and goals of PMs and CDS.

    View details for PubMedID 28269917

  • Test Case Selection in Pre-Deployment Testing of Complex Clinical Decision Support Systems. AMIA Joint Summits on Translational Science proceedings. AMIA Joint Summits on Translational Science Tso, G. J., Yuen, K., Martins, S., Tu, S. W., Ashcraft, M., Heidenreich, P., Hoffman, B. B., Goldstein, M. K. 2016; 2016: 240-249

    Abstract

    Clinical decision support (CDS) systems with complex logic are being developed. Ensuring the quality of CDS is imperative, but there is no consensus on testing standards. We tested ATHENA-HTN CDS after encoding updated hypertension guidelines into the system. A logic flow and a complexity analysis of the encoding were performed to guide testing. 100 test cases were selected to test the major pathways in the CDS logic flow, and the effectiveness of the testing was analyzed. The encoding contained 26 decision points and 3120 possible output combinations. The 100 cases selected tested all of the major pathways in the logic, but only 1% of the possible output combinations. Test case selection is one of the most challenging aspects in CDS testing and has a major impact on testing coverage. A test selection strategy should take into account the complexity of the system, identification of major logic pathways, and available resources.

    View details for PubMedID 27570678

  • 2015 ACC/AHA Focused Update of Secondary Prevention Lipid Performance Measures A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Performance Measures CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR QUALITY AND OUTCOMES Drozda, J. P., Ferguson, T. B., Jneid, H., Krumholz, H. M., Nallamothu, B. K., Olin, J. W., Ting, H. H., Heidenreich, P. A., Albert, N. M., Chan, P. S., Curtis, L. H., Ferguson, T. B., Fonarow, G. C., Ho, P. M., O'Brien, S., Russo, A. M., Thomas, R. J., Ting, H. H., Varosy, P. D. 2016; 9 (1): 68-95
  • Association of Arterial Pulse Pressure With Long-Term Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Heart Failure JACC-HEART FAILURE Laskey, W. K., Wu, J., Schulte, P. J., Hernandez, A. F., Yancy, C. W., Heidenreich, P. A., Bhatt, D. L., Fonarow, G. C. 2016; 4 (1): 42-49
  • Gender Differences in Clinical Outcomes After Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation JACC Clin Electrophysiol Kaiser, D. W., Fan, J., Schmitt, S., Than, C. T., Ullal, A. J., Piccini, J. P., Heidenreich, P. A., Turakhia, M. P. 2016
  • A Couples' Based Self-Management Program for Heart Failure: Results of a Feasibility Study. Frontiers in public health Trivedi, R., Slightam, C., Fan, V. S., Rosland, A., Nelson, K., Timko, C., Asch, S. M., Zeliadt, S. B., Heidenreich, P., Hebert, P. L., Piette, J. D. 2016; 4: 171-?

    Abstract

    Heart failure (HF) is associated with frequent exacerbations and shortened lifespan. Informal caregivers such as significant others often support self-management in patients with HF. However, existing programs that aim to enhance self-management seldom engage informal caregivers or provide tools that can help alleviate caregiver burden or improve collaboration between patients and their informal caregivers.To develop and pilot test a program targeting the needs of self-management support among HF patients as well as their significant others.We developed the Dyadic Health Behavior Change model and conducted semi-structured interviews to determine barriers to self-management from various perspectives. Participants' feedback was used to develop a family-centered self-management program called "SUCCEED: Self-management Using Couples' Coping EnhancEment in Diseases." The goals of this program are to improve HF self-management, quality of life, communication within couples, relationship quality, and stress and caregiver burden. We conducted a pilot study with 17 Veterans with HF and their significant others to determine acceptability of the program. We piloted psychosocial surveys at baseline and after participants' program completion to evaluate change in depressive symptoms, caregiver burden, self-management of HF, communication, quality of relationship, relationship mutuality, and quality of life.Of the 17 couples, 14 completed at least 1 SUCCEED session. Results showed high acceptability for each of SUCCEED's sessions. At baseline, patients reported poor quality of life, clinically significant depressive symptoms, and inadequate self-management of HF. After participating in SUCCEED, patients showed improvements in self-management of HF, communication, and relationship quality, while caregivers reported improvements in depressive symptoms and caregiver burden. Quality of life of both patients and significant others declined over time.In this small pilot study, we showed positive trends with involving significant others in self-management. SUCCEED has the potential of addressing the growing public health problem of HF among patients who receive care from their significant other.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fpubh.2016.00171

    View details for PubMedID 27626029

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5004799

  • A systematic comparison of sugar content in low-fat vs regular versions of food. Nutrition & diabetes Nguyen, P. K., Lin, S., Heidenreich, P. 2016; 6

    Abstract

    Obesity remains a significant public health concern. One of the primary messages from providers and health-care organizations is to eat healthier foods with lower fat. Many in the lay press, however, have suggested that lower fat versions of foods contain more sugar. To our knowledge, a systematic comparison of the sugar content in food with lower fat alternatives has not been performed. In this study, we compared fat free, low fat and regular versions of the same foods using data collected from the USDA National Nutrient Database. We found that the amount of sugar is higher in the low fat (that is, reduced calorie, light, low fat) and non-fat than 'regular' versions of tested items (Friedman P=0.00001, Wilcoxon P=0.0002 for low fat vs regular food and P=0.0003 for non-fat vs regular food). Our data support the general belief that food that is lower in fat may contain more sugar.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nutd.2015.43

    View details for PubMedID 26807511

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4742721

  • Racial Differences in Quality of Anticoagulation Therapy for Atrial Fibrillation (from the TREAT-AF Study) AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY Yong, C., Azarbal, F., Abnousi, F., Heidenreich, P. A., Schmitt, S., Fan, J., Than, C. T., Ullal, A. J., Yang, F., Phibbs, C. S., Frayne, S. M., Ho, P. M., Shore, S., Mahaffey, K. W., Turakhia, M. P. 2016; 117 (1): 61-68

    Abstract

    The influence of race on quality of anticoagulation control is not well described. We examined the association between race, international normalized ratio (INR) monitoring intensity, and INR control in warfarin-treated patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Using data from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), we performed a retrospective cohort study of 184,161 patients with a new diagnosis of AF/flutter from 2004 to 2012 who received any VHA prescription within 90 days of diagnosis. The primary predictor was race, ascertained from multiple VHA and linked Medicare demographic files. The primary outcome was first-year and long-term time in therapeutic range (TTR) of INR 2.0 to 3.0. Secondary outcomes were INR monitoring intensity and warfarin persistence. Of the 116,021 patients who received warfarin in the cohort, INR monitoring intensity was similar across racial groups. However, TTR was lowest in blacks and highest in whites (first year 0.49 ± 0.23 vs 0.57 ± 0.21, p <0.001; long term 0.52 ± 0.20 vs 0.59 ± 0.18, p <0.001); 64% of whites and 49% of blacks had long-term TTR >55% (p <0.001). After adjusting for site and patient-level covariates, black race was associated with lower first-year and long-term TTRs (4.2% and 4.1% below the conditional mean, relative to whites; p <0.0001 for both). One-year warfarin persistence was slightly lower in blacks compared to whites (58% vs 60%, p <0.0001). In conclusion, in patients with AF anticoagulated with warfarin, differences in INR control are most evident among blacks, underscoring the need to determine if other types of intensive management or warfarin alternatives may be necessary to improve anticoagulation among vulnerable AF populations.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2015.09.047

    View details for Web of Science ID 000368048900010

  • ACC/AHA/STS Statement on the Future of Registries and the Performance Measurement Enterprise A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Performance Measures and The Society of Thoracic Surgeons CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR QUALITY AND OUTCOMES Bhatt, D. L., Drozda, J. P., Shahian, D. M., Chan, P. S., Fonarow, G. C., Heidenreich, P. A., Jacobs, J. P., Masoudi, F. A., Peterson, E. D., Welke, K. F., Heidenreich, P. A., Albert, N. M., Chan, P. S., Curtis, L. H., Ferguson, T. B., Fonarow, G. C., Ho, P. M., Jurgens, C., O'Brien, S., Russo, A. M., Thomas, R. J., Ting, H. H., Varosy, P. D. 2015; 8 (6): 634-648
  • ACC/AHA/STS Statement on the Future of Registries and the Performance Measurement Enterprise JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Bhatt, D. L., Drozda, J. P., Shahian, D. M., Chan, P. S., Fonarow, G. C., Heidenreich, P. A., Jacobs, J. P., Masoudi, F. A., Peterson, E. D., Welke, K. F. 2015; 66 (20): 2230-2245
  • ACC/AHA/STS Statement on the Future of Registries and the Performance Measurement Enterprise: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Performance Measures and The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Journal of the American College of Cardiology Bhatt, D. L., Drozda, J. P., Shahian, D. M., Chan, P. S., Fonarow, G. C., Heidenreich, P. A., Jacobs, J. P., Masoudi, F. A., Peterson, E. D., Welke, K. F. 2015; 66 (20): 2230-2245

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2015.07.010

    View details for PubMedID 26440214

  • Characteristics, Treatments, and Outcomes of Hospitalized Heart Failure Patients Stratified by Etiologies of Cardiomyopathy JACC-HEART FAILURE Shore, S., Grau-Sepulveda, M. V., Bhatt, D. L., Heidenreich, P. A., Eapen, Z. J., Hernandez, A. F., Yancy, C. W., Fonarow, G. C. 2015; 3 (11): 906-916

    Abstract

    The authors sought to describe characteristics, treatments, and in-hospital outcomes of hospitalized heart failure (HF) patients stratified by etiology.Whether characteristics and outcomes of HF patients differ by cardiomyopathy etiology is unknown.The authors analyzed data on 156,013 hospitalized HF patients from 319 U.S. hospitals participating in Get With The Guidelines-HF between 2005 and 2013. Characteristics, treatments, and in-hospital outcomes were assessed by HF etiology. Standard regression techniques adjusted for site and patient-level characteristics were used to examine association between HF etiology and in-hospital outcomes.Median age was 75 years, 69.2% were white, and 49.5% were women. Overall, 92,361 patients (59.2%) had ischemic cardiomyopathy and 63,652 patients (40.8%) had nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM). Hypertensive (n = 28,141; 48.5%) and idiopathic (n = 17,808; 30.7%) cardiomyopathies accounted for the vast majority of NICM patients. Post-partum (n = 209; 0.4%), viral (n = 447; 0.8%), chemotherapy (n = 721; 1.2%), substance abuse (n = 2,653; 4.6%), familial (n = 556; 1.0%), and other (n = 7,523; 13.0%) etiologies were far less frequent. There were significant differences in baseline characteristics between those with ischemic cardiomyopathy compared with NICM with respect to age (76 years vs. 72 years), sex (44.4% vs. 56.9% women), and ejection fraction (38% vs. 45%). Risk-adjusted quality of care provided to eligible patients varied minimally by etiology. Similarly, in-hospital mortality did not differ among ischemic compared with NICM patients. However, among NICM patients, only hypertensive cardiomyopathy had a lower mortality rate compared with idiopathic NICM (adjusted odds ratio: 0.83; 95% confidence interval: 0.71 to 0.97).Characteristics of hospitalized HF patients vary by etiology. Both risk-adjusted quality of care and in-hospital outcomes did not differ by etiology.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jchf.2015.06.012

    View details for Web of Science ID 000365657100010

    View details for PubMedID 26454848

  • PROVIDERS' PERCEPTIONS OF INSTITUTIONAL, PATIENT, AND FAMILY BARRIERS TO HEART FAILURE SELF-MANAGEMENT Slightam, C., Piette, J. D., Nelson, K., Rosland, A., Heidenreich, P., Timko, C., Nevedal, A., Trivedi, R. OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. 2015: 653
  • SUCCEED: A PILOT STUDY OF A HEART FAILURE SELF-MANAGEMENT PROGRAM FOR COUPLES Trivedi, R., Slightam, C., Piette, J. D., Nelson, K., Rosland, A., Heidenreich, P., Asch, S., Timko, C. OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. 2015: 822?23
  • Amiodarone and risk of death in contemporary patients with atrial fibrillation: Findings from The Retrospective Evaluation and Assessment of Therapies in AF study AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Ullal, A. J., Than, C. T., Fan, J., Schmitt, S., Perino, A. C., Kaiser, D. W., Heidenreich, P. A., Frayne, S. M., Phibbs, C. S., Turakhia, M. P. 2015; 170 (5): 1033-U231

    Abstract

    There are limited data on mortality outcomes associated with use of amiodarone in atrial fibrillation and flutter (AF).We evaluated the association of amiodarone use with mortality in patients with newly diagnosed AF using complete data from the Department of Veterans Affairs national health care system. We included patients seen in an outpatient setting within 90 days of a new diagnosis for nonvalvular AF between Veterans Affairs fiscal years 2004 and 2008. Multivariate analysis and propensity-matched Cox proportional hazards regression were used to evaluate the association of amiodarone use to death.Of 122,465 patients (353,168 person-years of follow-up, age 72.1 ± 10.3 years, 98.4% males), amiodarone was prescribed in 11,655 (9.5%). Cumulative, unadjusted mortality rates were higher for amiodarone recipients than for nonrecipients (87 vs 73 per 1,000 person-years, P < .001). However, in multivariate and propensity-matched survival analyses, there was no significant difference in mortality (multivariate hazard ratio 1.01, 95% CI 0.97-1.05, P = .51, and propensity-matched hazard ratio 1.02, 95% CI 0.97-1.07, P = .45). The hazard of death was not modified by age, sex, heart failure, kidney function, ?-blocker use, or warfarin use, but there was evidence of effect modification among patients diagnosed with AF as an inpatient versus outpatient.In a national health care system population of newly diagnosed AF, overall use of amiodarone as an early treatment strategy was not associated with mortality.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2015.07.023

    View details for Web of Science ID 000364434600026

    View details for PubMedID 26542514

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4800972

  • Anticoagulation in Atrial Fibrillation: Impact of Mental Illness AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MANAGED CARE Schmitt, S. K., Turakhia, M. P., Phibbs, C. S., Moos, R. H., Berlowitz, D., Heidenreich, P., Chiu, V. Y., Go, A. S., Friedman, S. A., Than, C. T., Frayne, S. M. 2015; 21 (11): E609-E617

    Abstract

    To characterize warfarin eligibility and receipt among Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patients with and without mental health conditions (MHCs).Retrospective cohort study.This observational study identified VHA atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with and without MHCs in 2004. We examined unadjusted MHC-related differences in warfarin eligibility and warfarin receipt among warfarin-eligible patients, using logistic regression for any MHC and for specific MHCs (adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics).Of 125,670 patients with AF, most (96.8%) were warfarin-eligible based on a CHADS2 stroke risk score. High stroke risk and contraindications to anticoagulation were both more common in patients with MHC. Warfarin-eligible patients with MHC were less likely to receive warfarin than those without MHC (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.90; 95% CI, 0.87-0.94). The association between MHC and warfarin receipt among warfarin-eligible patients varied by specific MHC. Patients with anxiety disorders (AOR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.80-0.93), psychotic disorders (AOR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.65-0.90), and alcohol use disorders (AOR 0.62, 95% CI 0.54-0.72) were less likely to receive warfarin than patients without these conditions, whereas patients with depressive disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder were no less likely to receive warfarin than patients without these conditions.Compared with patients with AF without MHCs, those with MHCs are less likely to be eligible for warfarin receipt and, among those eligible, are less likely to receive such treatment. Although patients with AF with MHC need careful assessment of bleeding risk, this finding suggests potential missed opportunities for more intensive therapy among some individuals with MHCs.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000379911700003

    View details for PubMedID 26735294

  • Amiodarone and risk of death in contemporary patients with atrial fibrillation: Findings from The Retrospective Evaluation and Assessment of Therapies in AF study. American heart journal Ullal, A. J., Than, C. T., Fan, J., Schmitt, S., Perino, A. C., Kaiser, D. W., Heidenreich, P. A., Frayne, S. M., Phibbs, C. S., Turakhia, M. P. 2015; 170 (5): 1033-1041 e1

    Abstract

    There are limited data on mortality outcomes associated with use of amiodarone in atrial fibrillation and flutter (AF).We evaluated the association of amiodarone use with mortality in patients with newly diagnosed AF using complete data from the Department of Veterans Affairs national health care system. We included patients seen in an outpatient setting within 90 days of a new diagnosis for nonvalvular AF between Veterans Affairs fiscal years 2004 and 2008. Multivariate analysis and propensity-matched Cox proportional hazards regression were used to evaluate the association of amiodarone use to death.Of 122,465 patients (353,168 person-years of follow-up, age 72.1 ± 10.3 years, 98.4% males), amiodarone was prescribed in 11,655 (9.5%). Cumulative, unadjusted mortality rates were higher for amiodarone recipients than for nonrecipients (87 vs 73 per 1,000 person-years, P < .001). However, in multivariate and propensity-matched survival analyses, there was no significant difference in mortality (multivariate hazard ratio 1.01, 95% CI 0.97-1.05, P = .51, and propensity-matched hazard ratio 1.02, 95% CI 0.97-1.07, P = .45). The hazard of death was not modified by age, sex, heart failure, kidney function, ?-blocker use, or warfarin use, but there was evidence of effect modification among patients diagnosed with AF as an inpatient versus outpatient.In a national health care system population of newly diagnosed AF, overall use of amiodarone as an early treatment strategy was not associated with mortality.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2015.07.023

    View details for PubMedID 26542514

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4800972

  • ACC/AHA/STS Statement on the Future of Registries and the Performance Measurement Enterprise: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Performance Measures and The Society of Thoracic Surgeons ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY Bhatt, D. L., Drozda, J. P., Shahian, D. M., Chan, P. S., Fonarow, G. C., Heidenreich, P. A., Jacobs, J. P., Masoudi, F. A., Peterson, E. D., Welke, K. F. 2015; 100 (5): 1926-1941
  • Team-Based Care and Quality A Move Toward Evidence-Based Policy JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Harrington, R. A., Heidenreich, P. A. 2015; 66 (16): 1813?15

    View details for PubMedID 26483106

  • Medication Initiation Burden Required to Comply With Heart Failure Guideline Recommendations and Hospital Quality Measures CIRCULATION Allen, L. A., Fonarow, G. C., Liang, L., Schulte, P. J., Masoudi, F. A., Rumsfeld, J. S., Ho, P. M., Eapen, Z. J., Hernandez, A. F., Heidenreich, P. A., Bhatt, D. L., Peterson, E. D., Krumholz, H. M. 2015; 132 (14): 1347-1353
  • Variation in use of echocardiography among veterans who use the Veterans Health Administration vs Medicare. American heart journal Kini, V., McCarthy, F. H., Rajaei, S., Epstein, A. J., Heidenreich, P. A., Groeneveld, P. W. 2015; 170 (4): 805-811

    Abstract

    Rapid growth in the provision of cardiac imaging tests has led to concerns about overuse. Little is known about the degree to which health care delivery system characteristics influence use and variation in echocardiography.We analyzed administrative claims of veterans with heart failure older than 65 years from 2007 to 2010 across 34 metropolitan service areas (MSAs). We compared overall rates and geographic variation in use of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) between veterans who used the Veterans Health Administration (VA) and propensity-matched veterans who used Medicare. "Dual users" were excluded.There were no significant differences in clinical characteristics or mortality between the propensity-matched cohorts (overall n = 30,404 veterans, mean age 76 years, mortality rate 52%). The Medicare cohort had a significantly higher overall rate of TTE use compared with the VA cohort (1.25 vs 0.38 TTEs per person-year, incidence rate ratio 2.89 [95% CI 2.80-3.00], both P < .001), but a similar coefficient of variation across MSAs (0.36 [95% CI 0.27-0.45] vs 0.48 [95% CI 0.37-0.59]). There was a moderate to strong correlation in variation at the MSA level between cohorts (Spearman r = 0.58, P < .001).Overall rates of TTE use were significantly higher in a Medicare cohort compared with a propensity score-matched VA cohort of veterans with heart failure living in urban areas, with similar relative degrees of geographic variation and moderate to strong regional correlation. Rates of TTE use may be strongly influenced by health care system characteristics, but local practice styles influence echocardiography rates irrespective of health system.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2015.07.016

    View details for PubMedID 26386805

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4777352

  • Defibrillator implantations for primary prevention in the United States: Inappropriate care or inadequate documentation: Insights from the National Cardiovascular Data ICD Registry. Heart rhythm Kaiser, D. W., Tsai, V., Heidenreich, P. A., Goldstein, M. K., Wang, Y., Curtis, J., Turakhia, M. P. 2015; 12 (10): 2086-2093

    Abstract

    Prior studies have reported that more than 20% of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantations in the United States do not adhere to trial-based criteria.We sought to investigate the patient characteristics associated with not meeting the inclusion criteria of the clinical trials that have demonstrated the efficacy of primary prevention ICDs.Using data from the National Cardiovascular Data Registry's ICD Registry, we identified patients who received ICDs for primary prevention from January 2006 to December 2008. We determined whether patients met the inclusion criteria of at least 1 of the 4 ICD primary prevention trials: Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial (MADIT), MADIT-II, Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial (SCD-HeFT), and the Multicenter Unsustained Tachycardia Trial (MUSTT).Among 150,264 patients, 86% met criteria for an ICD implantation based on trial data. The proportion of patients who did not meet trial-based criteria increased as age decreased. In multivariate analysis, the significant predictors for not meeting trial criteria included prior cardiac transplantation (odds ratio [OR] 2.1), pediatric electrophysiology operator (OR 2.0), and high-grade atrioventricular conduction disease (OR 1.4).Among National Cardiovascular Data Registry registrants receiving first-time ICDs for primary prevention, the majority met trial-based criteria. Multivariate analyses suggested that many patients who did not meet the trial-based criteria may have had clinical circumstances that warranted ICD implantation. These findings caution against the use of trial-based indications to determine site quality metrics that could penalize sites that care for younger patients. The planned incorporation of appropriate use criteria into the ICD registry may better characterize patient- and site-level quality and performance.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hrthm.2015.05.010

    View details for PubMedID 25982720

  • Facility variation and predictors of serum potassium monitoring after initiation of a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist in patients with heart failure. American heart journal Chauhan, V., Dev, S., Pham, M., Lin, S., Heidenreich, P. 2015; 170 (3): 543-549

    Abstract

    Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) have been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction but are associated with hyperkalemia. We sought to evaluate the frequency, variation, and predictors associated with serum potassium monitoring in patients with HF initiated on an MRA among facilities in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care System.We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of patients with HF across 133 Veterans Affairs facilities from 2003 to 2013 who were given a new prescription of an MRA. The primary outcome was the mean percentage of patients per facility with serum potassium monitoring within 14 days of MRA dispensing. Univariate and covariate analyses were performed to determine factors associated with monitoring.There were 142,880 patients identified with HF initiated on an MRA who met the study inclusion and exclusion criteria. The mean (SD) percentage of patients per facility with serum potassium monitoring within 14 days was 41.6% (standard deviation 8.0%; minimum 18.9%, maximum 56.7%). Facilities with a higher frequency of monitoring were associated with membership in the Council on Teaching Hospitals (n = 70, P < .0001), had academic affiliations (n = 100, P < .0001), and a higher annual volume of patients with HF (?200 patients, P < .0001).In a large multicenter national sample of patients with HF receiving a new MRA prescription, the frequency of serum potassium monitoring was below recommended guidelines. Academic facilities and those with a higher volume of patients with HF were associated with an increased frequency of monitoring.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2015.06.006

    View details for PubMedID 26385038

  • Association Between Comorbidities and Outcomes in Heart Failure Patients With and Without an Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator for Primary Prevention JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION Khazanie, P., Hellkamp, A. S., Fonarow, G. C., Bhatt, D. L., Masoudi, F. A., Anstrom, K. J., Heidenreich, P. A., Yancy, C. W., Curtis, L. H., Hernandez, A. F., Peterson, E. D., Al-Khatib, S. M. 2015; 4 (8)

    Abstract

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy is associated with improved outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF), but whether this association holds among older patients with multiple comorbid illnesses and worse HF burden remains unclear.Using the National Cardiovascular Data Registry's ICD Registry and the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure (GWTG-HF) registry linked with Medicare claims, we examined outcomes associated with primary-prevention ICD versus no ICD among HF patients aged ?65 years in clinical practice. We included patients with an ejection fraction ?35% who received (ICD Registry) and who did not receive (GWTG-HF) an ICD. Compared with patients with an ICD, patients in the non-ICD group were older and more likely to be female and white. In matched cohorts, the 3-year adjusted mortality rate was lower in the ICD group versus the non-ICD group (46.7% versus 55.8%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.76; 95% CI 0.69 to 0.83). There was no associated difference in all-cause readmission (HR 0.99; 95% CI 0.92 to 1.08) but a lower risk of HF readmission (HR 0.88; 95% CI 0.80 to 0.97). When compared with no ICD, ICDs were also associated with better survival in patients with ?3 comorbidities (HR 0.77; 95% CI 0.69 to 0.87) and >3 comorbidities (HR 0.77; 95% CI 0.64 to 0.93) and in patients with no hospitalization for HF (HR 0.75; 95% CI 0.65 to 0.86) and at least 1 prior HF hospitalization (HR 0.69; 95% CI 0.58 to 0.82). In subgroup analyses, there were no interactions between ICD and mortality risk for comorbidity burden (P=0.95) and for prior HF hospitalization (P=0.46).Among older HF patients, ICDs for primary prevention were associated with lower risk of mortality even among those with high comorbid illness burden and prior HF hospitalization.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/JAHA.115.002061

    View details for Web of Science ID 000364150900016

    View details for PubMedID 26251283

  • Trends in the Use of Guideline-based Therapies Among Dialysis Patients Hospitalized with Heart Failure: Findings from Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure Pandey, A., Golwala, H., DeVore, A., Lu, D., Madden, G., Bhatt, D. L., Schulte, P., Heidenreich, P., Yancy, C., Hernandez, A., Fonarow, G. C. CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE INC MEDICAL PUBLISHERS. 2015: S114?S115
  • Lack of Improvement in 30-day Readmission Rates for Patients Hospitalized with Heart Failure: Data from Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure Registry Bergethon, K. E., Ju, C., DeVore, A. D., Hardy, N., Fonarow, G. C., Yancy, C. W., Heidenreich, P. A., Bhatt, D. L., Peterson, E. D., Hemandez, A. F. CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE INC MEDICAL PUBLISHERS. 2015: S10
  • Heart failure patients hospitalised with bacterial infections: a US nationwide analysis of concomitant clostridium difficile infection rates and in-hospital mortality Mamic, P., Heidenreich, P., Tennakoon, L., Staudenmayer, K. OXFORD UNIV PRESS. 2015: 29
  • Cluster-Randomized Trial of Personalized Site Performance Feedback in Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR QUALITY AND OUTCOMES DeVore, A. D., Cox, M., Heidenreich, P. A., Fonarow, G. C., Yancy, C. W., Eapen, Z. J., Peterson, E. D., Hernandez, A. F. 2015; 8 (4): 421-427

    Abstract

    There is significant variation in the delivery of evidence-based care for patients with heart failure (HF), but there is limited evidence defining the best methods to improve the quality of care.We performed a cluster-randomized trial of personalized site performance feedback at 147 hospitals participating in the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure quality improvement program from October 2009 to March 2011. The intervention provided sites with specific data on their heart failure achievement and quality measures in addition to the usual Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure tools. The primary outcome for our trial was improvement in site composite quality of care score. Overall, 73 hospitals (n=33 886 patients) received the intervention, whereas 74 hospitals (n=37 943 patients) did not. One year after the intervention, both the intervention and control arms had a similar mean change in percentage points in their composite quality score (absolute change, +0.31 [SE, 1.51] versus +3.18 [SE, 1.68] in control; P=0.21). Similarly, none of the individual achievement measures or quality measures improved more at intervention versus control hospitals.Our site-based intervention, which included personalized site feedback on adherence to quality metrics, was not able to elicit more quality improvement beyond that already associated with participation in the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure program.URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00979264.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.114.001333

    View details for Web of Science ID 000358214000014

  • Heart Failure Prevention and Team-based Interventions HEART FAILURE CLINICS Heidenreich, P. 2015; 11 (3): 349-?

    Abstract

    There is substantial opportunity to reduce health care costs through prevention of heart failure. Team-based management of medical homes and large populations will be important for the success of any prevention interventions. Clinical trials of treatment are needed to show that heart failure is reduced by treatment. A team-based approach to treatment of asymptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) can work well with the availability of electronic medical records and a population approach to health. Attention should be given to optimizing risk factor reduction and preventive treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers and ?-blockers if LVSD is present.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hfc.2015.03.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000357570900003

    View details for PubMedID 26142634

  • Cluster-Randomized Trial of Personalized Site Performance Feedback in Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure. Circulation. Cardiovascular quality and outcomes DeVore, A. D., Cox, M., Heidenreich, P. A., Fonarow, G. C., Yancy, C. W., Eapen, Z. J., Peterson, E. D., Hernandez, A. F. 2015; 8 (4): 421-427

    Abstract

    There is significant variation in the delivery of evidence-based care for patients with heart failure (HF), but there is limited evidence defining the best methods to improve the quality of care.We performed a cluster-randomized trial of personalized site performance feedback at 147 hospitals participating in the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure quality improvement program from October 2009 to March 2011. The intervention provided sites with specific data on their heart failure achievement and quality measures in addition to the usual Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure tools. The primary outcome for our trial was improvement in site composite quality of care score. Overall, 73 hospitals (n=33 886 patients) received the intervention, whereas 74 hospitals (n=37 943 patients) did not. One year after the intervention, both the intervention and control arms had a similar mean change in percentage points in their composite quality score (absolute change, +0.31 [SE, 1.51] versus +3.18 [SE, 1.68] in control; P=0.21). Similarly, none of the individual achievement measures or quality measures improved more at intervention versus control hospitals.Our site-based intervention, which included personalized site feedback on adherence to quality metrics, was not able to elicit more quality improvement beyond that already associated with participation in the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure program.URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00979264.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.114.001333

    View details for PubMedID 26175533

  • Variation in performance measure criteria significantly affects cardiology practice rankings: Insights from the National Cardiovascular Data Registry's Practice Innovation and Clinical Excellence Registry AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Eapen, Z. J., Tang, F., Jones, P. G., Maddox, T. M., Oetgen, W. J., Spertus, J. A., Rumsfeld, J. S., Heidenreich, P. A., Peterson, E. D., Drozda, J. P. 2015; 169 (6): 847-853

    Abstract

    Million Hearts is a national initiative to prevent 1 million heart attacks and strokes over 5 years by improving cardiovascular prevention. An important tool in the success of programs like Million Hearts is public ranking on the quality of practices, yet different measures may provide different rankings, so the true quality of practices is difficult to discern. We evaluated the quality of ambulatory cardiology care using performance measure metrics.We compared rankings of practices participating in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry's Practice Innovation and Clinical Excellence Registry using measures from (1) the physician quality reporting system and (2) the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/Physician Consortium for Performance Improvement. We compared achievement rates for measures between the 2 frameworks and determined correlations in rankings using Spearman correlation coefficients.From January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2012, there were 1,711,326 patients enrolled from 111 US practices. Among eligible patients, the physician quality reporting system and American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/Physician Consortium for Performance Improvement measures were achieved in 76.1% versus 77.4% for antiplatelet prescription (P < .001), 68.3% versus 90.8% for blood pressure control (P < .001), 26.9% versus 43.4% for cholesterol control (P < .001), and 37.4% versus 40.6% for smoking cessation (P = .383). Practice rankings were strongly correlated for antiplatelet prescription (correlation coefficient 0.98) and cholesterol control (0.92) but poorly correlated for blood pressure control (0.39) and smoking cessation (0.22).Evaluation of preventive care and individual practice rankings vary significantly depending on how measures are defined. Publicly reported measures need to be validly associated with outcomes to avoid incorrectly evaluating practice performance and failing to achieve public health goals.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2015.02.021

    View details for Web of Science ID 000355213300014

    View details for PubMedID 26027623

  • Lack of Impact of Electronic Health Records on Quality of Care and Outcomes for Ischemic Stroke JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Joynt, K. E., Bhatt, D. L., Schwamm, L. H., Xian, Y., Heidenreich, P. A., Fonarow, G. C., Smith, E. E., Neely, M. L., Grau-Sepulveda, M. V., Hernandez, A. F. 2015; 65 (18): 1964-1972

    Abstract

    Electronic health records (EHRs) may be key tools for improving the quality of health care, particularly for conditions for which guidelines are rapidly evolving and timely care is critical, such as ischemic stroke.The goal of this study was to determine whether hospitals with EHRs differed on quality or outcome measures for ischemic stroke from those without EHRs.We studied 626,473 patients from 1,236 U.S. hospitals in Get With the Guidelines-Stroke (GWTG-Stroke) from 2007 through 2010, linked with the American Hospital Association annual survey to determine the presence of EHRs. We conducted patient-level logistic regression analyses for each of the outcomes of interest.A total of 511 hospitals had EHRs by the end of the study period. Hospitals with EHRs were larger and were more often teaching hospitals and stroke centers. After controlling for patient and hospital characteristics, patients admitted to hospitals with EHRs had similar odds of receiving "all-or-none" care (odds ratio [OR]: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.06; p=0.12), of discharge home (OR: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.04; p=0.15), and of in-hospital mortality (OR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.96 to 1.05; p=0.82). The odds of having a length of stay>4 days was slightly lower at hospitals with EHRs (OR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95 to 0.99; p=0.01).In our sample of GWTG-Stroke hospitals, EHRs were not associated with higher-quality care or better clinical outcomes for stroke care. Although EHRs may be necessary for an increasingly high-tech, transparent healthcare system, as currently implemented, they do not appear to be sufficient to improve outcomes for this important disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2015.02.059

    View details for Web of Science ID 000353991000009

    View details for PubMedID 25953748

  • Primary Results of the Patient-Centered Disease Management (PCDM) for Heart Failure Study A Randomized Clinical Trial JAMA INTERNAL MEDICINE Bekelman, D. B., Plomondon, M. E., Carey, E. P., Sullivan, M. D., Nelson, K. M., Hattler, B., McBryde, C. F., Lehmann, K. G., Gianola, K., Heidenreich, P. A., Rumsfeld, J. S. 2015; 175 (5): 725-732

    Abstract

    Heart failure (HF) has a major effect on patients' health status, including their symptom burden, functional status, and health-related quality of life.To determine the effectiveness of a collaborative care patient-centered disease management (PCDM) intervention to improve the health status of patients with HF.The Patient-Centered Disease Management (PCDM) trial was a multisite randomized clinical trial comparing a collaborative care PCDM intervention with usual care in patients with HF. A population-based sample of 392 patients with an HF diagnosis from 4 Veterans Affairs centers who had a Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) overall summary score of less than 60 (heavy symptom burden and impaired functional status and quality of life) were enrolled between May 2009 and June 2011.The PCDM intervention included collaborative care by a multidisciplinary care team consisting of a nurse coordinator, cardiologist, psychiatrist, and primary care physician; home telemonitoring and patient self-management support; and screening and treatment for comorbid depression.The primary outcome was change in the KCCQ overall summary score at 1 year (a 5-point change is clinically significant). Mortality, hospitalization, and depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire 9) were secondary outcomes.There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between patients randomized to the PCDM intervention (n=187) vs usual care (n=197); baseline mean KCCQ overall summary scores were 37.9 vs 36.9 (P=.48). There was significant improvement in the KCCQ overall summary scores in both groups after 1 year (mean change, 13.5 points in each group), with no significant difference between groups (P=.97). The intervention was not associated with greater improvement in the KCCQ overall summary scores when the effect over time was estimated using 3-month, 6-month, and 12-month data (P=.74). Among secondary outcomes, there were significantly fewer deaths at 1 year in the intervention arm (8 of 187 [4.3%]) than in the usual care arm (19 of 197 [9.6%]) (P?=?.04). Among those who screened positive for depression, there was a greater improvement in the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 scores after 1 year in the intervention arm than in the usual care arm (2.1 points lower, P=.01). There was no significant difference in 1-year hospitalization rates between the intervention arm and the usual care arm (29.4% vs 29.9%, P=.87).This multisite randomized trial of a multifaceted HF PCDM intervention did not demonstrate improved patient health status compared with usual care.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00461513.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.0315

    View details for Web of Science ID 000356178400010

    View details for PubMedID 25822284

  • Feasibility of Extended Ambulatory Electrocardiogram Monitoring to Identify Silent Atrial Fibrillation in High-risk Patients: The Screening Study for Undiagnosed Atrial Fibrillation (STUDY-AF) CLINICAL CARDIOLOGY Turakhia, M. P., Ullal, A. J., Hoang, D. D., Than, C. T., Miller, J. D., Friday, K. J., Perez, M. V., Freeman, J. V., Wang, P. J., Heidenreich, P. A. 2015; 38 (5): 285-292

    Abstract

    Identification of silent atrial fibrillation (AF) could prevent stroke and other sequelae.Screening for AF using continuous ambulatory electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring can detect silent AF in asymptomatic in patients with known risk factors.We performed a single-center prospective screening study using a wearable patch-based device that provides up to 2 weeks of continuous ambulatory ECG monitoring (iRhythm Technologies, Inc.). Inclusion criteria were age ?55 years and ?2 of the following risk factors: coronary disease, heart failure, hypertension, diabetes, sleep apnea. We excluded patients with prior AF, stroke, transient ischemic attack, implantable pacemaker or defibrillator, or with palpitations or syncope in the prior year.Out of 75 subjects (all male, age 69 ± 8.0 years; ejection fraction 57% ± 8.7%), AF was detected in 4 subjects (5.3%; AF burden 28% ± 48%). Atrial tachycardia (AT) was present in 67% (?4 beats), 44% (?8 beats), and 6.7% (?60 seconds) of subjects. The combined diagnostic yield of sustained AT/AF was 11%. In subjects without sustained AT/AF, 11 (16%) had ?30 supraventricular ectopic complexes per hour.Outpatient extended ECG screening for asymptomatic AF is feasible, with AF identified in 1 in 20 subjects and sustained AT/AF identified in 1 in 9 subjects, respectively. We also found a high prevalence of asymptomatic AT and frequent supraventricular ectopic complexes, which may be relevant to development of AF or stroke. If confirmed in a larger study, primary screening for AF could have a significant impact on public health.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/clc.22387

    View details for PubMedID 25873476

  • Effect of Minor Liver Function Test Abnormalities and Values Within the Normal Range on Survival in Heart Failure AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY Ambrosy, A. P., Dunn, T. P., Heidenreich, P. A. 2015; 115 (7): 938-941

    Abstract

    Liver function test (LFT) abnormalities are often observed in patients with heart failure (HF). However, the relation of LFTs with outcomes has not been well described. Patients of the VA Palo Alto Health Care System (3 inpatient facilities and 7 community clinics) with a complete set of LFTs in the 60 days before a first HF diagnosis were included in the analysis from January 2005 to April 2013. A total of 2,096 patients met inclusion criteria. Patients were a mean of 71 ± 12 years old, 97% were men, 57% had a previous diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, and the mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 51 ± 12%. The median (twenty fifth and seventy fifth) values were albumin 3.6 g/dl (3.3, 3.9), alanine transaminase 21 IU/L (16, 30), aspartate transaminase 24 IU/L (20,31), AP 70 IU/L (57, 87), and total bilirubin 0.8 mg/dl (0.6, 1.0). There were 851 deaths (41%) over a mean duration of 41 ± 27 months. Mortality significantly increased with lower values of albumin and alanine transaminase and higher levels of aspartate transaminase and AP. The association with total bilirubin was not significant. In conclusion, many LFT values in the "normal" range are independently associated with decreased survival beyond traditional risk factors for mortality in HF.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2015.01.023

    View details for Web of Science ID 000352253000015

    View details for PubMedID 25708860

  • Support for Management of Multiple Comorbidities through a Performance Measure Clinical Dashboard for Primary Care Goldstein, M. K., Tu, S. W., Martins, S. B., Oshiro, C., Yuen, K., Hwang, T., Wang, D., Furman, A., Ashcraft, M., Heidenreich, P. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 2015: S208
  • Heart Rate at Hospital Discharge in Patients With Heart Failure Is Associated With Mortality and Rehospitalization JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION Laskey, W. K., Alomari, I., Cox, M., Schulte, P. J., Zhao, X., Hernandez, A. F., Heidenreich, P. A., Eapen, Z. J., Yancy, C., Bhatt, D. L., Fonarow, G. C. 2015; 4 (4)

    Abstract

    Whether heart rate upon discharge following hospitalization for heart failure is associated with long-term adverse outcomes and whether this association differs between patients with sinus rhythm (SR) and atrial fibrillation (AF) have not been well studied.We conducted a retrospective cohort study from clinical registry data linked to Medicare claims for 46 217 patients participating in Get With The Guidelines(®)-Heart Failure. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate the association between discharge heart rate and all-cause mortality, all-cause readmission, and the composite outcome of mortality/readmission through 1 year. For SR and AF patients with heart rate ?75, the association between heart rate and mortality (expressed as hazard ratio [HR] per 10 beats-per-minute increment) was significant at 0 to 30 days (SR: HR 1.30, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.39; AF: HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.29) and 31 to 365 days (SR: HR 1.15, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.20; AF: HR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.08). Similar associations between heart rate and all-cause readmission and the composite outcome were obtained for SR and AF patients from 0 to 30 days but only in the composite outcome for SR patients over the longer term. The HR from 0 to 30 days exceeded that from 31 to 365 days for both SR and AF patients. At heart rates <75, an association was significant for mortality only for both SR and AF patients.Among older patients hospitalized with heart failure, higher discharge heart rate was associated with increased risks of death and rehospitalization, with higher risk in the first 30 days and for SR compared with AF.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/JAHA.114.001626

    View details for Web of Science ID 000354137300017

    View details for PubMedID 25904590

  • READMISSIONS IN HEART FAILURE AND MYOCARDIAL INFARCTIONS: A PARADOXICAL IMPROVEMENT IN QUALITY OF CARE Rajaei, S., Teerlink, J., Whooley, M., Sahay, A., Heidenreich, P. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2015: A1055
  • COST VARIATION AND ASSOCIATED OUTCOMES OF CATHETER ABLATION FOR ATRIAL FIBRILLATION Perino, A., Fan, J., Schmitt, S., Chang, A. Y., Kaiser, D., Heidenreich, P., Swan, C., Narayan, S., Wang, P., Turakhia, M. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2015: A277
  • USE OF HIGH POTENCY STATINS FOR PATIENTS WITH ESTABLISHED ATHEROSCLEROTIC CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE: PRACTICE IMPACT OF THE NEW CHOLESTEROL GUIDELINES Rodriguez, F., Heidenreich, P. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2015: A1436
  • Incentives for Clinical Decisions Where Evidence Is Lacking JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Heidenreich, P. 2015; 65 (9): 928?30

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2015.01.015

    View details for Web of Science ID 000350216700010

    View details for PubMedID 25744010

  • Primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and survival in older women. JACC. Heart failure Zeitler, E. P., Hellkamp, A. S., Fonarow, G. C., Hammill, S. C., Curtis, L. H., Hernandez, A. F., Al-Khalidi, H. R., Curtis, J. P., Heidenreich, P. A., Anstrom, K. J., Peterson, E. D., Mark, D. B., Hammill, B. G., Sanders, G. D., Al-Khatib, S. M. 2015; 3 (2): 159-167

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to assess the benefit of primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) in women.Clinical trials of primary prevention ICDs enrolled a limited number of women.Using a propensity score method, we matched 490 women ?65 years of age who received an ICD during a hospitalization for heart failure in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry ICD Registry from January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2007, to 490 ICD-eligible women without an ICD hospitalized for heart failure in the Get With The Guidelines for Heart Failure database from January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2009. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality obtained from the Medicare Claims Database. An identical analysis was conducted in men.Median follow-up for patients with an ICD was 4.6 years versus 3.2 years for patients with no ICD. Compared with women with no ICD, those with an ICD were younger and less frequently white. In the matched cohorts, the survival of women with an ICD was significantly longer than that of women without an ICD (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.79, 95% confidence interval: 0.66 to 0.95; p = 0.013). Similarly, men with an ICD had longer survival than men without an ICD (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.73, 95% confidence interval: 0.65 to 0.83; p < 0.0001). There was no interaction between sex and the presence of an ICD with respect to survival (p = 0.44).Among older women with left ventricular dysfunction, a primary prevention ICD was associated with a significant survival benefit that was nearly identical to that seen in men. These findings support the use of primary prevention ICDs in eligible patients regardless of sex.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jchf.2014.09.006

    View details for PubMedID 25543969

  • Primary Prevention Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators in Older Racial and Ethnic Minority Patients CIRCULATION-ARRHYTHMIA AND ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY Pokorney, S. D., Hellkamp, A. S., Yancy, C. W., Curtis, L. H., Hammill, S. C., Peterson, E. D., Masoudi, F. A., Bhatt, D. L., Al-Khalidi, H. R., Heidenreich, P. A., Anstrom, K. J., Fonarow, G. C., Al-Khatib, S. M. 2015; 8 (1): 145-U215

    Abstract

    Racial and ethnic minorities are under-represented in clinical trials of primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs). This analysis investigates the association between primary prevention ICDs and mortality among Medicare, racial/ethnic minority patients.Data from Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure Registry and National Cardiovascular Data Registry's ICD Registry were used to perform an adjusted comparative effectiveness analysis of primary prevention ICDs in Medicare, racial/ethnic minority patients (nonwhite race or Hispanic ethnicity). Mortality data were obtained from the Medicare denominator file. The relationship of ICD with survival was compared between minority and white non-Hispanic patients. Our analysis included 852 minority patients, 426 ICD and 426 matched non-ICD patients, and 2070 white non-Hispanic patients (1035 ICD and 1035 matched non-ICD patients). Median follow-up was 3.1 years. Median age was 73 years, and median ejection fraction was 23%. Adjusted 3-year mortality rates for minority ICD and non-ICD patients were 44.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 44.2%-45.7%) and 54.3% (95% CI, 53.4%-55.1%), respectively (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.63-0.98; P=0.034). White non-Hispanic patients receiving an ICD had lower adjusted 3-year mortality rates of 47.8% (95% CI, 47.3%-48.3%) compared with 57.3% (95% CI, 56.8%-57.9%) for those with no ICD (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.67%-0.83%; P<0.0001). There was no significant interaction between race/ethnicity and lower mortality risk with ICD (P=0.70).Primary prevention ICDs are associated with lower mortality in nonwhite and Hispanic patients, similar to that seen in white, non-Hispanic patients. These data support a similar approach to ICD patient selection, regardless of race or ethnicity.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCEP.114.001878

    View details for Web of Science ID 000349873000021

    View details for PubMedID 25504649

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4426962

  • Reply: increased mortality by digoxin in patients with atrial fibrillation? Journal of the American College of Cardiology Turakhia, M. P., Heidenreich, P. A. 2015; 65 (2): 221-?

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2014.10.032

    View details for PubMedID 25593068

  • Facilitation of a Multihospital Community of Practice to Increase Enrollment in the Hospital to Home National Quality Improvement Initiative. Joint Commission journal on quality and patient safety / Joint Commission Resources Heidenreich, P. A., Sahay, A., Mittman, B. S., Oliva, N., Gholami, P., Rumsfeld, J. S., Massie, B. M. 2015; 41 (8): 361-369

    Abstract

    Hospital to Home (H2H) is a national quality improvement (QI) initiative composed of three recommended hospital interventions to improve the transition of care for hospitalized patients with heart disease. A study was conducted to determine if enrollment of Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals in H2H and adoption of the recommended interventions would both increase following facilitation of an existing Heart Failure (HF) provider-based community of practice (COP) within the VA health care system. The VA HF COP includes more than 800 VA providers and other VA staff from VA inpatient medical centers.In 2010, 122 VA hospitals were randomized to facilitation using the VA HF COP (intervention) or no facilitation (control). COP members from intervention hospitals were invited to periodic teleconferences promoting H2H and received multiple e-mails asking members to report interest and then progress in H2H implementation.Among the 61 hospitals randomized to HF COP facilitation, 33 (54%) enrolled in H2H, compared with 6 (10%) of 61 control hospitals (p < .001) at five months after randomization. Of 38 intervention hospitals responding to the follow-up survey, 13 stated they had initiated 22 QI projects as a result of the H2H campaign. Another 7 hospitals had planned H2H projects. Of 20 control hospitals that responded, 5 had initiated 9 projects as a result of H2H, and no additional hospitals had plans to do so.Facilitation using the VA HF COP was successful in increasing enrollment in the H2H initiative and providing implementation support for recommended QI projects. Multihospital provider groups are a potentially valuable tool for implementation of national QI campaigns.

    View details for PubMedID 26215525

  • INTERVENTIONS USING THE ELECTRONIC MEDICAL RECORD TO IMPROVE CARE OF PATIENTS WITH HEART DISEASE Heidenreich, P. A. KARGER. 2015: 343
  • Socioeconomic inequalities in quality of care and outcomes among patients with acute coronary syndrome in the modern era of drug eluting stents. Journal of the American Heart Association Yong, C. M., Abnousi, F., Asch, S. M., Heidenreich, P. A. 2014; 3 (6)

    Abstract

    The rapidly changing landscape of percutaneous coronary intervention provides a unique model for examining disparities over time. Previous studies have not examined socioeconomic inequalities in the current era of drug eluting stents (DES).We analyzed 835 070 hospitalizations for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project across all insurance types from 2008 to 2011, examining whether quality of care and outcomes for patients with ACS differed by income (based on zip code of residence) with adjustment for patient characteristics and clustering by hospital. We found that lower-income patients were less likely to receive an angiogram within 24 hours of a ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) (69.5% for IQ1 versus 73.7% for IQ4, P<0.0001, OR 0.79 [0.68 to 0.91]) or within 48 hours of a Non-STEMI (47.6% for IQ1 versus 51.8% for IQ4, P<0.0001, OR 0.86 [0.75 to 0.99]). Lower income was associated with less use of a DES (64.7% for IQ1 versus 71.2% for IQ4, P<0.0001, OR 0.83 [0.74 to 0.93]). However, no differences were found for coronary artery bypass surgery. Among STEMI patients, lower-income patients also had slightly increased adjusted mortality rates (10.8% for IQ1 versus 9.4% for IQ4, P<0.0001, OR 1.17 [1.11 to 1.25]). After further adjusting for time to reperfusion among STEMI patients, mortality differences across income groups decreased.For the most well accepted procedural treatments for ACS, income inequalities have faded. However, such inequalities have persisted for DES use, a relatively expensive and until recently, controversial revascularization procedure. Differences in mortality are significantly associated with differences in time to primary PCI, suggesting an important target for understanding why these inequalities persist.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/JAHA.114.001029

    View details for PubMedID 25398888

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4338689

  • A Call to Arms: New Approaches to an Old Heart Failure Problem JOURNAL OF CARDIAC FAILURE Abnousi, F., Yock, P., Heidenreich, P. 2014; 20 (12): 878?80

    View details for PubMedID 25267078

  • Socioeconomic Inequalities in Quality of Care and Outcomes Among Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome in the Modern Era of Drug Eluting Stents JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION Yong, C. M., Abnousi, F., Asch, S. M., Heidenreich, P. A. 2014; 3 (6)

    Abstract

    The rapidly changing landscape of percutaneous coronary intervention provides a unique model for examining disparities over time. Previous studies have not examined socioeconomic inequalities in the current era of drug eluting stents (DES).We analyzed 835 070 hospitalizations for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project across all insurance types from 2008 to 2011, examining whether quality of care and outcomes for patients with ACS differed by income (based on zip code of residence) with adjustment for patient characteristics and clustering by hospital. We found that lower-income patients were less likely to receive an angiogram within 24 hours of a ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) (69.5% for IQ1 versus 73.7% for IQ4, P<0.0001, OR 0.79 [0.68 to 0.91]) or within 48 hours of a Non-STEMI (47.6% for IQ1 versus 51.8% for IQ4, P<0.0001, OR 0.86 [0.75 to 0.99]). Lower income was associated with less use of a DES (64.7% for IQ1 versus 71.2% for IQ4, P<0.0001, OR 0.83 [0.74 to 0.93]). However, no differences were found for coronary artery bypass surgery. Among STEMI patients, lower-income patients also had slightly increased adjusted mortality rates (10.8% for IQ1 versus 9.4% for IQ4, P<0.0001, OR 1.17 [1.11 to 1.25]). After further adjusting for time to reperfusion among STEMI patients, mortality differences across income groups decreased.For the most well accepted procedural treatments for ACS, income inequalities have faded. However, such inequalities have persisted for DES use, a relatively expensive and until recently, controversial revascularization procedure. Differences in mortality are significantly associated with differences in time to primary PCI, suggesting an important target for understanding why these inequalities persist.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/JAHA.114.001029

    View details for Web of Science ID 000345067600027

    View details for PubMedID 25398888

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4338689

  • ACC/AHA/AACVPR/AAFP/ANA Concepts for Clinician-Patient Shared Accountability in Performance Measures JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Peterson, E. D., Ho, P. M., Barton, M., Beam, C., Burgess, L. H., Casey, D. E., Drozda, J. P., Fonarow, G. C., Goff, D., Grady, K. L., King, D. E., King, M. L., Masoudi, F. A., Nielsen, D. R., Stanko, S., Heidenreich, P. A., Albert, N. M., Chan, P. S., Curtis, L. H., Ferguson, T. B., Jurgens, C., O'Brien, S., Russo, A. M., Thomas, R. J., Ting, H. H., Varosy, P. D. 2014; 64 (20): 2133-2145
  • Clinical Effectiveness of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Versus Medical Therapy Alone Among Patients With Heart Failure Analysis of the ICD Registry and ADHERE CIRCULATION-HEART FAILURE Khazanie, P., Hammill, B. G., Qualls, L. G., Fonarow, G. C., Hammill, S. C., Heidenreich, P. A., Al-Khatib, S. M., Piccini, J. P., Masoudi, F. A., Peterson, P. N., Curtis, J. P., Hernandez, A. F., Curtis, L. H. 2014; 7 (6): 926-U98

    Abstract

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D) reduces morbidity and mortality among selected patients with heart failure in clinical trials. The effectiveness of this therapy in clinical practice has not been well studied.We compared a cohort of 4471 patients from the National Cardiovascular Data Registry's Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator (ICD) Registry hospitalized primarily for heart failure and who received CRT-D between April 1, 2006, and December 31, 2009, to a historical control cohort of 4888 patients with heart failure without CRT-D from the Acute Decompensated Heart Failure National Registry (ADHERE) hospitalized between January 1, 2002, and March 31, 2006. Both registries were linked with Medicare claims to evaluate longitudinal outcomes. We included patients from the ICD Registry with left ventricular ejection fraction ?35% and QRS duration ?120 ms who were admitted for heart failure. We used Cox proportional hazards models to compare outcomes with and without CRT-D after adjustment for important covariates. After multivariable adjustment, CRT-D was associated with lower 3-year risks of death (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.48-0.56; P<0.001), all-cause readmission (hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.73; P<0.001), and cardiovascular readmission (hazard ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.56-0.64; P<0.001). The association of CRT-D with mortality did not vary significantly among subgroups defined by age, sex, race, QRS duration, and optimal medical therapy.CRT-D was associated with lower risks of mortality, all-cause readmission, and cardiovascular readmission than medical therapy alone among patients with heart failure in community practice.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.113.000838

    View details for Web of Science ID 000345288800010

    View details for PubMedID 25227768

  • Evaluating the Cost-effectiveness of Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation. Arrhythmia & electrophysiology review Chang, A. Y., Kaiser, D., Ullal, A., Perino, A. C., Heidenreich, P. A., Turakhia, M. P. 2014; 3 (3): 177-183

    Abstract

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is one of the most common cardiac conditions treated in primary care and specialty cardiology settings, and is associated with considerable morbidity, mortality and cost. Catheter ablation, typically by electrically isolating the pulmonary veins and surrounding tissue, is more effective at maintaining sinus rhythm than conventional antiarrhythmic drug therapy and is now recommended as first-line therapy. From a value standpoint, the cost-effectiveness of ablation must incorporate the upfront procedural costs and risks with the benefits of longer term improvements in quality of life (QOL) and healthcare utilisation. Here, we present a primer on cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA), review the data on cost-effectiveness of AF ablation and outline key areas for further investigation.

    View details for DOI 10.15420/aer.2014.3.3.177

    View details for PubMedID 26835088

  • Outcomes in patients with heart failure with preserved, borderline, and reduced ejection fraction in the Medicare population AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Cheng, R. K., Cox, M., Neely, M. L., Heidenreich, P. A., Bhatt, D. L., Eapen, Z. J., Hernandez, A. F., Butler, J., Yancy, C. W., Fonarow, G. C. 2014; 168 (5): 721-730

    Abstract

    Studies on outcomes among patients with heart failure (HF) with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF), borderline left ventricular ejection fraction (HFbEF), and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFrEF) remain limited. We sought to characterize mortality and readmission in patients with HF in the contemporary era.Get With The Guidelines-HF was linked to Medicare data for longitudinal follow-up. Patients were grouped into HFpEF (left ventricular ejection fraction [EF] ? 50%), HFbEF (40% ? EF < 50%), and HFrEF (EF < 40%). Multivariable models were constructed to examine the relationship between EF and outcomes at 30 days and 1 year and to study trends over time.A total of 40,239 patients from 220 hospitals between 2005 and 2011 were included in the study: 18,897 (47%) had HFpEF, 5,626 (14%) had HFbEF, and 15,716 (39%) had HFrEF. In crude survival analysis, patients with HFrEF had slightly increased mortality compared with HFbEF and HFpEF. After risk adjustment, mortality at 1 year was not significantly different for HFrEF, HFbEF, and HFpEF (HFrEF vs HFpEF, hazard ratio [HR] 1.040 [95% CI 0.998-1.084], and HFbEF vs HFpEF, HR 0.967 [95% CI 0.917-1.020]). Patients with HFpEF had increased risk of all-cause readmission compared with HFrEF. Conversely, risk of cardiovascular and HF readmissions were higher in HFrEF and HFbEF compared with HFpEF.Among patients hospitalized with HF, patients with HFpEF and HFbEF had slightly lower mortality and higher all-cause readmission risk than patients with HFrEF, although the mortality differences did not persist after risk adjustment. Irrespective of EF, these patients experience substantial mortality and readmission highlighting the need for new therapeutic strategies.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2014.07.008

    View details for Web of Science ID 000344434300015

    View details for PubMedID 25440801

  • Healthy Lifestyles and Personal Responsibility JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Heidenreich, P. A. 2014; 64 (17): 1786?88

    View details for PubMedID 25443699

  • Impact of an Expanded Hospital Recognition Program for Heart Failure Quality of Care JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION Heidenreich, P. A., Zhao, X., Hernandez, A. F., Yancy, C. W., Schwamm, L. H., Albert, N. M., Fonarow, G. C. 2014; 3 (5)

    Abstract

    In 2009, the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure program enhanced the standard recognition of hospitals by offering additional recognition if hospitals performed well on certain quality measures. We sought to determine whether initiation of this enhanced recognition opportunity led to acceleration in quality of care for all hospitals participating in the program.We examined hospital-level performance on 9 quality-of-care (process) measures that were added to an existing recognition program (based on existing published performance measures). The rate of increase in use over time 6 months to 2 years after the start of the program was compared with the rate of increase in use for the measures during the 18-month period prior to the start of the program. Use increased for all 9 new quality measures from 2008 to 2011. Among 4 measures with baseline use near or lower than 50%, a statistically significant greater increase in use during the program was seen for implantable cardioverter defibrillator use (program versus preprogram use: odds ratio 1.14, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.23). Among the 5 measures for which baseline use was 50% or higher, the increase in influenza vaccination rates actually slowed. There was no evidence of adverse impact on the 4 established quality measures, a composite of which actually increased faster during the expanded program (adjusted odds ratio 1.08, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.15).A program providing expanded hospital recognition for heart failure had mixed results in accelerating the use of 9 quality measures.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/JAHA.114.000950

    View details for Web of Science ID 000341861200005

    View details for PubMedID 25208954

  • Short- and Long-term Rehospitalization and Mortality for Heart Failure in 4 Racial/Ethnic Populations JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION Vivo, R. P., Krim, S. R., Liang, L., Neely, M., Hernandez, A. F., Eapen, Z. J., Peterson, E. D., Bhatt, D. L., Heidenreich, P. A., Yancy, C. W., Fonarow, G. C. 2014; 3 (5)

    Abstract

    The degree to which outcomes following hospitalization for acute heart failure (HF) vary by racial and ethnic groups is poorly characterized. We sought to compare 30-day and 1-year rehospitalization and mortality rates for HF among 4 race/ethnic groups.Using the Get With The Guidelines-HF registry linked with Medicare data, we compared 30-day and 1-year outcomes between racial/ethnic groups by using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model adjusting for clinical, hospital, and socioeconomic status characteristics. We analyzed 47 149 Medicare patients aged ?65 years who had been discharged for HF between 2005 and 2011: there were 39 213 whites (83.2%), 4946 blacks (10.5%), 2347 Hispanics (5.0%), and 643 Asians/Pacific Islanders (1.4%). Relative to whites, blacks and Hispanics had higher 30-day and 1-year unadjusted readmission rates but lower 30-day and 1-year mortality; Asians had similar 30-day readmission rates but lower 1-year mortality. After risk adjustment, blacks had higher 30-day and 1-year CV readmission than whites but modestly lower short- and long-term mortality; Hispanics had higher 30-day and 1-year readmission rates and similar 1-year mortality than whites, while Asians had similar outcomes. When socioeconomic status data were added to the model, the majority of associations persisted, but the difference in 30-day and 1-year readmission rates between white and Hispanic patients became nonsignificant.Among Medicare patients hospitalized with HF, short- and long-term readmission rates and mortality differed among the 4 major racial/ethnic populations and persisted even after controlling for clinical, hospital, and socioeconomic status variables.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/JAHA.114.001134

    View details for Web of Science ID 000357396800021

    View details for PubMedID 25324354

  • Temporal Trends in Patient Characteristics and Outcomes Among Medicare Beneficiaries Undergoing Primary Prevention Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Placement in the United States, 2006-2010 Results from the National Cardiovascular Data Registry's Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Registry CIRCULATION Borne, R. T., Peterson, P. N., Greenlee, R., Heidenreich, P. A., Wang, Y., Curtis, J. P., Tzou, W. S., Varosy, P. D., Kremers, M. S., Masoudi, F. A. 2014; 130 (10): 845-853

    Abstract

    Contemporary patterns of use and outcomes of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) in community practice settings are not well characterized. We assessed temporal trends in patient characteristics and outcomes among older patients undergoing primary prevention ICD therapy in US hospitals between 2006 and 2010.Using the National Cardiovascular Data Registry's ICD Registry, we identified Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries aged ?65 years and older with left ventricular ejection fraction ?35% who underwent primary prevention ICD implantation, including those receiving concomitant cardiac resynchronization therapy between 2006 and 2010 and could be matched to Medicare claims. Outcomes were mortality and hospitalization (all-cause and heart failure) at 180 days, and device-related complications. We used multivariable hierarchical logistic regression to assess temporal trends in outcomes accounting for changes in patient, physician, and hospital characteristics. The cohort included 117 100 patients. Between 2006 and 2010, only modest changes in patient characteristics were noted. Fewer single lead devices and more cardiac resynchronization therapy devices were used over time. Between 2006 and 2010, there were significant improvements in all outcomes, including 6-month all cause mortality (7.1% in 2006, 6.5% 2010; adjusted odds ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-0.95), 6-month rehospitalization (36.3% in 2006, 33.7% in 2010; adjusted odds ratio, 0.87; 95% confidence interval, 0.83-0.91), and device-related complications (5.8% in 2006, 4.8% in 2010; adjusted odds ratio, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.88).The clinical characteristics of this national population of Medicare patients undergoing primary prevention ICD implantation were stable between 2006 and 2010. Simultaneous improvements in outcomes suggest meaningful advances in the care for this patient population.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.008653

    View details for Web of Science ID 000341689100012

    View details for PubMedID 25095884

  • Association Between Success Rate and Citation Count of Studies of Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation Possible Evidence of Citation Bias CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR QUALITY AND OUTCOMES Perino, A. C., Hoang, D. D., Holmes, T. H., Santangeli, P., Heidenreich, P. A., Perez, M. V., Wang, P. J., Turakhia, M. P. 2014; 7 (5): 687-692

    Abstract

    The preferential citation of studies with the highest success rates could exaggerate perceived effectiveness, particularly for treatments with widely varying published success rates such as radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation.We systematically identified observational studies and clinical trials of radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation between 1990 and 2012. Generalized Poisson regression was used to estimate association between study success rate and total citation count, adjusting for sample size, journal impact factor, time since publication, study design, and whether first or last author was a consensus-defined pre-eminent expert. We identified 174 articles meeting our inclusion criteria (36 289 subjects). After adjustment only for time since publication, a 10-point increase above the mean in pooled reported success rates was associated with a 17.8% increase in citation count at 5 years postpublication (95% confidence interval, 7.1-28.4%; P<0.001). After additional adjustment for impact factor, sample size, randomized trial design, and pre-eminent expert authorship, the association remained significant (18.6% increase in citation count; 95% confidence interval, 7.6-29.6%; P<0.0001). In this full model, time since publication, impact factor, and pre-eminent expert authorship were significant covariates, whereas randomized control trial design and study sample size were not.Among studies of radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation, high success rate was independently associated with citation count, which may indicate citation bias. To readers of the literature, radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation could be perceived to be more effective than the data supports. These findings may have implications for a wide variety of novel cardiovascular therapies.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.114.000912

    View details for Web of Science ID 000342365200011

  • Association between success rate and citation count of studies of radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation: possible evidence of citation bias. Circulation. Cardiovascular quality and outcomes Perino, A. C., Hoang, D. D., Holmes, T. H., Santangeli, P., Heidenreich, P. A., Perez, M. V., Wang, P. J., Turakhia, M. P. 2014; 7 (5): 687-692

    Abstract

    The preferential citation of studies with the highest success rates could exaggerate perceived effectiveness, particularly for treatments with widely varying published success rates such as radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation.We systematically identified observational studies and clinical trials of radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation between 1990 and 2012. Generalized Poisson regression was used to estimate association between study success rate and total citation count, adjusting for sample size, journal impact factor, time since publication, study design, and whether first or last author was a consensus-defined pre-eminent expert. We identified 174 articles meeting our inclusion criteria (36 289 subjects). After adjustment only for time since publication, a 10-point increase above the mean in pooled reported success rates was associated with a 17.8% increase in citation count at 5 years postpublication (95% confidence interval, 7.1-28.4%; P<0.001). After additional adjustment for impact factor, sample size, randomized trial design, and pre-eminent expert authorship, the association remained significant (18.6% increase in citation count; 95% confidence interval, 7.6-29.6%; P<0.0001). In this full model, time since publication, impact factor, and pre-eminent expert authorship were significant covariates, whereas randomized control trial design and study sample size were not.Among studies of radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation, high success rate was independently associated with citation count, which may indicate citation bias. To readers of the literature, radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation could be perceived to be more effective than the data supports. These findings may have implications for a wide variety of novel cardiovascular therapies.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.114.000912

    View details for PubMedID 25205786

  • Associations Between Anticoagulation Therapy and Risks of Mortality and Readmission Among Patients With Heart Failure and Atrial Fibrillation CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR QUALITY AND OUTCOMES Hernandez, A. F., Liang, L., Fonarow, G. C., Hammill, B. G., Hammill, S. C., Heidenreich, P. A., Masoudi, F. A., Qualls, L. G., Al-Khatib, S. M., Piccini, J. P., Curtis, L. H. 2014; 7 (5): 670-679

    Abstract

    Patients with heart failure and atrial fibrillation are at higher risk of thromboembolic events than patients with heart failure alone. Yet, the use of anticoagulation therapy varies in clinical practice, especially among older patients, for whom its effectiveness is poorly understood.Using clinical registry data linked to Medicare claims from 2005 to 2011, we examined outcomes of older patients hospitalized with heart failure and atrial fibrillation who newly initiated anticoagulation therapy at discharge. We used Cox proportional hazards models and inverse probability-weighted treatment estimates to adjust for selection bias. Main outcomes were mortality and readmission at 1 and 3 years. Among 5105 patients in 195 hospitals, 1623 (31.8%) started anticoagulation therapy at discharge. Treated patients had lower unadjusted rates of all-cause mortality (26.4% versus 42.8%; P<0.001) and all-cause readmission (58.4% versus 63.7%; P<0.001) at 1 year. After inverse weighting for the probability of treatment and adjustment for other discharge medications, anticoagulation therapy was associated with significantly lower 1-year mortality (hazard ratio, 0.70; 99% confidence interval, 0.59-0.82), but there was no statistically significant difference in the risk of all-cause readmission (hazard ratio, 0.89; 99% confidence interval, 0.78-1.01) or other readmission outcomes. Results were similar at 3 years.Initiation of anticoagulation therapy at hospital discharge was associated with improved mortality at 1 and 3 years but was not associated with improved cardiovascular readmission among older patients with heart failure and atrial fibrillation.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.113.000632

    View details for Web of Science ID 000342365200009

    View details for PubMedID 25205789

  • Increased Mortality Associated With Digoxin in Contemporary Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: Findings From the TREAT-AF Study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology Turakhia, M. P., Santangeli, P., Winkelmayer, W. C., Xu, X., Ullal, A. J., Than, C. T., Schmitt, S., Holmes, T. H., Frayne, S. M., Phibbs, C. S., Yang, F., Hoang, D. D., Ho, P. M., Heidenreich, P. A. 2014; 64 (7): 660-668

    Abstract

    Despite endorsement of digoxin in clinical practice guidelines, there exist limited data on its safety in atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF).The goal of this study was to evaluate the association of digoxin with mortality in AF.Using complete data of the TREAT-AF (The Retrospective Evaluation and Assessment of Therapies in AF) study from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system, we identified patients with newly diagnosed, nonvalvular AF seen within 90 days in an outpatient setting between VA fiscal years 2004 and 2008. We used multivariate and propensity-matched Cox proportional hazards to evaluate the association of digoxin use with death. Residual confounding was assessed by sensitivity analysis.Of 122,465 patients with 353,168 person-years of follow-up (age 72.1 ± 10.3 years, 98.4% male), 28,679 (23.4%) patients received digoxin. Cumulative mortality rates were higher for digoxin-treated patients than for untreated patients (95 vs. 67 per 1,000 person-years; p < 0.001). Digoxin use was independently associated with mortality after multivariate adjustment (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23 to 1.29, p < 0.001) and propensity matching (HR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.25, p < 0.001), even after adjustment for drug adherence. The risk of death was not modified by age, sex, heart failure, kidney function, or concomitant use of beta-blockers, amiodarone, or warfarin.Digoxin was associated with increased risk of death in patients with newly diagnosed AF, independent of drug adherence, kidney function, cardiovascular comorbidities, and concomitant therapies. These findings challenge current cardiovascular society recommendations on use of digoxin in AF.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2014.03.060

    View details for PubMedID 25125296

  • Depression and Outcome among Veterans with Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators with or without Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Capability PACE-PACING AND CLINICAL ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY Shalaby, A. A., Brumberg, G. E., Pointer, L., Bekelman, D. B., Rumsfeld, J. S., Yang, Y., Pellegrini, C. N., Heidenreich, P. A., Keung, E., Massie, B. M., Varosy, P. D. 2014; 37 (8): 994-1001

    Abstract

    The impact of depression on outcome in implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) recipients has not been fully appreciated. We assessed the prevalence of depression and its association with heart failure (HF) outcome among veterans with ICDs.Patients enrolled between January 2005 and January 2010 in the Outcomes among Veterans with Implantable Defibrillators Registry were studied. We examined the cross-sectional association of depression with severity of HF functional class as well as the association of depression with the composite outcome of mortality or HF hospitalization over a mean follow-up time of 2.7 years. There were 3,862 patients enrolled. Patients with depression (1,162, 43%) were younger (63.1 ± 9.4 years vs 66.6 ± 9.9 years, P < 0.001), more likely to have a history of tobacco or alcohol abuse (P < 0.0001) or atrial fibrillation (P = 0.05) while having a higher ejection fraction (28.3% vs 27.4%, P = 0.03). Depression was associated with advanced HF class at time of implant; odds ratio (OR; vs class I) for class III: 1.65 (confidence interval [CI] 1.17-2.33), class IV: 1.73 (95% CI 1.08-2.76). Death or HF hospitalization was more likely to occur in patients with depression (35.2% vs 32.0%, HR: 1.15 [95% CI 0.99-1.33]). The predictive value of depression was stronger after multivariable adjustment; HR: 1.25 (95% CI 1.05-1.49).Depression was prevalent among veterans with ICDs. Depression was associated with severity of HF. The predictive value of associated depression was significant after multivariable adjustment.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/pace.12361

    View details for Web of Science ID 000342831900011

    View details for PubMedID 24520992

  • Differential effects of professional leaders on health care teams in chronic disease management groups. Health care management review Wholey, D. R., Disch, J., White, K. M., Powell, A., Rector, T. S., Sahay, A., Heidenreich, P. A. 2014; 39 (3): 186-197

    Abstract

    Leadership by health care professionals is likely to vary because of differences in the social contexts within which they are situated, socialization processes and societal expectations, education and training, and the way their professions define and operationalize key concepts such as teamwork, collaboration, and partnership. This research examines the effect of the nurse and physician leaders on interdependence and encounter preparedness in chronic disease management practice groups.The aim of this study was to examine the effect of complementary leadership by nurses and physicians involved in jointly producing a health care service on care team functioning.The design is a retrospective observational study based on survey data. The unit of analysis is heart failure care groups in U.S. Veterans Health Administration medical centers. Survey and administrative data were collected in 2009 from 68 Veterans Health Administration medical centers. Key variables include nurse and physician leadership, interdependence, psychological safety, coordination, and encounter preparedness. Reliability and validity of survey measures were assessed with exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach alphas. Multivariate analyses tested hypotheses.Professional leadership by nurses and physicians is related to encounter preparedness by different paths. Nurse leadership is associated with greater team interdependence, and interdependence is positively associated with respect. Physician leadership is positively associated with greater psychological safety, respect, and shared goals but is not associated with interdependence. Respect is associated with involvement in learning activities, and shared goals are associated with coordination. Coordination and involvement in learning activities are positively associated with encounter preparedness.By focusing on increasing interdependence and a constructive climate, nurse and physician leaders have the opportunity to increase care coordination and involvement in learning activities.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/HMR.0b013e3182993b7f

    View details for PubMedID 23860515

  • Differential effects of professional leaders on health care teams in chronic disease management groups HEALTH CARE MANAGEMENT REVIEW Wholey, D. R., Disch, J., White, K. M., Powell, A., Rector, T. S., Sahay, A., Heidenreich, P. A. 2014; 39 (3): 186-197

    Abstract

    Leadership by health care professionals is likely to vary because of differences in the social contexts within which they are situated, socialization processes and societal expectations, education and training, and the way their professions define and operationalize key concepts such as teamwork, collaboration, and partnership. This research examines the effect of the nurse and physician leaders on interdependence and encounter preparedness in chronic disease management practice groups.The aim of this study was to examine the effect of complementary leadership by nurses and physicians involved in jointly producing a health care service on care team functioning.The design is a retrospective observational study based on survey data. The unit of analysis is heart failure care groups in U.S. Veterans Health Administration medical centers. Survey and administrative data were collected in 2009 from 68 Veterans Health Administration medical centers. Key variables include nurse and physician leadership, interdependence, psychological safety, coordination, and encounter preparedness. Reliability and validity of survey measures were assessed with exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach alphas. Multivariate analyses tested hypotheses.Professional leadership by nurses and physicians is related to encounter preparedness by different paths. Nurse leadership is associated with greater team interdependence, and interdependence is positively associated with respect. Physician leadership is positively associated with greater psychological safety, respect, and shared goals but is not associated with interdependence. Respect is associated with involvement in learning activities, and shared goals are associated with coordination. Coordination and involvement in learning activities are positively associated with encounter preparedness.By focusing on increasing interdependence and a constructive climate, nurse and physician leaders have the opportunity to increase care coordination and involvement in learning activities.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/HMR.0b013e3182993b7f

    View details for Web of Science ID 000337347200002

  • Association Between Prophylactic Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators and Survival in Patients With Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Between 30% and 35% JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Al-Khatib, S. M., Hellkamp, A. S., Fonarow, G. C., Mark, D. B., Curtis, L. H., Hernandez, A. F., Anstrom, K. J., Peterson, E. D., Sanders, G. D., Al-Khalidi, H. R., Hammill, B. G., Heidenreich, P. A., Hammill, S. C. 2014; 311 (21): 2209-2215

    Abstract

    Clinical trials of prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) have included a minority of patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) between 30% and 35%. Because a large number of ICDs in the United States are implanted in such patients, it is important to study survival associated with this therapy.To characterize patients with LVEF between 30% and 35% and compare the survival of those with and without ICDs.Retrospective cohort study of Medicare beneficiaries in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry ICD registry (January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2007) with an LVEF between 30% and 35% who received an ICD during a heart failure hospitalization and similar patients in the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure (GWTG-HF) database (January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2009) with no ICD. The analysis was repeated in patients with an LVEF less than 30%. There were 3120 patients with an LVEF between 30% and 35% (816 in matched cohorts) and 4578 with an LVEF less than 30% (2176 in matched cohorts). Propensity score matching and Cox models were applied.The primary outcome was all-cause mortality; data were obtained from Medicare claims through December 31, 2011.There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics of the matched groups (n?=?408 for both groups). Among patients with an LVEF between 30% and 35%, there were 248 deaths in the ICD Registry group, within a median follow-up of 4.4 years (interquartile range, 2.7-4.9) and 249 deaths in the GWTG HF group, within a median follow-up of 2.9 years (interquartile range, 2.1-4.4). The risk of all-cause mortality in patients with an LVEF between 30% and 35% and an ICD was significantly lower than that in matched patients without an ICD (3-year mortality rates: 51.4% vs 55.0%; hazard ratio, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.69-0.99]; P?=?.04). Presence of an ICD also was associated with better survival in patients with an LVEF less than 30% (3-year mortality rates: 45.0% vs 57.6%; 634 and 660 total deaths; hazard ratio, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.65-0.81]; P?

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jama.2014.5310

    View details for PubMedID 24893088

  • ACC/AHA statement on cost/value methodology in clinical practice guidelines and performance measures: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Performance Measures and Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation Anderson, J. L., Heidenreich, P. A., Barnett, P. G., Creager, M. A., Fonarow, G. C., Gibbons, R. J., Halperin, J. L., Hlatky, M. A., Jacobs, A. K., Mark, D. B., Masoudi, F. A., Peterson, E. D., Shaw, L. J. 2014; 129 (22): 2329-2345

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000042

    View details for PubMedID 24677315

  • B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Predicts 30-Day Readmission for Heart Failure but not Readmission for Other Causes JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION Flint, K. M., Allen, L. A., Pham, M., Heidenreich, P. A. 2014; 3 (3)

    Abstract

    B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a marker for heart failure (HF) severity, but its association with hospital readmission is not well defined.We identified all hospital discharges (n=109 875) with a primary diagnosis of HF in the Veterans Affairs Health Care System from 2006 to 2009. We examined the association between admission (n=53 585), discharge (n=24 326), and change in BNP (n=7187) and 30-day readmission for HF or other causes. Thirty-day HF readmission was associated with elevated admission BNP, elevated discharge BNP, and smaller percent change in BNP from admission to discharge. Patients with a discharge BNP ? 1000 ng/L had an unadjusted 30-day HF readmission rate over 3 times as high as patients whose discharge BNP was ? 200 ng/L (15% vs. 4.1%). BNP improved discrimination and risk classification for 30-day HF readmission when added to a base clinical model, with discharge BNP having the greatest effect (C-statistic, 0.639 to 0.664 [P<0.0001]; net reclassification improvement, 9% [P<0.0001]). In contrast, 30-day readmission for non-HF causes was not associated with BNP levels during index HF hospitalization.In this study of over 50 000 veterans hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of HF, BNP levels measured during hospitalization were associated with 30-day HF readmission, but not readmissions for other causes. These data may help guide future study aimed at identifying the optimal timing for hospital discharge and help allocate high-intensity, HF-specific transitional care interventions to the patients most likely to benefit.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/JAHA.114.000806

    View details for Web of Science ID 000209562400010

  • Comparative effectiveness of cardiac resynchronization therapy with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator versus defibrillator therapy alone: a cohort study. Annals of internal medicine Masoudi, F. A., Mi, X., Curtis, L. H., Peterson, P. N., Curtis, J. P., Fonarow, G. C., Hammill, S. C., Heidenreich, P. A., Al-Khatib, S. M., Piccini, J. P., Qualls, L. G., Hernandez, A. F. 2014; 160 (9): 603-611

    Abstract

    Trials comparing implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy with cardiac resynchronization therapy with a defibrillator (CRT-D) are limited to selected patients treated at centers with extensive experience.To compare outcomes after CRT-D versus ICD therapy in contemporary practice.Retrospective cohort study using the National Cardiovascular Data Registry's ICD Registry linked with Medicare claims.780 U.S. hospitals implanting both CRT-D and ICD devices.7090 propensity-matched patients older than 65 years with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (<0.35) and prolonged QRS duration on electrocardiography (?120 ms) having CRT-D or ICD implantation between 1 April 2006 and 31 December 2009.Risks for death, readmission, and device-related complications over 3 years.Compared with ICD therapy, CRT-D was associated with lower risks for mortality (cumulative incidence, 25.7% vs. 29.8%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.82 [99% CI, 0.73 to 0.93]), all-cause readmission (cumulative incidence, 68.6% vs. 72.8%; adjusted HR, 0.86 [CI, 0.81 to 0.93]), cardiovascular readmission (cumulative incidence, 45.0% vs. 52.4%; adjusted HR, 0.80 [CI, 0.73 to 0.88]), and heart failure readmission (cumulative incidence, 24.3% vs. 29.4%; adjusted HR, 0.78 [CI, 0.69 to 0.88]). It was also associated with greater risks for device-related infection (cumulative incidence, 1.9% vs. 1.0%; adjusted HR, 1.90 [CI, 1.07 to 3.37]). The lower risks for heart failure readmission associated with CRT-D compared with ICD therapy were most pronounced among patients with left bundle branch block or a QRS duration at least 150 ms and in women.Patients were not randomly assigned to treatment groups, and few patients could be propensity-matched. The findings may not extend to younger patients or those outside of fee-for-service Medicare.In older patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and prolonged QRS duration, CRT-D was associated with lower risks for death and readmission than ICD therapy alone.Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

    View details for DOI 10.7326/M13-1879

    View details for PubMedID 24798523

  • Comparative Effectiveness of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy With an Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Versus Defibrillator Therapy Alone ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE Masoudi, F. A., Mi, X., Curtis, L. H., Peterson, P. N., Curtis, J. P., Fonarow, G. C., Hammill, S. C., Heidenreich, P. A., Al-Khatib, S. M., Piccini, J. P., Qualls, L. G., Hernandez, A. F. 2014; 160 (9): 603-U148
  • HEART FAILURE ADMISSION IN HIV-INFECTED PATIENTS Bahrami, H., Fonarow, G., Heidenreich, P. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2014: A1351
  • Capsule commentary on Zhang et al., Race/ethnicity, Disability, and Medication Adherence Among Medicare Beneficiaries with Heart Failure JOURNAL OF GENERAL INTERNAL MEDICINE Heidenreich, P. A. 2014; 29 (4): 648

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11606-013-2736-2

    View details for Web of Science ID 000333532600021

    View details for PubMedID 24481685

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3965754

  • HIGH LEFT VENTRICULAR EJECTION FRACTION IS ASOCIATED WITH WORSE OUTCOMES IN PATIENTS WITH AND WITHOUT HEART FAILURE Bahrami, H., McConnell, M., Heidenreich, P. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2014: A732
  • PROGNOSTIC VALUE OF LIVER FUNCTION TEST ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS WITH HEART FAILURE Ambrosy, A., Dunn, T. P., Heidenreich, P. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2014: A739
  • Prescribing warfarin at discharge for heart failure patients: Findings from the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure Registry. International journal of cardiology Eapen, Z. J., Grau-Sepulveda, M. V., Fonarow, G. C., Heidenreich, P. A., Peterson, E. D., Hernandez, A. F. 2014; 172 (2): e322-3

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijcard.2013.12.161

    View details for PubMedID 24444488

  • Hospital variation in intravenous inotrope use for patients hospitalized with heart failure: insights from Get With The Guidelines. Circulation. Heart failure Allen, L. A., Fonarow, G. C., Grau-Sepulveda, M. V., Hernandez, A. F., Peterson, P. N., Partovian, C., Li, S., Heidenreich, P. A., Bhatt, D. L., Peterson, E. D., Krumholz, H. M. 2014; 7 (2): 251-260

    Abstract

    Prior claims analyses suggest that the use of intravenous inotropic therapy for patients hospitalized with heart failure varies substantially by hospital. Whether differences in the clinical characteristics of the patients explain observed differences in the use of inotropic therapy is not known.We sought to characterize institutional variation in inotrope use among patients hospitalized with heart failure before and after accounting for clinical factors of patients. Hierarchical generalized linear regression models estimated risk-standardized hospital-level rates of inotrope use within 209 hospitals participating in Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure (GWTG-HF) registry between 2005 and 2011. The association between risk-standardized rates of inotrope use and clinical outcomes was determined. Overall, an inotropic agent was administered in 7691 of 126 564 (6.1%) heart failure hospitalizations: dobutamine 43%, dopamine 24%, milrinone 17%, or a combination 16%. Patterns of inotrope use were stable during the 7-year study period. Use of inotropes varied significantly between hospitals even after accounting for patient and hospital characteristics (median risk-standardized hospital rate, 5.9%; interquartile range, 3.7%-8.6%; range, 1.3%-32.9%). After adjusting for case-mix and hospital structural differences, model intraclass correlation indicated that 21% of the observed variation in inotrope use was potentially attributable to random hospital effects (ie, institutional preferences). Hospitals with higher risk-standardized inotrope use had modestly longer risk-standardized length of stay (P=0.005) but had no difference in risk-standardized inpatient mortality (P=0.12).Use of intravenous inotropic agents during hospitalization for heart failure varies significantly among US hospitals even after accounting for patient and hospital factors.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.113.000761

    View details for PubMedID 24488983

  • Feasibility and Acceptability of a Collaborative Care Intervention To Improve Symptoms and Quality of Life in Chronic Heart Failure: Mixed Methods Pilot Trial JOURNAL OF PALLIATIVE MEDICINE Bekelman, D. B., Hooker, S., Nowels, C. T., Main, D. S., Meek, P., McBryde, C., Hattler, B., Lorenz, K. A., Heidenreich, P. A. 2014; 17 (2): 145-151

    Abstract

    People with chronic heart failure (HF) suffer from numerous symptoms that worsen quality of life. The CASA (Collaborative Care to Alleviate Symptoms and Adjust to Illness) intervention was designed to improve symptoms and quality of life by integrating palliative and psychosocial care into chronic care.Our aim was to determine the feasibility and acceptability of CASA and identify necessary improvements.We conducted a prospective mixed-methods pilot trial. The CASA intervention included (1) nurse phone visits involving structured symptom assessments and guidelines to alleviate breathlessness, fatigue, pain, or depression; (2) structured phone counseling targeting adjustment to illness and depression if present; and (3) weekly team meetings with a palliative care specialist, cardiologist, and primary care physician focused on medical recommendations to primary care providers (PCPs, physician or nurse practioners) to improve symptoms. Study subjects were outpatients with chronic HF from a Veteran's Affairs hospital (n=15) and a university hospital (n=2). Measurements included feasibility (cohort retention rate, medical recommendation implementation rate, missing data, quality of care) and acceptability (an end-of-study semi-structured participant interview).Participants were male with a median age of 63 years. One withdrew early and there were <5% missing data. Overall, 85% of 87 collaborative care team medical recommendations were implemented. All participants who screened positive for depression were either treated for depression or thought to not have a depressive disorder. In the qualitative interviews, patients reported a positive experience and provided several constructive critiques.The CASA intervention was feasible based on participant enrollment, cohort retention, implementation of medical recommendations, minimal missing data, and acceptability. Several intervention changes were made based on participant feedback.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/jpm.2013.0143

    View details for Web of Science ID 000331230400008

    View details for PubMedID 24329424

  • Outcomes of medicare beneficiaries with heart failure and atrial fibrillation. JACC. Heart failure Khazanie, P., Liang, L., Qualls, L. G., Curtis, L. H., Fonarow, G. C., Hammill, B. G., Hammill, S. C., Heidenreich, P. A., Masoudi, F. A., Hernandez, A. F., Piccini, J. P. 2014; 2 (1): 41-48

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jchf.2013.11.002

    View details for PubMedID 24622118

  • Outcomes of medicare beneficiaries with heart failure and atrial fibrillation. JACC. Heart failure Khazanie, P., Liang, L., Qualls, L. G., Curtis, L. H., Fonarow, G. C., Hammill, B. G., Hammill, S. C., Heidenreich, P. A., Masoudi, F. A., Hernandez, A. F., Piccini, J. P. 2014; 2 (1): 41-48

    Abstract

    This study sought to examine the long-term outcomes of patients hospitalized with heart failure and atrial fibrillation.Atrial fibrillation is common among patients hospitalized with heart failure. Associations of pre-existing and new-onset atrial fibrillation with long-term outcomes are unclear.We analyzed 27,829 heart failure admissions between 2006 and 2008 at 281 hospitals in the American Heart Association's Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure program linked with Medicare claims. Patients were classified as having pre-existing, new-onset, or no atrial fibrillation. Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify factors that were independently associated with all-cause mortality, all-cause readmission, and readmission for heart failure, stroke, and other cardiovascular disease at 1 and 3 years.After multivariable adjustment, pre-existing atrial fibrillation was associated with greater 3-year risks of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.14 [99% confidence interval (CI): 1.08 to 1.20]), all-cause readmission (HR: 1.09 [99% CI: 1.05 to 1.14]), heart failure readmission (HR: 1.15 [99% CI: 1.08 to 1.21]), and stroke readmission (HR: 1.20 [99% CI: 1.01 to 1.41]), compared with no atrial fibrillation. There was also a greater hazard of mortality at 1 year among patients with new-onset atrial fibrillation (HR: 1.12 [99% CI: 1.01 to 1.24]). Compared with no atrial fibrillation, new-onset atrial fibrillation was not associated with a greater risk of the readmission outcomes. Stroke readmission rates at 1 year were just as high for patients with preserved ejection fraction as for patients with reduced ejection fraction.Both pre-existing and new-onset atrial fibrillation were associated with greater long-term mortality among older patients with heart failure. Pre-existing atrial fibrillation was associated with greater risk of readmission.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jchf.2013.11.002

    View details for PubMedID 24622118

  • End-of-Life Care in Patients With Heart Failure JOURNAL OF CARDIAC FAILURE Whellan, D. J., Goodlin, S. J., Dickinson, M. G., Heidenreich, P. A., Jaenicke, C., Stough, W. G., Rich, M. W. 2014; 20 (2): 121-134

    Abstract

    Stage D heart failure (HF) is associated with poor prognosis, yet little consensus exists on the care of patients with HF approaching the end of life. Treatment options for end-stage HF range from continuation of guideline-directed medical therapy to device interventions and cardiac transplantation. However, patients approaching the end of life may elect to forego therapies or procedures perceived as burdensome, or to deactivate devices that were implanted earlier in the disease course. Although discussing end-of-life issues such as advance directives, palliative care, or hospice can be difficult, such conversations are critical to understanding patient and family expectations and to developing mutually agreed-on goals of care. Because patients with HF are at risk for rapid clinical deterioration or sudden cardiac death, end-of-life issues should be discussed early in the course of management. As patients progress to advanced HF, the need for such discussions increases, especially among patients who have declined, failed, or been deemed to be ineligible for advanced HF therapies. Communication to define goals of care for the individual patient and then to design therapy concordant with these goals is fundamental to patient-centered care. The objectives of this white paper are to highlight key end-of-life considerations in patients with HF, to provide direction for clinicians on strategies for addressing end-of-life issues and providing optimal patient care, and to draw attention to the need for more research focusing on end-of-life care for the HF population.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cardfail.2013.12.003

    View details for PubMedID 24556532

  • Effectiveness of preoperative beta-blockade on intra-operative heart rate in vascular surgery cases conducted under regional or local anesthesia. SpringerPlus Mudumbai, S. C., Wagner, T., Mahajan, S., King, R., Heidenreich, P. A., Hlatky, M., Wallace, A. W., Mariano, E. R. 2014; 3: 227-?

    Abstract

    Preoperative ?-blockade has been posited to result in better outcomes for vascular surgery patients by attenuating acute hemodynamic changes associated with stress. However, the incremental effectiveness, if any, of ?-blocker usage in blunting heart rate responsiveness for vascular surgery patients who avoid general anesthesia remains unknown.We reviewed an existing database and identified 213 consecutive vascular surgery cases from 2005-2011 conducted without general anesthesia (i.e., under monitored anesthesia care or regional anesthesia) at a tertiary care Veterans Administration medical center and categorized patients based on presence or absence of preoperative ?-blocker prescription. For this series of patients, with the primary outcome of maximum heart rate during the interval between operating room entry to surgical incision, we examined the association of maximal heart rate and preoperative ?-blocker usage by performing crude and multivariate linear regression, adjusting for relevant patient factors.Of 213 eligible cases, 137 were prescribed preoperative ?-blockers, and 76 were not. The two groups were comparable across baseline patient factors and intraoperative medication doses. The ?-blocker group experienced lower maximal heart rates during the period of evaluation compared to the non-?-blocker group (85?±?22 bpm vs. 98?±?36 bpm, respectively; p?=?0.002). Adjusted linear regression confirmed a statistically-significant association between lower maximal heart rate and the use of ?-blockers (Beta?=?-11.5; 95% CI [-3.7, -19.3] p?=?0.004).The addition of preoperative ?-blockers, even when general anesthesia is avoided, may be beneficial in further attenuating stress-induced hemodynamic changes for vascular surgery patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/2193-1801-3-227

    View details for PubMedID 24855591

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4024108

  • CAN WE PREVENT HEART FAILURE READMISSIONS? Heidenreich, P. KARGER. 2014: 431
  • B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Predicts 30-Day Readmission for Heart Failure but not Readmission for Other Causes. Journal of the American Heart Association Flint, K. M., Allen, L. A., Pham, M., Heidenreich, P. A. 2014; 3 (3)

    Abstract

    B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a marker for heart failure (HF) severity, but its association with hospital readmission is not well defined.We identified all hospital discharges (n=109 875) with a primary diagnosis of HF in the Veterans Affairs Health Care System from 2006 to 2009. We examined the association between admission (n=53 585), discharge (n=24 326), and change in BNP (n=7187) and 30-day readmission for HF or other causes. Thirty-day HF readmission was associated with elevated admission BNP, elevated discharge BNP, and smaller percent change in BNP from admission to discharge. Patients with a discharge BNP ? 1000 ng/L had an unadjusted 30-day HF readmission rate over 3 times as high as patients whose discharge BNP was ? 200 ng/L (15% vs. 4.1%). BNP improved discrimination and risk classification for 30-day HF readmission when added to a base clinical model, with discharge BNP having the greatest effect (C-statistic, 0.639 to 0.664 [P<0.0001]; net reclassification improvement, 9% [P<0.0001]). In contrast, 30-day readmission for non-HF causes was not associated with BNP levels during index HF hospitalization.In this study of over 50 000 veterans hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of HF, BNP levels measured during hospitalization were associated with 30-day HF readmission, but not readmissions for other causes. These data may help guide future study aimed at identifying the optimal timing for hospital discharge and help allocate high-intensity, HF-specific transitional care interventions to the patients most likely to benefit.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/JAHA.114.000806

    View details for PubMedID 24922626

  • Adherence and persistence in the use of warfarin after hospital discharge among patients with heart failure and atrial fibrillation. Journal of cardiac failure Eapen, Z. J., Mi, X., Qualls, L. G., Hammill, B. G., Fonarow, G. C., Turakhia, M. P., Heidenreich, P. A., Peterson, E. D., Curtis, L. H., Hernandez, A. F., Al-Khatib, S. M. 2014; 20 (1): 23-30

    Abstract

    Postdischarge adherence and long-term persistence in the use of warfarin among patients with heart failure and atrial fibrillation without contraindications have not been fully described.We identified patients with heart failure and atrial fibrillation who were ?65 years old, eligible for warfarin, and discharged home from hospitals in the Get With the Guidelines-Heart Failure registry from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2009. We used linked Medicare prescription drug event data to measure adherence and persistence. The main outcome measures were rates of prescription at discharge, outpatient dispensing, discontinuation, and adherence as measured by the medication possession ratio. We hypothesized that adherence to warfarin would differ according to whether patients received the prescription at discharge. Among 2,691 eligible patients, 1,856 (69.0%) were prescribed warfarin at discharge. Patients prescribed warfarin at discharge had significantly higher prescription fill rates within 90 days (84.5% vs 12.3%; P < .001) and 1 year (91.6% vs 16.8%; P < .001) and significantly higher medication possession ratios (0.78 vs 0.63; P < .001). Among both previous nonusers and existing users, fill rates at 90 days and 1 year and possession ratios were significantly higher among those prescribed warfarin at discharge.One-third of eligible patients with heart failure and atrial fibrillation were not prescribed warfarin at discharge from a heart failure hospitalization, and few started therapy as outpatients. In contrast, most patients who were prescribed warfarin at discharge filled the prescription within 90 days and remained on therapy at 1 year.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cardfail.2013.11.006

    View details for PubMedID 24275703

  • Effectiveness of preoperative beta-blockade on intra-operative heart rate in vascular surgery cases conducted under regional or local anesthesia. SpringerPlus Mudumbai, S. C., Wagner, T., Mahajan, S., King, R., Heidenreich, P. A., Hlatky, M., Wallace, A. W., Mariano, E. R. 2014; 3: 227-?

    View details for DOI 10.1186/2193-1801-3-227

    View details for PubMedID 24855591

  • Cost-Effectiveness of Optimal Use of Acute Myocardial Infarction Treatments and Impact on Coronary Heart Disease Mortality in China CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR QUALITY AND OUTCOMES Wang, M., Moran, A. E., Liu, J., Coxson, P. G., Heidenreich, P. A., Gu, D., He, J., Goldman, L., Zhao, D. 2014; 7 (1): 78-85

    Abstract

    The cost-effectiveness of the optimal use of hospital-based acute myocardial infarction (AMI) treatments and their potential impact on coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in China is not well known.The effectiveness and costs of optimal use of hospital-based AMI treatments were estimated by the CHD Policy Model-China, a Markov-style computer simulation model. Changes in simulated AMI, CHD mortality, quality-adjusted life years, and total healthcare costs were the outcomes. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was used to assess projected cost-effectiveness. Optimal use of 4 oral drugs (aspirin, ?-blockers, statins, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors) in all eligible patients with AMI or unfractionated heparin in non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction was a highly cost-effective strategy (incremental cost-effectiveness ratios approximately US $3100 or less). Optimal use of reperfusion therapies in eligible patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction was moderately cost effective (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio ?$10,700). Optimal use of clopidogrel for all eligible patients with AMI or primary percutaneous coronary intervention among high-risk patients with non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction in tertiary hospitals alone was less cost effective. Use of all the selected hospital-based AMI treatment strategies together would be cost-effective and reduce the total CHD mortality rate in China by ?9.6%.Optimal use of most standard hospital-based AMI treatment strategies, especially combined strategies, would be cost effective in China. However, because so many AMI deaths occur outside of the hospital in China, the overall impact on preventing CHD deaths was projected to be modest.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.113.000674

    View details for Web of Science ID 000331071200012

    View details for PubMedID 24425706

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4191653

  • Factors Associated With DNR Status Among Patients Hospitalized for Heart Failure in California Phadke, A., Heidenreich, P. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2013
  • Genetic Variation Near HCRTR2 Associates With Dramatic Improvement of Heart Function in Patients With Heart Failure Perez, M. V., Pavlovic, A., Wheeler, M. T., Miller, C. L., Thanaporn, P., Dewey, F. E., Pan, S., Absher, D., Cretti, E., Southwick, A., Heidenreich, P., Sedehi, D., Brandimarto, J., Kao, D., Salisbury, H., Chan, K., Rosenthal, D., Bernstein, D., Fowler, M. B., Robbins, R. C., Meyers, R., Meyers, R., Quertermous, T., Cappola, T., Ashley, E. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2013
  • Cardiovascular Care Facts JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Masoudi, F. A., Ponirakis, A., Yeh, R. W., Maddox, T. M., Beachy, J., Casale, P. N., Curtis, J. P., de Lemos, J., Fonarow, G., Heidenreich, P., Koutras, C., Kremers, M., Messenger, J., Moussa, I., Oetgen, W. J., Roe, M. T., Rosenfield, K., Shields, T. P., Spertus, J. A., Wei, J., White, C., Young, C. H., Rumsfeld, J. S. 2013; 62 (21): 1931-1947
  • Statins and cognitive function: a systematic review. Annals of internal medicine Richardson, K., Schoen, M., French, B., Umscheid, C. A., Mitchell, M. D., Arnold, S. E., Heidenreich, P. A., Rader, D. J., DeGoma, E. M. 2013; 159 (10): 688-697

    Abstract

    Despite the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warning regarding cognitive impairment, the relationship between statins and cognition remains unknown.To examine the effect of statins on cognition.PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library from inception through October 2012; FDA databases from January 1986 through March 2012.Randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies evaluating cognition in patients receiving statins.Two reviewers extracted data, 1 reviewer assessed study risk of bias, and 1 reviewer checked all assessments.Among statin users, low-quality evidence suggested no increased incidence of Alzheimer disease and no difference in cognitive performance related to procedural memory, attention, or motor speed. Moderate-quality evidence suggested no increased incidence of dementia or mild cognitive impairment or any change in cognitive performance related to global cognitive performance scores, executive function, declarative memory, processing speed, or visuoperception. Examination of the FDA postmarketing surveillance databases revealed a low reporting rate for cognitive-related adverse events with statins that was similar to the rates seen with other commonly prescribed cardiovascular medications.The absence of many well-powered RCTs for most outcomes resulted in final strengths of evidence that were low or moderate. Imprecision, inconsistency, and risk of bias also limited the strength of findings.Larger and better-designed studies are needed to draw unequivocal conclusions about the effect of statins on cognition. Published data do not suggest an adverse effect of statins on cognition; however, the strength of available evidence is limited, particularly with regard to high-dose statins.

    View details for DOI 10.7326/0003-4819-159-10-201311190-00007

    View details for PubMedID 24247674

  • Cardiovascular care facts: a report from the national cardiovascular data registry: 2011. Journal of the American College of Cardiology Masoudi, F. A., Ponirakis, A., Yeh, R. W., Maddox, T. M., Beachy, J., Casale, P. N., Curtis, J. P., de Lemos, J., Fonarow, G., Heidenreich, P., Koutras, C., Kremers, M., Messenger, J., Moussa, I., Oetgen, W. J., Roe, M. T., Rosenfield, K., Shields, T. P., Spertus, J. A., Wei, J., White, C., Young, C. H., Rumsfeld, J. S. 2013; 62 (21): 1931-1947

    Abstract

    The aim of this report was to characterize the patients, participating centers, and measures of quality of care and outcomes for 5 NCDR (National Cardiovascular Data Registry) programs: 1) ACTION (Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Network) Registry-GWTG (Get With The Guidelines) for acute coronary syndromes; 2) CathPCI Registry for coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention; 3) CARE (Carotid Artery Revascularization and Endarterectomy) Registry for carotid revascularization; 4) ICD Registry for implantable cardioverter defibrillators; and the 5) PINNACLE (Practice INNovation And CLinical Excellence) Registry for outpatients with cardiovascular disease (CVD).CVD is a leading cause of death and disability in the United States. The quality of care for patients with CVD is suboptimal. National registry programs, such as NCDR, permit assessments of the quality of care and outcomes for broad populations of patients with CVD.For the year 2011, we assessed for each of the 5 NCDR programs: 1) demographic and clinical characteristics of enrolled patients; 2) key characteristics of participating centers; 3) measures of processes of care; and 4) patient outcomes. For selected variables, we assessed trends over time.In 2011 ACTION Registry-GWTG enrolled 119,967 patients in 567 hospitals; CathPCI enrolled 632,557 patients in 1,337 hospitals; CARE enrolled 4,934 patients in 130 hospitals; ICD enrolled 139,991 patients in 1,435 hospitals; and PINNACLE enrolled 249,198 patients (1,436,328 individual encounters) in 74 practices (1,222 individual providers). Data on performance metrics and outcomes, in some cases risk-adjusted with validated NCDR models, are presented.The NCDR provides a unique opportunity to understand the characteristics of large populations of patients with CVD, the centers that provide their care, quality of care provided, and important patient outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2013.05.099

    View details for PubMedID 24036027

  • Statins and Cognitive Function ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE Richardson, K., Schoen, M., French, B., Umscheid, C. A., Mitchell, M. D., Arnold, S. E., Heidenreich, P. A., Rader, D. J., deGoma, E. M. 2013; 159 (10): 688-?

    Abstract

    Despite the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warning regarding cognitive impairment, the relationship between statins and cognition remains unknown.To examine the effect of statins on cognition.PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library from inception through October 2012; FDA databases from January 1986 through March 2012.Randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies evaluating cognition in patients receiving statins.Two reviewers extracted data, 1 reviewer assessed study risk of bias, and 1 reviewer checked all assessments.Among statin users, low-quality evidence suggested no increased incidence of Alzheimer disease and no difference in cognitive performance related to procedural memory, attention, or motor speed. Moderate-quality evidence suggested no increased incidence of dementia or mild cognitive impairment or any change in cognitive performance related to global cognitive performance scores, executive function, declarative memory, processing speed, or visuoperception. Examination of the FDA postmarketing surveillance databases revealed a low reporting rate for cognitive-related adverse events with statins that was similar to the rates seen with other commonly prescribed cardiovascular medications.The absence of many well-powered RCTs for most outcomes resulted in final strengths of evidence that were low or moderate. Imprecision, inconsistency, and risk of bias also limited the strength of findings.Larger and better-designed studies are needed to draw unequivocal conclusions about the effect of statins on cognition. Published data do not suggest an adverse effect of statins on cognition; however, the strength of available evidence is limited, particularly with regard to high-dose statins.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000328732700017

  • Survival after shock therapy in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator recipients according to rhythm shocked. The ALTITUDE survival by rhythm study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology Powell, B. D., Saxon, L. A., Boehmer, J. P., Day, J. D., Gilliam, F. R., Heidenreich, P. A., Jones, P. W., Rousseau, M. J., Hayes, D. L. 2013; 62 (18): 1674-1679

    Abstract

    We sought to determine if the mortality risk associated with inappropriate ICD shocks is due to the underlying arrhythmia or the shock itself.Shocks delivered from ICDs are associated with increased mortality risk. It is unknown if all patients that experience inappropriate ICD shocks have an increased risk of death.We evaluated survival outcomes in ICD and CRT-D patients enrolled in the LATITUDE remote monitoring system through January 1, 2010. First shock episode rhythms from 3,809 patients who acutely survived the initial shock were adjudicated by seven electrophysiologists. Patients with a shock were matched to patients without a shock (n=3,630) by age at implant, implant year, gender, and device type.The mean age of the study group was 64±13 years, with 78% male. Compared to no shock, there was increased mortality in those who received their first shock for monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (HR 1.65, p<0.0001), ventricular fibrillation/polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (HR 2.10, p<0.0001), and atrial fibrillation/flutter (HR 1.61, p=0.003). In contrast, mortality following first shocks due to sinus tachycardia and supraventricular tachycardia (HR 0.97, p=0.86), and noise/artifact/oversensing (HR 0.91, p=0.76) was comparable to that in patients without a shock.Compared to no shock, those who received their first shock for ventricular rhythms and atrial fibrillation had an increased risk of death. There was no significant difference in survival after inappropriate shocks for sinus tachycardia or noise/artifact/oversensing. In this study, the adverse prognosis following first shock appears to be more related to the underlying arrhythmia than to an adverse effect from the shock itself.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2013.04.083

    View details for PubMedID 23810882

  • Survival After Shock Therapy in Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator and Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy-Defibrillator Recipients According to Rhythm Shocked JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Powell, B. D., Saxon, L. A., Boehmer, J. P., Day, J. D., Gilliam, F. R., Heidenreich, P. A., Jones, P. W., Rousseau, M. J., Hayes, D. L. 2013; 62 (18): 1674-1679
  • Reasons for Not Prescribing Guideline-recommended Medications to Adults With Heart Failure MEDICAL CARE Steinman, M. A., Dimaano, L., Peterson, C. A., Heidenreich, P. A., Knight, S. J., Fung, K. Z., Kaboli, P. J. 2013; 51 (10): 901-907

    Abstract

    Little is known about how often contextual factors such as patient preferences and competing priorities impact prescribing of guideline-recommended medications, or about the extent to which these factors are documented in medical records and available to performance measurement systems.Mixed-methods study of 295 veterans aged 50 years and older in 4 VA health care systems who had systolic heart failure and were not prescribed a ?-blocker and/or an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin-receptor blocker. Reasons for nontreatment were identified from clinic notes and from interviews with 62 primary care clinicians caring for these patients. These reasons were classified using a published taxonomy.Among 295 patients not receiving guideline-recommended drugs for heart failure, chart review identified biomedical reasons for nonprescribing in 42%-58% of patients and contextual reasons in 11%-17%. Clinician interviews identified twice as many reasons for nonprescribing as chart review (mean 1.6 vs. 0.8 reasons per patient, P<0.001). In these interviews, biomedical reasons for nonprescribing were cited in 50%-70% of patients, and contextual reasons in 64%-70%. The most common contextual reasons were comanagement with other clinicians (32%-35% of patients), patient preferences and nonadherence (15%-24%), and clinician belief that the medication is not indicated in the patient (12%-20%).Contextual reasons for not prescribing angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor / angiotensin-receptor blockers and ?-blockers are present in two thirds of patients with heart failure who did not receive these medications, yet are poorly documented in medical records. The structure of medical records should be improved to facilitate documentation of contextual reasons for not providing guideline-recommended care.

    View details for PubMedID 23969589

  • Associations Between Use of the Hospitalist Model and Quality of Care and Outcomes of Older Patients Hospitalized for Heart Failure JACC-HEART FAILURE Kociol, R. D., Hammill, B. G., Fonarow, G. C., Heidenreich, P. A., Go, A. S., Peterson, E. D., Curtis, L. H., Hernandez, A. F. 2013; 1 (5): 445-453

    Abstract

    This study sought to examine the associations of hospitalist and cardiologist care of patients with heart failure with outcomes and adherence to quality measures.The hospitalist model of inpatient care has grown nationally, but its associations with quality of care and outcomes of patients hospitalized with heart failure are not known.We analyzed data from the Get With the Guidelines-Heart Failure registry linked to Medicare claims for 2005 through 2008. For each hospital, we calculated the percentage of heart failure hospitalizations for which a hospitalist was the attending physician. We examined outcomes and care quality for patients stratified by rates of hospitalist use. Using multivariable models, we estimated associations between hospital-level use of hospitalists and cardiologists and 30-day risk-adjusted outcomes and adherence to measures of quality care.The analysis included 31,505 Medicare beneficiaries in 166 hospitals. Across hospitals, the use of hospitalists varied from 0% to 83%. After multivariable adjustment, a 10% increase in the use of hospitalists was associated with a slight increase in mortality (risk ratio: 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00 to 1.06) and decrease in length of stay (0.09 days; 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.16). There was no association with 30-day readmission. Increased use of hospitalists in hospitals with high use of cardiologists was associated with improved defect-free adherence to a composite of heart failure performance measures (risk ratio: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.06).Hospitalist care varied significantly across hospitals for heart failure admissions and was not associated with improved 30-day outcomes. Comanagement by hospitalists and cardiologists may help to improve adherence to some quality measures, but it remains unclear what care model improves 30-day clinical outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jchf.2013.07.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000209535900012

  • Associations between use of the hospitalist model and quality of care and outcomes of older patients hospitalized for heart failure. JACC. Heart failure Kociol, R. D., Hammill, B. G., Fonarow, G. C., Heidenreich, P. A., Go, A. S., Peterson, E. D., Curtis, L. H., Hernandez, A. F. 2013; 1 (5): 445-453

    Abstract

    This study sought to examine the associations of hospitalist and cardiologist care of patients with heart failure with outcomes and adherence to quality measures.The hospitalist model of inpatient care has grown nationally, but its associations with quality of care and outcomes of patients hospitalized with heart failure are not known.We analyzed data from the Get With the Guidelines-Heart Failure registry linked to Medicare claims for 2005 through 2008. For each hospital, we calculated the percentage of heart failure hospitalizations for which a hospitalist was the attending physician. We examined outcomes and care quality for patients stratified by rates of hospitalist use. Using multivariable models, we estimated associations between hospital-level use of hospitalists and cardiologists and 30-day risk-adjusted outcomes and adherence to measures of quality care.The analysis included 31,505 Medicare beneficiaries in 166 hospitals. Across hospitals, the use of hospitalists varied from 0% to 83%. After multivariable adjustment, a 10% increase in the use of hospitalists was associated with a slight increase in mortality (risk ratio: 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00 to 1.06) and decrease in length of stay (0.09 days; 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.16). There was no association with 30-day readmission. Increased use of hospitalists in hospitals with high use of cardiologists was associated with improved defect-free adherence to a composite of heart failure performance measures (risk ratio: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.06).Hospitalist care varied significantly across hospitals for heart failure admissions and was not associated with improved 30-day outcomes. Comanagement by hospitalists and cardiologists may help to improve adherence to some quality measures, but it remains unclear what care model improves 30-day clinical outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jchf.2013.07.001

    View details for PubMedID 24621978

  • Expert Consensus for Multi-Modality Imaging Evaluation of Cardiovascular Complications of Radiotherapy in Adults: A Report from the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging and the American Society of Echocardiography JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY Lancellotti, P., Nkomo, V. T., Badano, L. P., Bergler, J., Bogaert, J., Davin, L., Cosyns, B., Coucke, P., Dulgheru, R., Edvardsen, T., Gaemperli, O., Galderisi, M., Griffin, B., Heidenreich, P. A., Nieman, K., Plana, J. C., Port, S. C., Scherrer-Crosbie, M., Schwartz, R. G., Sebag, I. A., Voigt, J., Wann, S., Yang, P. C. 2013; 26 (9): 1013-1032

    Abstract

    Cardiac toxicity is one of the most concerning side effects of anti-cancer therapy. The gain in life expectancy obtained with anti-cancer therapy can be compromised by increased morbidity and mortality associated with its cardiac complications. While radiosensitivity of the heart was initially recognized only in the early 1970s, the heart is regarded in the current era as one of the most critical dose-limiting organs in radiotherapy. Several clinical studies have identified adverse clinical consequences of radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) on the outcome of long-term cancer survivors. A comprehensive review of potential cardiac complications related to radiotherapy is warranted. An evidence-based review of several imaging approaches used to detect, evaluate, and monitor RIHD is discussed. Recommendations for the early identification and monitoring of cardiovascular complications of radiotherapy by cardiac imaging are also proposed.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.echo.2013.07.005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000324028300003

    View details for PubMedID 23998694

  • Diagnostic utility of a novel leadless arrhythmia monitoring device. American journal of cardiology Turakhia, M. P., Hoang, D. D., Zimetbaum, P., Miller, J. D., Froelicher, V. F., Kumar, U. N., Xu, X., Yang, F., Heidenreich, P. A. 2013; 112 (4): 520-524

    Abstract

    Although extending the duration of ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring beyond 24 to 48 hours can improve the detection of arrhythmias, lead-based (Holter) monitors might be limited by patient compliance and other factors. We, therefore, evaluated compliance, analyzable signal time, interval to arrhythmia detection, and diagnostic yield of the Zio Patch, a novel leadless, electrocardiographic monitoring device in 26,751 consecutive patients. The mean wear time was 7.6 ± 3.6 days, and the median analyzable time was 99% of the total wear time. Among the patients with detected arrhythmias (60.3% of all patients), 29.9% had their first arrhythmia and 51.1% had their first symptom-triggered arrhythmia occur after the initial 48-hour period. Compared with the first 48 hours of monitoring, the overall diagnostic yield was greater when data from the entire Zio Patch wear duration were included for any arrhythmia (62.2% vs 43.9%, p <0.0001) and for any symptomatic arrhythmia (9.7% vs 4.4%, p <0.0001). For paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF), the mean interval to the first detection of AF was inversely proportional to the total AF burden, with an increasing proportion occurring after 48 hours (11.2%, 10.5%, 20.8%, and 38.0% for an AF burden of 51% to 75%, 26% to 50%, 1% to 25%, and <1%, respectively). In conclusion, extended monitoring with the Zio Patch for ?14 days is feasible, with high patient compliance, a high analyzable signal time, and an incremental diagnostic yield beyond 48 hours for all arrhythmia types. These findings could have significant implications for device selection, monitoring duration, and care pathways for arrhythmia evaluation and AF surveillance.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2013.04.017

    View details for PubMedID 23672988

  • QRS Duration, Bundle-Branch Block Morphology, and Outcomes Among Older Patients With Heart Failure Receiving Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Peterson, P. N., Greiner, M. A., Qualls, L. G., Al-Khatib, S. M., Curtis, J. P., Fonarow, G. C., Hammill, S. C., Heidenreich, P. A., Hammill, B. G., Piccini, J. P., Hernandez, A. F., Curtis, L. H., Masoudi, F. A. 2013; 310 (6): 617-626

    Abstract

    The benefits of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in clinical trials were greater among patients with left bundle-branch block (LBBB) or longer QRS duration.To measure associations between QRS duration and morphology and outcomes among patients receiving a CRT defibrillator (CRT-D) in clinical practice.Retrospective cohort study of Medicare beneficiaries in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry's ICD Registry between 2006 and 2009 who underwent CRT-D implantation. Patients were stratified according to whether they were admitted for CRT-D implantation or for another reason, then categorized as having either LBBB or no LBBB and QRS duration of either 150 ms or greater or 120 to 149 ms.All-cause mortality; all-cause, cardiovascular, and heart failure readmission; and complications. Patients underwent follow-up for up to 3 years, with follow-up through December 2011.Among 24?169 patients admitted for CRT-D implantation, 1-year and 3-year mortality rates were 9.2% and 25.9%, respectively. All-cause readmission rates were 10.2% at 30 days and 43.3% at 1 year. Both the unadjusted rate and adjusted risk of 3-year mortality were lowest among patients with LBBB and QRS duration of 150 ms or greater (20.9%), compared with LBBB and QRS duration of 120 to 149 ms (26.5%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.30 [99% CI, 1.18-1.42]), no LBBB and QRS duration of 150 ms or greater (30.7%; HR, 1.34 [99% CI, 1.20-1.49]), and no LBBB and QRS duration of 120 to 149 ms (32.3%; HR, 1.52 [99% CI, 1.38-1.67]). The unadjusted rate and adjusted risk of 1-year all-cause readmission were also lowest among patients with LBBB and QRS duration of 150 ms or greater (38.6%), compared with LBBB and QRS duration of 120 to 149 ms (44.8%; adjusted HR, 1.18 [99% CI, 1.10-1.26]), no LBBB and QRS duration of 150 ms or greater (45.7%; HR, 1.16 [99% CI, 1.08-1.26]), and no LBBB and QRS duration of 120 to 149 ms (49.6%; HR, 1.31 [99% CI, 1.23-1.40]). There were no observed associations with complications.Among fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries undergoing CRT-D implantation in clinical practice, LBBB and QRS duration of 150 ms or greater, compared with LBBB and QRS duration less than 150 ms or no LBBB regardless of QRS duration, was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality and of all-cause, cardiovascular, and heart failure readmissions.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jama.2013.8641

    View details for Web of Science ID 000323058400017

    View details for PubMedID 23942680

  • Risk-Standardizing Survival for In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest to Facilitate Hospital Comparisons JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Chan, P. S., Berg, R. A., Spertus, J. A., Schwamm, L. H., Bhatt, D. L., Fonarow, G. C., Heidenreich, P. A., Nallamothu, B. K., Tang, F., Merchant, R. M. 2013; 62 (7): 601-609

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVES: To develop a method for risk-standardizing hospital survival after cardiac arrest. BACKGROUND: A foundation with which hospitals can improve quality is to be able to benchmark their risk-adjusted performance against other hospitals, something that cannot currently be done for survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest. METHODS: Within the Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation registry, we identified 48,841 patients admitted between 2007 and 2010 with an in-hospital cardiac arrest. Using hierarchical logistic regression, we derived and validated a model for survival to hospital discharge and calculated risk-standardized survival rates (RSSRs) for 272 hospitals with at least 10 cardiac arrest cases. RESULTS: The survival rate was 21.0% and 21.2% for the derivation and validation cohorts, respectively. The model had good discrimination (C-statistic 0.74) and excellent calibration. Eighteen variables were associated with survival to discharge, and a parsimonious model contained 9 variables with minimal change in model discrimination. Prior to risk-adjustment, the median hospital survival rate was 20% (IQR: 14%-26%), with a wide range (0%-85%). After adjustment, the distribution of RSSRs was substantially narrower: median of 21% (IQR: 19%-23%; range: 11%-35%). More than half (143 [52.6%]) of hospitals had at least a 10% positive or negative absolute change in percentile rank after risk standardization, and 50 (23.2%) had a ?20% absolute change in percentile rank. CONCLUSION: We have derived and validated a model to risk-standardize hospital rates of survival for in-hospital cardiac arrest. Use of this model can support efforts to compare hospitals in resuscitation outcomes as a foundation for quality assessment and improvement.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2013.05.051

    View details for Web of Science ID 000323605200007

    View details for PubMedID 23770167

  • Expert consensus for multi-modality imaging evaluation of cardiovascular complications of radiotherapy in adults: a report from the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging and the American Society of Echocardiography. European heart journal cardiovascular Imaging Lancellotti, P., Nkomo, V. T., Badano, L. P., Bergler-Klein, J., Bogaert, J., Davin, L., Cosyns, B., Coucke, P., Dulgheru, R., Edvardsen, T., Gaemperli, O., Galderisi, M., Griffin, B., Heidenreich, P. A., Nieman, K., Plana, J. C., Port, S. C., Scherrer-Crosbie, M., Schwartz, R. G., Sebag, I. A., Voigt, J., Wann, S., Yang, P. C. 2013; 14 (8): 721-740

    Abstract

    Cardiac toxicity is one of the most concerning side effects of anti-cancer therapy. The gain in life expectancy obtained with anti-cancer therapy can be compromised by increased morbidity and mortality associated with its cardiac complications. While radiosensitivity of the heart was initially recognized only in the early 1970s, the heart is regarded in the current era as one of the most critical dose-limiting organs in radiotherapy. Several clinical studies have identified adverse clinical consequences of radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) on the outcome of long-term cancer survivors. A comprehensive review of potential cardiac complications related to radiotherapy is warranted. An evidence-based review of several imaging approaches used to detect, evaluate, and monitor RIHD is discussed. Recommendations for the early identification and monitoring of cardiovascular complications of radiotherapy by cardiac imaging are also proposed.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/ehjci/jet123

    View details for PubMedID 23847385

  • COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF IMPROVING ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION TREATMENTS AND THE IMPACT ON MORTALITY RATE OF CORONARY HEART DISEASE IN CHINA Miao, W., Moran, A., Liu, J., Coxson, P., Heidenreich, P., Gu, D., He, J., Goldman, L., Zhao, D. BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP. 2013: E127
  • Improvement of Guideline Beta-Blocker Prescribing in Heart Failure: A Cluster-Randomized Pragmatic Trial of a Pharmacy Intervention JOURNAL OF CARDIAC FAILURE McCarren, M., Furmaga, E., Jackevicius, C. A., Sahay, A., Coppler, T. L., Katzianer, J., Griffiths, R. L., Tonnu-Mihara, I., Heidenreich, P. 2013; 19 (8): 525-532

    Abstract

    Treatment with specific beta-blockers and doses recommended by guidelines is often not achieved in practice. We evaluated an intervention directed to the pharmacy to improve prescribing.We conducted a pragmatic cluster-randomized trial, where facilities (n = 12) with patients (n = 220) were the clusters. Eligible patients had a beta-blocker prescription that was not guideline concordant. Level 1 intervention included information to a pharmacist on facility guideline concordance. Level 2 also provided a list of patients not meeting guideline goals. Intervention and follow-up periods were each 6 months. Achievement of full concordance with recommendations was low (4%-5%) in both groups, primarily due to lack of tolerability. However, compared with level 1, the level 2 intervention was associated with 1.9-fold greater odds of improvement in prescribing (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-3.2). Level 2 patients also had greater odds of a higher dose (1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.3). The intervention was aided by the patient lists provided, the electronic medical record system, and staff support.In actual practice, full achievement of guideline goals was low. However, a simple intervention targeting pharmacy moved patients toward guideline goals. As health care systems incorporate electronic medical records, this intervention should have broader feasibility.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cardfail.2013.06.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000323142400001

    View details for PubMedID 23910580

  • Expert consensus for multi-modality imaging evaluation of cardiovascular complications of radiotherapy in adults: a report from the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging and the American Society of Echocardiography EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL-CARDIOVASCULAR IMAGING Lancellotti, P., Nkomo, V. T., Badano, L. P., Bergler, J., Bogaert, J., Davin, L., Cosyns, B., Coucke, P., Dulgheru, R., Edvardsen, T., Gaemperli, O., Galderisi, M., Griffin, B., Heidenreich, P. A., Nieman, K., Plana, J. C., Port, S. C., Scherrer-Crosbie, M., Schwartz, R. G., Sebag, I. A., Voigt, J., Wann, S., Yang, P. C. 2013; 14 (8): 721-740

    Abstract

    Cardiac toxicity is one of the most concerning side effects of anti-cancer therapy. The gain in life expectancy obtained with anti-cancer therapy can be compromised by increased morbidity and mortality associated with its cardiac complications. While radiosensitivity of the heart was initially recognized only in the early 1970s, the heart is regarded in the current era as one of the most critical dose-limiting organs in radiotherapy. Several clinical studies have identified adverse clinical consequences of radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) on the outcome of long-term cancer survivors. A comprehensive review of potential cardiac complications related to radiotherapy is warranted. An evidence-based review of several imaging approaches used to detect, evaluate, and monitor RIHD is discussed. Recommendations for the early identification and monitoring of cardiovascular complications of radiotherapy by cardiac imaging are also proposed.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/ehjci/jet123

    View details for Web of Science ID 000321833100001

    View details for PubMedID 23847385

  • Association of age and packed red blood cell transfusion to 1-year survival - an observational study of ICU patients TRANSFUSION MEDICINE Mudumbai, S. C., Cronkite, R., Hu, K. U., Heidenreich, P. A., Gonzalez, C., Bertaccini, E., Stafford, R. S., Cason, B. A., Mariano, E. R., Wagner, T. 2013; 23 (4): 231-237

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the 1-year survival for different age strata of intensive care unit (ICU) patients after receipt of packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions. BACKGROUND: Despite guidelines documenting risks of PRBC transfusion and data showing that increasing age is associated with ICU mortality, little data exist on whether age alters the transfusion-related risk of decreased survival. METHODS: We retrospectively examined data on 2393 consecutive male ICU patients admitted to a tertiary-care hospital from 2003 to 2009 in age strata: 21-50, 51-60, 61-70, 71-80 and >80?years. We calculated Cox regression models to determine the modifying effect of age on the impact of PRBC transfusion on 1-year survival by using interaction terms between receipt of transfusion and age strata, controlling for type of admission and Charlson co-morbidity indices. We also examined the distribution of admission haematocrit and whether transfusion rates differed by age strata. RESULTS: All age strata experienced statistically similar risks of decreased 1-year survival after receipt of PRBC transfusions. However, patients age >80 were more likely than younger cohorts to have haematocrits of 25-30% at admission and were transfused at approximately twice the rate of each of the younger age strata. DISCUSSION: We found no significant interaction between receipt of red cell transfusion and age, as variables, and survival at 1?year as an outcome.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/tme.12010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000321975300005

    View details for PubMedID 23480030

  • Patient-centered disease management (PCDM) for heart failure: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial BMC CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS Bekelman, D. B., Plomondon, M. E., Sullivan, M. D., Nelson, K., Hattler, B., McBryde, C., Lehmann, K. G., Potfay, J., Heidenreich, P., Rumsfeld, J. S. 2013; 13

    Abstract

    Chronic heart failure (HF) disease management programs have reported inconsistent results and have not included comorbid depression management or specifically focused on improving patient-reported outcomes. The Patient Centered Disease Management (PCDM) trial was designed to test the effectiveness of collaborative care disease management in improving health status (symptoms, functioning, and quality of life) in patients with HF who reported poor HF-specific health status.Patients with a HF diagnosis at four VA Medical Centers were identified through population-based sampling. Patients with a Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ, a measure of HF-specific health status) score of?

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1471-2261-13-49

    View details for Web of Science ID 000322037600001

    View details for PubMedID 23837415

  • Are we targeting the right metric for heart failure? Comparison of hospital 30-day readmission rates and total episode of care inpatient days. American heart journal Kociol, R. D., Liang, L., Hernandez, A. F., Curtis, L. H., Heidenreich, P. A., Yancy, C. W., Fonarow, G. C., Peterson, E. D. 2013; 165 (6): 987-994 e1

    Abstract

    Hospitals are challenged to reduce length of stay (LOS), yet simultaneously reduce readmissions for patients with heart failure (HF). This study investigates whether 30-day rehospitalization or an alternative measure of total inpatient days over an episode of care (EOC) is the best indicator of resource use, HF quality, and outcomes.Using data from the American Heart Association's Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure Registry linked to Medicare claims, we ranked and compared hospitals by LOS, 30-day readmission rate, and overall EOC metric, defined as all hospital days for an HF admission and any subsequent admissions within 30 days. We divided hospitals into quartiles by 30-day EOC and 30-day readmission rates. We compared performance by EOC and readmission rate quartiles with respect to quality of care indicators and 30-day postdischarge mortality.The population had a mean age of 80 ± 7.95 years, 45% were male, and 82% were white. Hospital-level unadjusted median index LOS and overall EOC were 4.9 (4.2-5.6) and 6.2 (5.3-7.4) days, respectively. Median 30-day readmission rate was 23.2%. Hospital HF readmission rate was not associated with initial hospital LOS, only slightly associated with total EOC rank (r = 0.26, P = .001), and inversely related to HF performance measures. After adjustment, there was no association between 30-day readmission and decreased 30-day mortality. In contrast, better performance on the EOC metric was associated with decreased odds of 30-day mortality.Although hospital 30-day readmission rate was poorly correlated with LOS, quality measures, and 30-day mortality, better performance on the EOC metric was associated with better 30-day survival. Total inpatient days during a 30-day EOC may more accurately reflect overall resource use and better serve as a target for quality improvement efforts.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2013.02.006

    View details for PubMedID 23708171

  • Validated, Electronic Health Record Deployable Prediction Models for Assessing Patient Risk of 30-Day Rehospitalization and Mortality in Older Heart Failure Patients JACC-HEART FAILURE Eapen, Z. J., Liang, L., Fonarow, G. C., Heidenreich, P. A., Curtis, L. H., Peterson, E. D., Hernandez, A. F. 2013; 1 (3): 245-251
  • Validated, electronic health record deployable prediction models for assessing patient risk of 30-day rehospitalization and mortality in older heart failure patients. JACC. Heart failure Eapen, Z. J., Liang, L., Fonarow, G. C., Heidenreich, P. A., Curtis, L. H., Peterson, E. D., Hernandez, A. F. 2013; 1 (3): 245-251

    Abstract

    The study sought to derive and validate risk-prediction tools from a large nationwide registry linked with Medicare claims data.Few clinical models have been developed utilizing data elements readily available in electronic health records (EHRs) to facilitate "real-time" risk estimation.Heart failure (HF) patients ? 65 years of age hospitalized in the GWTG-HF (Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure) program were linked with Medicare claims from January 2005 to December 2009. Multivariable models were developed for 30-day mortality after admission, 30-day rehospitalization after discharge, and 30-day mortality/rehospitalization after discharge. Candidate variables were selected based on availability in EHRs and prognostic value. The models were validated in a 30% random sample and separately in patients with reduced and preserved ejection fraction (EF).Among 33,349 patients at 160 hospitals, 3,002 (9.1%) died within 30 days of admission, 7,020 (22.8%) were rehospitalized within 30 days of discharge, and 8,374 (27.2%) died or were rehospitalized within 30 days of discharge. Compared with patients classified as low risk, high-risk patients had significantly higher odds of death (odds ratio [OR]: 8.82, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.58 to 10.26), rehospitalization (OR: 1.99, 95% CI: 1.86 to 2.13), and death/rehospitalization (OR: 2.65, 95% CI: 2.44 to 2.89). The 30-day mortality model demonstrated good discrimination (c-index 0.75) while the rehospitalization and death/rehospitalization models demonstrated more modest discrimination (c-indices of 0.59 and 0.62), with similar performance in the validation cohort and for patients with preserved and reduced EF.These predictive models allow for risk stratification of 30-day outcomes for patients hospitalized with HF and may provide a validated, point-of-care tool for clinical decision making.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jchf.2013.01.008

    View details for PubMedID 24621877

  • Transitional adherence and persistence in the use of aldosterone antagonist therapy in patients with heart failure. American heart journal Curtis, L. H., Mi, X., Qualls, L. G., Check, D. K., Hammill, B. G., Hammill, S. C., Heidenreich, P. A., Masoudi, F. A., Setoguchi, S., Hernandez, A. F., Fonarow, G. C. 2013; 165 (6): 979-986 e1

    Abstract

    Aldosterone antagonist therapy is recommended for selected patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. Adherence to therapy in the transition from hospital to home is not well understood.We identified patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction who were ?65 years old, eligible for aldosterone antagonist therapy, and discharged home from hospitals in the Get With the Guidelines-Heart Failure registry between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2008. We used Medicare prescription drug event data to measure adherence. Main outcome measures were prescription at discharge, outpatient prescription claim within 90 days, discontinuation, and adherence as measured with the medication possession ratio. We used the cumulative incidence function to estimate rates of initiation and discontinuation.Among 2,086 eligible patients, 561 (26.9%) were prescribed an aldosterone antagonist at discharge. Within 90 days, 78.6% of eligible patients with a discharge prescription filled a prescription for the therapy, compared with 13.0% of eligible patients without a discharge prescription (P < .001). The median medication possession ratio was 0.63 over 1 year of follow-up. Among 634 patients who filled a prescription within 90 days of discharge, 7.9% discontinued therapy within 1 year.Most eligible patients were not prescribed aldosterone antagonist therapy at discharge from a heart failure hospitalization. Eligible patients without a discharge prescription seldom initiated therapy as outpatients. Most patients who were prescribed an aldosterone antagonist at discharge filled the prescription within 90 days and remained on therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2013.03.007

    View details for PubMedID 23708170

  • The National ICD Registry Report: version 2.1 including leads and pediatrics for years 2010 and 2011. Heart rhythm Kremers, M. S., Hammill, S. C., Berul, C. I., Koutras, C., Curtis, J. S., Wang, Y., Beachy, J., Blum Meisnere, L., Conyers, D. M., Reynolds, M. R., Heidenreich, P. A., Al-Khatib, S. M., Pina, I. L., Blake, K., Norine Walsh, M., Wilkoff, B. L., Shalaby, A., Masoudi, F. A., Rumsfeld, J. 2013; 10 (4): e59-65

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hrthm.2013.01.035

    View details for PubMedID 23403056

  • The National ICD Registry Report: Version 2.1 including leads and pediatrics for years 2010 and 2011 HEART RHYTHM Kremers, M. S., Hammill, S. C., Berul, C. I., Koutras, C., Curtis, J. S., Wang, Y., Beachy, J., Meisnere, L. B., Conyers, D. M., Reynolds, M. R., Heidenreich, P. A., Al-Khatib, S. M., Pina, I. L., Blake, K., Walsh, M. N., Wilkoff, B. L., Shalaby, A., Masoudi, F. A., Rumsfeld, J. 2013; 10 (4): E59-E65
  • ACCF/HRS/AHA/ASE/HFSA/SCAI/SCCT/SCMR 2013 appropriate use criteria for implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation appropriate use criteria task force, Heart Rhythm Society, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, Heart Failure Society of America, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, and Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance. Heart rhythm Russo, A. M., Stainback, R. F., Bailey, S. R., Epstein, A. E., Heidenreich, P. A., Jessup, M., Kapa, S., Kremers, M. S., Lindsay, B. D., Stevenson, L. W. 2013; 10 (4): e11-58

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hrthm.2013.01.008

    View details for PubMedID 23473952

  • ACCF/HRS/AHA/ASE/HFSA/SCAI/SCCT/SCMR 2013 appropriate use criteria for implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation appropriate use criteria task force, Heart Rhythm Society, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, Heart Failure Society of America, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, and Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance. Journal of the American College of Cardiology Russo, A. M., Stainback, R. F., Bailey, S. R., Epstein, A. E., Heidenreich, P. A., Jessup, M., Kapa, S., Kremers, M. S., Lindsay, B. D., Stevenson, L. W. 2013; 61 (12): 1318-1368

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2012.12.017

    View details for PubMedID 23453819

  • Severe obstructive sleep apnea increases mortality in patients with ischemic heart disease and myocardial injury SLEEP AND BREATHING Won, C. H., Chun, H. J., Chandra, S. M., Sarinas, P. S., Chitkara, R. K., Heidenreich, P. A. 2013; 17 (1): 85-91

    Abstract

    We hypothesized that obstructive sleep apnea(OSA) has a dose-dependent impact on mortality in those with ischemic heart disease or previous myocardial injury.We performed a retrospective cohort study of 281 consecutive OSA patients with a history of myocardial injury as determined by elevated troponin levels or with known existing ischemic heart disease. We compared survival between those with severe OSA [apnea?hypopneaindex (AHI) ?30] and those with mild to moderate OSA(AHI >5 and <30).Of the 281 patients (mean age 65 years, mean BMI34, 98% male, 58% with diabetes), 151 patients had mild moderate OSA and 130 had severe OSA. During a mean follow-up of 4.1 years, there were significantly greater deaths in the severe OSA group compared to the mild moderate OSA group [53 deaths (41%) vs. 44 deaths(29%), respectively, p00.04]. The adjusted hazard ratio for mortality with severe OSA was 1.72 (95% confidence interval1.01?2.91, p00.04).The severity of obstructive sleep apnea is associated with increased risk of death, and risk stratification based on OSA severity is relevant even in the diseased cardiac patient.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11325-012-0653-y

    View details for Web of Science ID 000315167200019

    View details for PubMedID 22294346

  • Effects of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists on the risk of sudden cardiac death in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Circulation. Heart failure Bapoje, S. R., Bahia, A., Hokanson, J. E., Peterson, P. N., Heidenreich, P. A., Lindenfeld, J., Allen, L. A., Masoudi, F. A. 2013; 6 (2): 166-173

    Abstract

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is an important cause of death in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) may attenuate this risk. The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the impact of MRAs on SCD in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction.We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, and other databases through March 30, 2012, without language restrictions. We included trials that enrolled patients with left ventricular ejection fraction of ?45%, randomized subjects to MRAs versus control and reported outcomes on SCD, total and cardiovascular mortality. Eight published trials that enrolled 11 875 patients met inclusion criteria. Of these, 6 reported data on SCD and cardiovascular mortality, and 7 reported data on total mortality. No heterogeneity was observed among the trials. Patients treated with MRAs had 23% lower odds of experiencing SCD compared with controls (odds ratio, 0.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.66-0.89; P=0.001). Similar reductions were observed in cardiovascular (0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.84; P<0.001) and total mortality (odds ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-0.86; P<0.001). Although publication bias was observed, the results did not change after a trim and fill test, suggesting that the impact of this bias was likely insignificant.MRAs reduce the risk of SCD in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Comparative effectiveness studies of MRAs on SCD in usual care as well as studies evaluating the efficacy of other therapies to prevent SCD in patients receiving optimal MRA therapy are needed to guide clinical decision-making.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.112.000003

    View details for PubMedID 23403436

  • Differences and trends in stroke prevention anticoagulation in primary care vs cardiology specialty management of new atrial fibrillation: The Retrospective Evaluation and Assessment of Therapies in AF (TREAT-AF) study. American heart journal Turakhia, M. P., Hoang, D. D., Xu, X., Frayne, S., Schmitt, S., Yang, F., Phibbs, C. S., Than, C. T., Wang, P. J., Heidenreich, P. A. 2013; 165 (1): 93-101 e1

    Abstract

    Atrial fibrillation and flutter (AF, collectively) cause stroke. We evaluated whether treating specialty influences warfarin prescription in patients with newly diagnosed AF.In the TREAT-AF study, we used Veterans Health Administration health record and claims data to identify patients with newly diagnosed AF between October 2004 and November 2008 and at least 1 internal medicine/primary care or cardiology outpatient encounter within 90 days after diagnosis. The primary outcome was prescription of warfarin.In 141,642 patients meeting the inclusion criteria, the mean age was 72.3 ± 10.2 years, 1.48% were women, and 25.8% had cardiology outpatient care. Cardiology-treated patients had more comorbidities and higher mean CHADS2 scores (1.8 vs 1.6, P < .0001). Warfarin use was higher in cardiology-treated vs primary care only-treated patients (68.6% vs 48.9%, P < .0001). After covariate and site-level adjustment, cardiology care was significantly associated with warfarin use (odds ratio [OR] 2.05, 95% CI 1.99-2.11). These findings were consistent across a series of adjusted models (OR 2.05-2.20), propensity matching (OR 1.98), and subgroup analyses (OR 1.58-2.11). Warfarin use in primary-care-only patients declined from 2004 to 2008 (51.6%-44.0%, P < .0001), whereas the adjusted odds of warfarin receipt with cardiology care (vs primary care) increased from 2004 to 2008 (1.88-2.24, P < .0001).In patients with newly diagnosed AF, we found large differences in anticoagulation use by treating specialty. A divergent 5-year trend of risk-adjusted warfarin use was observed. Treating specialty influences stroke prevention care and may impact clinical outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2012.10.010

    View details for PubMedID 23237139

  • Differences and trends in stroke prevention anticoagulation in primary care vs cardiology specialty management of new atrial fibrillation: The Retrospective Evaluation and Assessment of Therapies in AF (TREAT-AF) study AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Turakhia, M. P., Hoang, D. D., Xu, X., Frayne, S., Schmitt, S., Yang, F., Phibbs, C. S., Than, C. T., Wang, P. J., Heidenreich, P. A. 2013; 165 (1): 93-?

    Abstract

    Atrial fibrillation and flutter (AF, collectively) cause stroke. We evaluated whether treating specialty influences warfarin prescription in patients with newly diagnosed AF.In the TREAT-AF study, we used Veterans Health Administration health record and claims data to identify patients with newly diagnosed AF between October 2004 and November 2008 and at least 1 internal medicine/primary care or cardiology outpatient encounter within 90 days after diagnosis. The primary outcome was prescription of warfarin.In 141,642 patients meeting the inclusion criteria, the mean age was 72.3 ± 10.2 years, 1.48% were women, and 25.8% had cardiology outpatient care. Cardiology-treated patients had more comorbidities and higher mean CHADS2 scores (1.8 vs 1.6, P < .0001). Warfarin use was higher in cardiology-treated vs primary care only-treated patients (68.6% vs 48.9%, P < .0001). After covariate and site-level adjustment, cardiology care was significantly associated with warfarin use (odds ratio [OR] 2.05, 95% CI 1.99-2.11). These findings were consistent across a series of adjusted models (OR 2.05-2.20), propensity matching (OR 1.98), and subgroup analyses (OR 1.58-2.11). Warfarin use in primary-care-only patients declined from 2004 to 2008 (51.6%-44.0%, P < .0001), whereas the adjusted odds of warfarin receipt with cardiology care (vs primary care) increased from 2004 to 2008 (1.88-2.24, P < .0001).In patients with newly diagnosed AF, we found large differences in anticoagulation use by treating specialty. A divergent 5-year trend of risk-adjusted warfarin use was observed. Treating specialty influences stroke prevention care and may impact clinical outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2012.10.010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000312272900017

    View details for PubMedID 23237139

  • Time for a Thorough Evaluation of Patient-Centered Care CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR QUALITY AND OUTCOMES Heidenreich, P. A. 2013; 6 (1): 2-4
  • Racial Differences in Atrial Fibrillation Prevalence and Anticoagulation Use Thomas, K. L., Piccini, J. P., Liang, L., Heidenreich, P., Fonarow, G., Peterson, E., Yancy, C., Hernandez, A. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2012
  • Impact of Baseline Stroke Risk and Bleeding Risk on INR Control among Patients with Atrial Fibrillation on Warfarin: the TREAT-AF Study Turakhia, M. P., Than, C. T., Xu, X., Schmitt, S. K., Yang, F., Frayne, S. M., Phibbs, C. S., Holmes, T. H., Heidenreich, P. A. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2012
  • HFSA and AAHFN joint position statement: Advocating for a full scope of nursing practice and leadership in heart failure HEART & LUNG Lee, C. S., Greenberg, B. H., Laramee, A. S., Ammon, S. E., Prasun, M., Galvao, M., Doering, L. V., Sherman, M. E., Stevenson, L. W., Gregory, D. D., Heidenreich, P. A., Kapur, N. K., O'Connell, J. B., Taylor, A. L., Hill, J. A., Baas, L., Gibbs, A., Rasmusson, K., Lewis, C., Kirkwood, P., Reigle, J., Rathman, L., Bither, C. 2012; 41 (6): 531-533

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hrtlng.2012.10.002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000311011300002

    View details for PubMedID 23121831

  • FACILITATING HEALTH BEHAVIORS AND HEALTH LITERACY IN DISEASE SELF-CARE IN OLDER ADULTS Oliva, N., Gaskin, L., Heidenreich, P. OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. 2012: 137
  • National Survey of Hospital Strategies to Reduce Heart Failure Readmissions Findings From the Get With the Guidelines-Heart Failure Registry CIRCULATION-HEART FAILURE Kociol, R. D., Peterson, E. D., Hammill, B. G., Flynn, K. E., Heidenreich, P. A., Pina, I. L., Lytle, B. L., Albert, N. M., Curtis, L. H., Fonarow, G. C., Hernandez, A. F. 2012; 5 (6): 680-687

    Abstract

    Reducing 30-day heart failure readmission rates is a national priority. Yet, little is known about how hospitals address the problem and whether hospital-based processes of care are associated with reductions in readmission rates.We surveyed 100 randomly selected hospitals participating in the Get With the Guidelines-Heart Failure quality improvement program regarding common processes of care aimed at reducing readmissions. We grouped processes into 3 domains (ie, inpatient care, discharge and transitional care, and general quality improvement) and scored hospitals on the basis of survey responses using processes selected a priori. We used linear regression to examine associations between these domain scores and 30-day risk-standardized readmission rates. Of the 100 participating sites, 28% were academic centers and 64% were community hospitals. The median readmission rate among participating sites (24.0%; 95% CI, 22.6%-25.7%) was comparable with the national average (24.6%; 23.5-25.9). Sites varied substantially in care processes used for inpatient care, education, discharge process, care transitions, and quality improvement. Overall, neither inpatient care nor general quality improvement domains were associated with 30-day readmission rates. Hospitals in the lowest readmission rate quartile had modestly higher discharge and transitional care domain scores (P=0.03).A variety of strategies are used by hospitals in an attempt to improve 30-day readmission rates for patients hospitalized with heart failure. Although more complete discharge and transitional care processes may be modestly associated with lower 30-day readmission rates, most current strategies are not associated with lower readmission rates.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.112.967406

    View details for Web of Science ID 000313580100013

    View details for PubMedID 22933525

  • HFSA and AAHFN joint position statement: advocating for a full scope of nursing practice and leadership in heart failure. Journal of cardiac failure Lee, C. S., Greenberg, B. H., Laramee, A. S., Ammon, S. E., Prasun, M., Galvao, M., Doering, L. V., Sherman, M. E., Stevenson, L. W., Gregory, D. D., Heidenreich, P. A., Kapur, N. K., O'Connell, J. B., Taylor, A. L., Hill, J. A., Baas, L., Gibbs, A., Rasmusson, K., Lewis, C., Kirkwood, P., Reigle, J., Rathman, L., Bither, C. 2012; 18 (11): 811-812

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cardfail.2012.09.001

    View details for PubMedID 23141852

  • Are Racial/Ethnic Gaps in the Use of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Narrowing? An Analysis of 107,096 Patients From the National Cardiovascular Data Registry's ICD Registry JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Eapen, Z. J., Al-Khatib, S., Lopes, R. D., Wang, Y., Bao, H., Curtis, J., Heidenreich, P. A., Hernandez, A. F., Peterson, E. D., Hammill, S. C. 2012; 60 (16): 1577-1578

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2012.06.024

    View details for Web of Science ID 000310198200019

    View details for PubMedID 22958954

  • Automated extraction of ejection fraction for quality measurement using regular expressions in Unstructured Information Management Architecture (UIMA) for heart failure JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL INFORMATICS ASSOCIATION Garvin, J. H., DuVall, S. L., South, B. R., Bray, B. E., Bolton, D., Heavirland, J., Pickard, S., Heidenreich, P., Shen, S., Weir, C., Samore, M., Goldstein, M. K. 2012; 19 (5): 859-866

    Abstract

    Left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) is a key component of heart failure quality measures used within the Department of Veteran Affairs (VA). Our goals were to build a natural language processing system to extract the EF from free-text echocardiogram reports to automate measurement reporting and to validate the accuracy of the system using a comparison reference standard developed through human review. This project was a Translational Use Case Project within the VA Consortium for Healthcare Informatics.We created a set of regular expressions and rules to capture the EF using a random sample of 765 echocardiograms from seven VA medical centers. The documents were randomly assigned to two sets: a set of 275 used for training and a second set of 490 used for testing and validation. To establish the reference standard, two independent reviewers annotated all documents in both sets; a third reviewer adjudicated disagreements.System test results for document-level classification of EF of <40% had a sensitivity (recall) of 98.41%, a specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value (precision) of 100%, and an F measure of 99.2%. System test results at the concept level had a sensitivity of 88.9% (95% CI 87.7% to 90.0%), a positive predictive value of 95% (95% CI 94.2% to 95.9%), and an F measure of 91.9% (95% CI 91.2% to 92.7%).An EF value of <40% can be accurately identified in VA echocardiogram reports.An automated information extraction system can be used to accurately extract EF for quality measurement.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/amiajnl-2011-000535

    View details for Web of Science ID 000307934600025

    View details for PubMedID 22437073

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3422820

  • Self-Reported Awareness of Chronic Heart Failure (CHF) in a VA Population Diagnosed With CHF: Implications for Individual Patients, Caregivers, Providers, and Organizations Oliva, N. L., Gaskin, L., Sahay, A., Gholami, P., Heidenreich, P. CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE INC MEDICAL PUBLISHERS. 2012: S107?S108
  • Trends in Patients Hospitalized With Heart Failure and Preserved Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Prevalence, Therapies, and Outcomes CIRCULATION Steinberg, B. A., Zhao, X., Heidenreich, P. A., Peterson, E. D., Bhatt, D. L., Cannon, C. P., Hernandez, A. F., Fonarow, G. C. 2012; 126 (1): 65-?

    Abstract

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (EF) is a common syndrome, but trends in treatments and outcomes are lacking.We analyzed data from 275 hospitals in Get With the Guidelines-Heart Failure from January 2005 to October 2010. Patients were stratified by EF as reduced EF (EF <40% [HF-reduced EF]), borderline EF (40%?EF<50% [HF-borderline EF]), or preserved (EF ?50% [HF-preserved EF]). Using multivariable models, we examined trends in therapies and outcomes. Among 110 621 patients, 50% (55 083) had HF-reduced EF, 14% (15 184) had HF-borderline EF, and 36% (40 354) had HF-preserved EF. From 2005 to 2010, the proportion of hospitalizations for HF-preserved EF increased from 33% to 39% (P<0.0001). In multivariable analyses, use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers at discharge decreased in all EF groups, and ?-blocker use increased. Patients with HF-preserved EF less frequently achieved blood pressure control (adjusted odds ratio, 0.44 versus HF-reduced EF; P<0.001) and were more likely discharged to skilled nursing (adjusted odds ratio, 1.16 versus HF-reduced EF; P<0.001). In-hospital mortality for HF-preserved EF decreased from 3.32% in 2005 to 2.35% in 2010 (adjusted odds ratio, 0.89 per year; P=0.01) but was stable for patients with HF-reduced EF (3.03%-2.83%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.93 per year; P=0.10).Hospitalization for HF-preserved EF is increasing relative to HF-reduced EF. Although in-hospital mortality for patients with HF-preserved EF declined over the study period, an important opportunity remains for identifying evidence-based therapies in patients with HF-preserved EF.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.080770

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306977100025

    View details for PubMedID 22615345

  • Utilization of Hospice and Predicted Mortality Risk Among Older Patients Hospitalized With Heart Failure: Findings From GWTG-HF JOURNAL OF CARDIAC FAILURE Whellan, D. J., Cox, M., Hernandez, A. F., Heidenreich, P. A., Curtis, L. H., Peterson, E. D., Fonarow, G. C. 2012; 18 (6): 471-477

    Abstract

    Guidelines recommend hospice care as a treatment option for end-stage heart failure (HF) patients. Little is known regarding utilization of hospice care in a contemporary cohort of patients hospitalized with HF and how this may vary by estimated mortality risk.We analyzed HF patients ?65 years (n = 58,330) from 214 hospitals participating in the Get With the Guidelines-HF program. Univariate analysis comparing patients discharged to hospice versus other patients was performed. Hospice utilization was evaluated for deciles of estimated 90-day mortality risk using a validated model. Multivariate analysis using admission patient and hospital characteristics was also performed to determine factors associated with hospice discharge.There were 1,442 patients discharged to hospice, and rates of referral varied widely by hospital (interquartile range 0-3.7%) as shown in the univariate analysis. Patients discharged to hospice were significantly older and more often white, had lower left ventricular ejection fraction, higher B-type natriuretic peptide, and lower systolic blood pressure on admission. Utilization rates for each decile of 90-day estimated mortality risk ranged from 0.3% to 8.6%. Multivariable analysis found that factors associated with hospice utilization included increased age, low systolic blood pressure on admission, and increased blood urea nitrogen.Hospice utilization remains low among HF patients, even those with the highest predicted risk of death.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cardfail.2012.02.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305166400005

    View details for PubMedID 22633304

  • Design and rationale of a retrospective clinical effectiveness study of aldosterone antagonist therapy in patients with heart failure AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Curtis, L. H., Mi, X., Qualls, L. G., Hammill, B. G., Hammill, S. C., Heidenreich, P. A., Masoudi, F. A., Setoguchi, S., Hernandez, A. F., Fonarow, G. C. 2012; 163 (6): 946-?

    Abstract

    Despite demonstrated efficacy in randomized trials, aldosterone antagonist therapy is not used in many eligible patients with heart failure. Questions remain about its clinical effectiveness and safety for patients who are underrepresented in randomized trials and those at risk for hyperkalemia.The proposed study will evaluate the effectiveness of aldosterone antagonist therapy in eligible Medicare beneficiaries ? 65 years old hospitalized for heart failure between 2005 and 2008. Data are from the GWTG-HF registry linked with Medicare inpatient and prescription drug event files. We will use inverse probability-weighted estimators to assess differences in mortality, cardiovascular readmission, and readmission for hyperkalemia between patients who receive or do not receive aldosterone antagonist therapy.The initial data set included 33,652 patients; 5,463 (16.2%) met all inclusion criteria. Compared with patients who did not meet the inclusion criteria, patients in the final cohort were more likely to be younger (77.3 vs 80.3 years) and male (63.8% vs 41.3%) and to have ischemic heart failure (74.2% vs 59.5%) (all P < .001). Mortality rates were 24.7% at 1 year and 50.7% at 3 years; cardiovascular readmission rates were 50.1% at 1 year and 65.2% at 3 years.The proposed study will evaluate the clinical effectiveness of aldosterone antagonist therapy in Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, an underrepresented population in clinical trials. By addressing this evidence gap, the study has the potential to inform clinical decision making and improve patient outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2012.03.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305428200005

    View details for PubMedID 22709746

  • Vascular Surgery Patients Prescribed Preoperative beta-Blockers Experienced a Decrease in the Maximal Heart Rate Observed During Induction of General Anesthesia JOURNAL OF CARDIOTHORACIC AND VASCULAR ANESTHESIA Mudumbai, S. C., Wagner, T., Mahajan, S., King, R., Heidenreich, P. A., Hlatky, M., Wallace, A., Mariano, E. R. 2012; 26 (3): 414-419

    Abstract

    To investigate the association of preoperative ?-blocker usage and maximal heart rates observed during the induction of general anesthesia.Retrospective descriptive, univariate, and multivariate analyses of electronic hospital and anesthesia medical records.A tertiary-care medical center within the Veterans Health Administration.Consecutive adult elective and emergent patients presenting for vascular surgery during calendar years 2005 to 2011.None.Of the 430 eligible cases, 218 were prescribed ?-blockers, and 212 were not taking ?-blockers. The two groups were comparable across baseline patient factors (ie, demographic, morphometric, surgical duration, and surgical procedures) and induction medication doses. The ?-blocker group experienced a lower maximal heart rate during the induction of general anesthesia compared with the non-?-blocker group (105 ± 41 beats/min v 115 ± 45 beats/min, respectively; p < 0.01). Adjusted linear regression found a statistically significant association between lower maximal heart rate and the use of ?-blockers (? = -11.1 beats/min, p < 0.01). There was no difference between groups in total intraoperative ?-blocker administration.Preoperative ?-blockade of vascular surgery patients undergoing general anesthesia is associated with a lower maximal heart rate during anesthetic induction. There may be potential benefits in administering ?-blockers to reduce physiologic stress in this surgical population at risk for perioperative cardiac morbidity. Future research should further explore intraoperative hemodynamic effects in light of existing practice guidelines for optimal medication selection, dosage, and heart rate control.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.jvca.2011.09.027

    View details for Web of Science ID 000304215800011

    View details for PubMedID 22138312

  • Role of heart rate as a marker and mediator of poor outcome for patients with heart failure. Current heart failure reports Kapoor, J. R., Heidenreich, P. A. 2012; 9 (2): 133-138

    Abstract

    Tachycardia has been associated with worse outcomes for patients with heart failure and is also thought to have a direct adverse impact on the myocardium. This report highlights the current evidence for heart rate as both a risk factor and mediator for poor outcome for patients with heart failure. We summarize the large number of studies evaluating heart rate in patients with systolic dysfunction and newer studies that examine patients with preserved systolic function. The effect on outcomes in heart failure of medications known to slow the heart rate such as ?-blockers and the more recently developed drug ivabradine are discussed. The data clearly show that a high heart rate is a marker of increased mortality. There is also a strong suggestion that a higher heart rate directly worsens outcome and that this can be mitigated by heart rate-reducing medications.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11897-012-0086-8

    View details for PubMedID 22351045

  • ACCF/AHA/AMA-PCPI 2011 Performance Measures for Adults With Heart Failure JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Bonow, R. O., Ganiats, T. G., Beam, C. T., Blake, K., Casey, D. E., Goodlin, S. J., Grady, K. L., Hundley, R. F., Jessup, M., Lynn, T. E., Masoudi, F. A., Nilasena, D., Pina, I. L., Rockswold, P. D., Sadwin, L. B., Sikkema, J. D., Sincak, C. A., Spertus, J., Torcson, P. J., Torres, E., Williams, M. V., Wong, J. B., Peterson, E. D., Masoudi, F. A., DeLong, E., Erwin, J. P., Fonarow, G. C., Goff, D. C., Grady, K. L., Green, L. A., Heidenreich, P. A., Jenkins, K. J., Loth, A., Shahian, D. M. 2012; 59 (20): 1812-1832
  • ACCF/AHA/AMA-PCPI 2011 performance measures for adults with heart failure: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Performance Measures and the American Medical Association-Physician Consortium for Performance Improvement. Journal of the American College of Cardiology Bonow, R. O., Ganiats, T. G., Beam, C. T., Blake, K., Casey, D. E., Goodlin, S. J., Grady, K. L., Hundley, R. F., Jessup, M., Lynn, T. E., Masoudi, F. A., Nilasena, D., Piña, I. L., Rockswold, P. D., Sadwin, L. B., Sikkema, J. D., Sincak, C. A., Spertus, J., Torcson, P. J., Torres, E., Williams, M. V., Wong, J. B., Peterson, E. D., Masoudi, F. A., DeLong, E., Erwin, J. P., Fonarow, G. C., Goff, D. C., Grady, K. L., Green, L. A., Heidenreich, P. A., Jenkins, K. J., Loth, A., Shahian, D. M. 2012; 59 (20): 1812-1832

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2012.03.013

    View details for PubMedID 22534627

  • The Effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Statins on the Progression of Aortic Sclerosis and Mortality JOURNAL OF HEART VALVE DISEASE Ardehali, R., Leeper, N. J., Wilson, A. M., Heidenreich, P. A. 2012; 21 (3): 337-343

    Abstract

    Although aortic sclerosis has been associated with an increase in adverse cardiovascular outcomes, no proven therapy has been shown to slow its progression to overt aortic stenosis (AS). Thus, the hypothesis was assessed that treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) or statins may be associated with an improvement in the clinical outcome of these patients.A total of 4,105 patients with evidence of aortic sclerosis seen on transthoracic echocardiography (defined as thickening or calcification with a mean valve gradient < or = 15 mmHg) was identified. Patients with a sclerotic valve who were treated with ACE-Is/ARBs or statins were followed for a mean period of 1,078 +/- 615 days. After adjustment for the propensity to receive ACE-Is/ARBs or statins, mortality, hemodynamic progression to AS, hospitalization for ischemic heart disease (IHD), and congestive heart failure (CHF) were assessed and related to the medical treatment.At baseline, patients with aortic sclerosis who were treated with an ACE-I/ARB or a statin suffered significantly more from comorbidities such as IHD, CHF, hypertension, diabetes, and peripheral arterial disease, when compared to subjects with sclerotic valves not treated with these drugs. After adjustment for confounding factors, treatment with statins was associated with a significant reduction in mortality (odds ratio [OR] 0.73, 95% CI 0.56-0.98, p = 0.001), admission for IHD (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.66-0.99, p = 0.03), admission for CHF (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.55-0.85, p = 0.01) and progression to AS (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.42-0.97, p = 0.03). While ACE-I treatment resulted in a significant reduction in admission for IHD (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.65-0.98, p = 0.03) and CHF (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.62-0.94, p = 0.01), the beneficial trend towards reduced mortality and delayed progression to AS was not significant.Treatment of this patient population with statins led to a significant reduction in mortality and also slowed the progression to AS--an effect that was not statistically significant with ACE-I treatment.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306675500011

    View details for PubMedID 22808835

  • Trends in Use of Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Therapy Among Patients Hospitalized for Heart Failure Have the Previously Observed Sex and Racial Disparities Changed Over Time? CIRCULATION Al-Khatib, S. M., Hellkamp, A. S., Hernandez, A. F., Fonarow, G. C., Thomas, K. L., Al-Khalidi, H. R., Heidenreich, P. A., Hammill, S., Yancy, C., Peterson, E. D. 2012; 125 (9): 1094-1101

    Abstract

    Prior studies have demonstrated low use of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) as primary prevention, particularly among women and blacks. The degree to which the overall use of ICD therapy and disparities in use have changed is unclear.We examined 11 880 unique patients with a history of heart failure and left ventricular ejection fraction ?35% who were ?65 years old and enrolled in the Get With the Guidelines-Heart Failure (GWTG-HF) program from January 2005 through December 2009. We determined the rate of ICD use by year for the overall population and for sex and race groups. From 2005 to 2007, overall ICD use increased from 30.2% to 42.4% and then remained unchanged in 2008 to 2009. After adjustment for potential confounders, ICD use increased significantly in the overall study population during 2005 to 2007 (odds ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.48 per year; P=0.0008) and in black women (odds ratio, 1.82; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.58 per year; P=0.0008), white women (odds ratio, 1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.59 per year; P=0.010), black men (odds ratio, 1.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-1.99 per year; P=0.0009), and white men (odds ratio, 1.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.48 per year; P=0.0072). The increase in ICD use was greatest among blacks.In the GWTG-HF quality improvement program, a significant increase in ICD therapy use was observed over time in all sex and race groups. The previously described racial disparities in ICD use were no longer present by the end of the study period; however, sex differences persisted.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.066605

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301197700016

    View details for PubMedID 22287589

  • Ability of microvolt T-wave alternans to modify risk assessment of ventricular tachyarrhythmic events: A meta-analysis AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Gupta, A., Hoang, D. D., Karliner, L., Tice, J. A., Heidenreich, P., Wang, P. J., Turakhia, M. P. 2012; 163 (3): 354-364

    Abstract

    Prior studies have indicated that the magnitude of risk association of microvolt T-wave alternans (MTWA) testing appears to vary with the population studied. We performed a meta-analysis to determine the ability of MTWA to modify risk assessment of ventricular tachyarrhythmic events (VTEs) and sudden cardiac death (SCD) across a series of patient risk profiles using likelihood ratio (LR) testing, a measure of test performance independent of disease prevalence.We identified original research articles published from January 1990 to January 2011 that investigate spectrally derived MTWA. Ventricular tachyarrhythmic event was defined as the total and arrhythmic mortality and nonfatal sustained or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator-treated ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Summary estimates were created for positive and nonnegative MTWA results using a random-effects model and were expressed as positive (LR+) and negative (LR-) LRs.Of 1,534 articles, 20 prospective cohort studies met our inclusion criteria, consisting of 5,945 subjects predominantly with prior myocardial infarction or left ventricular dysfunction. Although there was a modest association between positive MTWA and VTE (relative risk 2.45, 1.58-3.79) and nonnegative MTWA and VTE (3.68, 2.23-6.07), test performance was poor (positive MTWA: LR+ 1.78, LR- 0.43; nonnegative MTWA: LR+ 1.38, LR- 0.56). Subgroup analyses of subjects classified as prior VTE, post-myocardial infarction, SCD-HeFT type, and MADIT-II type had a similar poor test performance. A negative MTWA result would decrease the annualized risk of VTE from 8.85% to 6.37% in MADIT-II-type patients and from 5.91% to 2.60% in SCD-HeFT-type patients.Despite a modest association, results of spectrally derived MTWA testing do not sufficiently modify the risk of VTE to change clinical decisions.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2011.11.021

    View details for PubMedID 22424005

  • Patient and hospital characteristics associated with traditional measures of inpatient quality of care for patients with heart failure AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Heidenreich, P. A., Zhao, X., Hernandez, A. F., Yancy, C. W., Fonarow, G. C. 2012; 163 (2): 239-U337

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to determine patient and hospital characteristics associated with 4 measures of quality of inpatient heart failure care used by both the primary payer of heart failure care in the United States (Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services) and the main hospital accrediting organization (The Joint Commission).We used data from Get With The Guidelines Program for patients hospitalized with heart failure. Eligibility for receiving care based on the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services performance measures was determined for assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF; n = 60,601), use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) if LVEF<40% and no contraindications (24,130), discharge instructions (49,383), and smoking cessation counseling (10,152). Patient and hospital characteristics that were significantly associated with performance measures in univariate analyses were entered into multivariate logistic regression models.Overall, documentation for LVEF assessment was noted in 95%, ACEi/ARB use in 87%, discharge instruction in 82%, and smoking cessation counseling in 91% of eligible patients. In adjusted analyses, older patients and those with evidence of renal failure were significantly less likely to receive each care measure except for discharge instructions (no age effect). Patients with higher body mass index were more likely to receive ACEi/ARB and discharge instructions but less likely to have LVEF documented or to receive smoking cessation counseling. Small hospitals (<200 beds) were less likely to provide each of the performance measures compared with larger hospitals.Recommended heart failure care is less likely in patients with certain characteristics (older age and abnormal renal function) and those cared for in smaller hospitals. Programs to improve evidence-based care for heart failure should consider interventions specifically targeting and tailored to smaller facilities and patients who are older with comorbidities.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2011.10.008

    View details for Web of Science ID 000300226600016

    View details for PubMedID 22305842

  • Cost-effectiveness of pharmacologic and invasive therapies for stroke prophylaxis in atrial fibrillation JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICINE Solomon, M. D., Ullal, A. J., Hoang, D. D., Freeman, J. V., Heidenreich, P., Turakhia, M. P. 2012; 13 (2): 86-96

    Abstract

    Atrial fibrillation is an abnormal heart rhythm characterized by rapid, disorganized activation (fibrillation) of the left and right atria of the heart, and is responsible for 15% of 700,000 strokes in the United States each year. There are multiple pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies used for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation, including vitamin K antagonists such as warfarin, antiplatelet agents such as aspirin and clopidogrel, and newer agents such as dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban. Nonpharmacologic therapies involve excluding the left atrial appendage from the systemic circulation by surgical ligation or excision, percutaneous ligation, or endovascular implantation of a left atrial occlusion device. Because atrial fibrillation-related stroke is preventable, a comparison of the value of these interventions by cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) could inform clinical and health policy recommendations. In this article, we review the principles of CEA and identify 11 articles that examine CEA of stroke prophylaxis strategies in atrial fibrillation. Although most studies evaluate aspirin and warfarin across a variety of atrial fibrillation stroke risk profiles, we also review new literature on new pharmacologic therapies such as direct thrombin inhibitors and discuss the potential value of device-based therapies.

    View details for DOI 10.2459/JCM.0b013e32834f23cf

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299652200002

    View details for PubMedID 22193838

  • Using Stress Testing to Guide Primary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease Among Intermediate-Risk Patients A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis CIRCULATION Galper, B. Z., Moran, A., Coxson, P. G., Pletcher, M. J., Heidenreich, P., Lazar, L. D., Rodondi, N., Wang, Y. C., Goldman, L. 2012; 125 (2): 260-U205

    Abstract

    Noninvasive stress testing might guide the use of aspirin and statins for primary prevention of coronary heart disease, but it is unclear if such a strategy would be cost effective.We compared the status quo, in which the current national use of aspirin and statins was simulated, with 3 other strategies: (1) full implementation of Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines, (2) a treat-all strategy in which all intermediate-risk persons received statins (men and women) and aspirin (men only), and (3) a test-and-treat strategy in which all persons with an intermediate risk of coronary heart disease underwent stress testing and those with a positive test were treated with high-intensity statins (men and women) and aspirin (men only). Healthcare costs, coronary heart disease events, and quality-adjusted life years from 2011 to 2040 were projected. Under a variety of assumptions, the treat-all strategy was the most effective and least expensive strategy. Stress electrocardiography was more effective and less expensive than other test-and-treat strategies, but it was less expensive than treat all only if statin cost exceeded $3.16/pill or if testing increased adherence from <22% to >75%. However, stress electrocardiography could be cost effective in persons initially nonadherent to the treat-all strategy if it raised their adherence to 5% and cost saving if it raised their adherence to 13%.When generic high-potency statins are available, noninvasive cardiac stress testing to target preventive medications is not cost effective unless it substantially improves adherence.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.041293

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299321600015

    View details for PubMedID 22144567

  • Physician Procedure Volume and Complications of Cardioverter-Defibrillator Implantation CIRCULATION Freeman, J. V., Wang, Y., Curtis, J. P., Heidenreich, P. A., Hlatky, M. A. 2012; 125 (1): 57-64

    Abstract

    The outcomes of procedures are often better when they are performed by more experienced physicians. We assessed whether the rate of complications after implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) placement varied with the volume of procedures a physician performed.We studied 356 515 initial ICD implantations in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry-ICD Registry, performed by 4011 physicians in 1463 hospitals. We examined the relationship between physician annual ICD implantation volume and in-hospital complications, using hierarchical logistic regression to adjust for patient characteristics, implanting physician certification, hospital characteristics, hospital annual procedure volume, and the clustering of patients within hospitals and by physician. We repeated this analysis for ICD subtypes: single chamber, dual chamber, and biventricular. There were 10 994 patients (3.1%) with a complication after ICD implantation, and 1375 died (0.39%). The complication rate decreased with increasing physician procedure volume from 4.6% in the lowest quartile to 2.9% in the highest quartile (P<0.0001), and the mortality rate decreased from 0.72% to 0.36% (P<0.0001). The inverse relationship between physician procedure volume and complications remained significant after adjusting for patient, physician, and hospital characteristics (OR 1.55 for complications in lowest-volume quartile compared with highest; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-1.79; P<0.0001). This inverse relationship was independent of physician specialty and of hospital volume, was consistent across ICD subtypes, and was also evident for in-hospital mortality.Physicians who implant more ICDs have lower rates of procedural complications and in-hospital mortality, independent of hospital procedure volume, physician specialty, and ICD type.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.046995

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299169100019

    View details for PubMedID 22095828

  • Cost Effectiveness of Improved Acute Myocardial Infarction Treatment in China: Projections From the Coronary Heart Disease Policy Model-China Wang, M., Moran, A., Liu, J., Coxson, P., Heidenreich, P., Gu, D., He, J., Goldman, L., Zhao, D. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2011
  • Adherence to Guideline-Based Indications and Prevalence of Optimal Medical Therapy Among Patients Receiving Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Defibrillators in the Outcomes Among Veterans with Implantable Devices Registry Schneider, P. M., Pelligrini, C. N., Yang, Y., Heidenreich, P. A., Rumsfeld, J. S., Masoudi, F. A., Massie, B. M., Varosy, P. D. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2011
  • Is Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Use Improving Among Racial/Ethnic Minorities? An Analysis of 107,096 Patients from the NCDR-ICD Registry Eapen, Z., Al-Khatib, S. M., Wang, Y., Lopes, R. D., Bao, H., Curtis, J. P., Heidenreich, P. A., Hernandez, A. F., Hammill, S. C. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2011
  • Comparison of Composite Measure Methodologies for Rewarding Quality of Care An Analysis From the American Heart Association's Get With The Guidelines Program CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR QUALITY AND OUTCOMES Eapen, Z. J., Fonarow, G. C., Dai, D., O'Brien, S. M., Schwamm, L. H., Cannon, C. P., Heidenreich, P. A., Bhatt, D. L., Peterson, E. D., Hernandez, A. F. 2011; 4 (6): 610-618

    Abstract

    Composite indices of health care performance are an aggregation of underlying individual performance measures and are increasingly being used to rank hospitals. We sought to conduct an observational analysis to determine the influence of the opportunity-based and all-or-none composite performance measures on hospital rankings.We examined 194 245 patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction between July 2006 and June 2009 from 334 hospitals participating in the Get With The Guidelines--Coronary Artery Disease (GWTG-CAD) quality improvement program. We analyzed hospital opportunity-based and all-or-none composite scores and 30-day risk-standardized all-cause mortality and readmission rates. We found that the median calculated opportunity-based score for these hospitals was 95.5 (interquartile range, 90.4, 98.0). The median all-or-none score was 88.9 (interquartile range, 79.7, 94.4). The 2 scoring methods were significantly correlated with one another (r=0.98, P<0.001). Rankings generated by the two methods were significantly correlated (r=0.93, P<0.001). The two methods had a modest correlation with the 30-day risk-standardized mortality rate (opportunity-based score: r=-0.25, P<0.001; all-or-none score: r=-0.24, P<0.001). Neither composite measure correlated with the 30-day risk-standardized readmission rate. Over time, the number of hospitals new to the top and bottom quintiles of hospital rankings diminished similarly for both composite measures. When including additional performance measures into the composite score, the two methods produced similar changes in hospital rankings.The opportunity-based and all-or-none coronary artery disease composite indices are highly correlated and yield similar ranking of the top and bottom quintiles of hospitals. The two methods provide similarly modest correlations with 30-day mortality, but not readmission.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.111.961391

    View details for Web of Science ID 000297168400007

    View details for PubMedID 22010200

  • Association of admission hematocrit with 6-month and 1-year mortality in intensive care unit patients TRANSFUSION Mudumbai, S. C., Cronkite, R., Hu, K. U., Wagner, T., Hayashi, K., Ozanne, G. M., Davies, M. F., Heidenreich, P., Bertaccini, E. 2011; 51 (10): 2148-2159

    Abstract

    This study examined the association of hematocrit (Hct) levels measured upon intensive care unit (ICU) admission and red blood cell transfusions to long-term (1-year or 180-day) mortality for both surgical and medical patients.Administrative and laboratory data were collected retrospectively on 2393 consecutive medical and surgical male patients admitted to the ICU between 2003 and 2009. We stratified patients based on their median Hct level during the first 24 hours of their ICU stay (Hct < 25.0%, 25% ? Hct < 30%, 30% ? Hct < 39%, and 39.0% and higher). An extended Cox regression analysis was conducted to identify the time period after ICU admission (0 to <180, 180 to 365 days) when low Hct (<25.0) was most strongly associated with mortality. The unadjusted and adjusted relationship between admission Hct level, receipt of a transfusion, and 180-day mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression modeling.Patients with an Hct level of less than 25% who were not transfused had the worst mortality risk overall (hazard ratio [HR], 6.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.05-12.85; p < 0.001) during the 6 months after ICU admission than patients with a Hct level of 39.0% or more who were not transfused. Within the subgroup of patients with a Hct level of less than 25% only, receipt of a transfusion was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of mortality (HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.19-0.85; p = 0.017).Anemia of a Hct level of less than 25% upon admission to the ICU, in the absence of a transfusion, is associated with long-term mortality. Our study suggests that there may be Hct levels below which the transfusion risk-to-benefit imbalance reverses.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1537-2995.2011.03134.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000295917700014

    View details for PubMedID 21985048

  • Associations of Patient Demographic Characteristics and Regional Physician Density With Early Physician Follow-Up Among Medicare Beneficiaries Hospitalized With Heart Failure AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY Kociol, R. D., Greiner, M. A., Fonarow, G. C., Hammill, B. G., Heidenreich, P. A., Yancy, C. W., Peterson, E. D., Curtis, L. H., Hernandez, A. F. 2011; 108 (7): 985-991

    Abstract

    Early physician follow-up after a heart failure (HF) hospitalization is associated with lower risk of readmission. However, factors associated with early physician follow-up are not well understood. We identified 30,136 patients with HF ?65 years at 225 hospitals participating in the Organized Program to Initiate Lifesaving Treatment in Hospitalized Patients With Heart Failure (OPTIMIZE) registry or the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure (GWTG-HF) registry from January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2006. We linked these clinical data to Medicare claims data for longitudinal follow-up. Using logistic regression models with site-level random effects, we identified predictors of physician follow-up within 7 days of hospital discharge. Overall 11,420 patients (37.9%) had early physician follow-up. Patients residing in hospital referral regions with higher physician concentration were significantly more likely to have early follow-up (odds ratio 1.29, 95% confidence interval 1.12 to 1.48, for highest vs lowest quartile). Patients in rural areas (0.84, 0.78 to 0.91) and patients with lower socioeconomic status (0.79, 0.74 to 0.85) were less likely to have early follow-up. Women (0.87, 0.83 to 0.91) and black patients (0.84, 0.77 to 0.92) were less likely to receive early follow-up. Patients with greater co-morbidity were less likely to receive early follow-up. In conclusion, physician follow-up within 7 days after discharge from a HF hospitalization varied according to regional physician density, rural location, socioeconomic status, gender, race, and co-morbid conditions. Strategies are needed to ensure access among vulnerable populations to this supply-sensitive resource.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2011.05.032

    View details for Web of Science ID 000295863200015

    View details for PubMedID 21791327

  • ACCF/AHA methodology for the development of quality measures for cardiovascular technology: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Performance Measures. Circulation Bonow, R. O., Douglas, P. S., Buxton, A. E., Cohen, D. J., Curtis, J. P., DeLong, E., Drozda, J. P., Ferguson, T. B., Heidenreich, P. A., Hendel, R. C., Masoudi, F. A., Peterson, E. D., Taylor, A. J. 2011; 124 (13): 1483-1502

    Abstract

    Consistent with the growing national focus on healthcare quality, the American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF) and the American Heart Association (AHA) have taken a leadership role over the past decade in developing measures of the quality of cardiovascular care by convening a joint ACCF/AHA Task Force on Performance Measures. The Task Force is charged with identifying the clinical topics appropriate for the development of performance measures and with assembling writing committees composed of clinical and methodological experts in collaboration with appropriate subspecialty societies. The Task Force has also created methodology documents that offer guidance in the development of process, outcome, composite, and efficiency measures. Cardiovascular performance measures using existing ACCF/AHA methodology are based on Class I or Class III guidelines recommendations, usually with Level A evidence. These performance measures, based on evidence-based ACCF/AHA guidelines, remain the most rigorous quality measures for both internal quality improvement and public reporting. However, many of the tools for diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease involve advanced technologies, such as cardiac imaging, for which there are often no underlying guideline documents. Because these technologies affect the quality of cardiovascular care and also have the potential to contribute to cardiovascular health expenditures, there is a need for more critical assessment of the use of technology, including the development of quality and performance measures in areas in which guideline recommendations are absent. The evaluation of quality in the use of cardiovascular technologies requires consideration of multiple parameters that differ from other healthcare processes. The present document describes methodology for development of 2 new classes of quality measures in these situations, appropriate use measures and structure/safety measures. Appropriate use measures are based on specific indications, processes, or parameters of care for which high level of evidence data and Class I or Class III guideline recommendations may be lacking but are addressed in ACCF appropriate use criteria documents. Structure/safety measures represent measures developed to address structural aspects of the use of healthcare technology (e.g., laboratory accreditation, personnel training, and credentialing) or quality issues related to patient safety when there are neither guidelines recommendations nor appropriate use criteria. Although the strength of evidence for appropriate use measures and structure/safety measures may not be as strong as that for formal performance measures, they are quality measures that are otherwise rigorously developed, reviewed, tested, and approved in the same manner as ACCF/AHA performance measures. The ultimate goal of the present document is to provide direction in defining and measuring the appropriate use-avoiding not only underuse but also overuse and misuse-and proper application of cardiovascular technology and to describe how such appropriate use measures and structure/safety measures might be developed for the purposes of quality improvement and public reporting. It is anticipated that this effort will help focus the national dialogue on the use of cardiovascular technology and away from the current concerns about volume and cost alone to a more holistic emphasis on value.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIR.0b013e31822935fc

    View details for PubMedID 21875906

  • ACCF/AHA Methodology for the Development of Quality Measures for Cardiovascular Technology A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Performance Measures JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Bonow, R. O., Douglas, P. S., Buxton, A. E., Cohen, D. J., Curtis, J. P., DeLong, E., Drozda, J. P., Ferguson, T. B., Heidenreich, P. A., Hendel, R. C., Masoudi, F. A., Peterson, E. D., Taylor, A. J., Erwin, J. P., Fonarow, G. C., Goff, D. C., Grady, K., Green, L. A., Jenkins, K. J., Loth, A., Shahian, D. M. 2011; 58 (14): 1517-1538
  • ACCF/AHA Methodology for the Development of Quality Measures for Cardiovascular Technology A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Performance Measures CIRCULATION Bonow, R. O., Douglas, P. S., Buxton, A. E., Cohen, D. J., Curtis, J. P., DeLong, E., Drozda, J. P., Ferguson, T. B., Heidenreich, P. A., Hendel, R. C., Masoudi, F. A., Peterson, E. D., Taylor, A. J., Erwin, J. P., Fonarow, G. C., Goff, D. C., Grady, K., Green, L. A., Jenkins, K. J., Loth, A., Shahian, D. M. 2011; 124 (13): 1483-U255
  • Payment Source, Quality of Care, and Outcomes in Patients Hospitalized With Heart Failure JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Kapoor, J. R., Kapoor, R., Hellkamp, A. S., Hernandez, A. F., Heidenreich, P. A., Fonarow, G. C. 2011; 58 (14): 1465-1471

    Abstract

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between payment source and quality of care and outcomes in heart failure (HF).HF is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. There is a lack of studies assessing the association of payment source with HF quality of care and outcomes.A total of 99,508 HF admissions from 244 sites between January 2005 and September 2009 were analyzed. Patients were grouped on the basis of payer status (private/health maintenance organization, no insurance, Medicare, or Medicaid) with private/health maintenance organization as the reference group.The no-insurance group was less likely to receive evidence-based beta-blockers (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62 to 0.86), implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (OR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.50 to 0.70), or anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation (OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.61 to 0.87). Similarly, the Medicaid group was less likely to receive evidence-based beta-blockers (OR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.78 to 0.95) or implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (OR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.78 to 0.96). Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers and beta-blockers were prescribed less frequently in the Medicare group (OR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.81 to 0.98). The Medicare, Medicaid, and no-insurance groups had longer hospital stays. Higher adjusted rates of in-hospital mortality were seen in patients with Medicaid (OR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.06 to 1.41) and in patients with reduced systolic function with no insurance.Decreased quality of care and outcomes for patients with HF were observed in the no-insurance, Medicaid, and Medicare groups compared with the private/health maintenance organization group.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2011.06.034

    View details for Web of Science ID 000295213900011

    View details for PubMedID 21939830

  • ACCF/AHA methodology for the development of quality measures for cardiovascular technology: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Performance Measures. Journal of the American College of Cardiology Bonow, R. O., Douglas, P. S., Buxton, A. E., Cohen, D. J., Curtis, J. P., DeLong, E., Drozda, J. P., Ferguson, T. B., Heidenreich, P. A., Hendel, R. C., Masoudi, F. A., Peterson, E. D., Taylor, A. J. 2011; 58 (14): 1517-1538

    Abstract

    Consistent with the growing national focus on healthcare quality, the American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF) and the American Heart Association (AHA) have taken a leadership role over the past decade in developing measures of the quality of cardiovascular care by convening a joint ACCF/AHA Task Force on Performance Measures. The Task Force is charged with identifying the clinical topics appropriate for the development of performance measures and with assembling writing committees composed of clinical and methodological experts in collaboration with appropriate subspecialty societies. The Task Force has also created methodology documents that offer guidance in the development of process, outcome, composite, and efficiency measures. Cardiovascular performance measures using existing ACCF/AHA methodology are based on Class I or Class III guidelines recommendations, usually with Level A evidence. These performance measures, based on evidence-based ACCF/AHA guidelines, remain the most rigorous quality measures for both internal quality improvement and public reporting. However, many of the tools for diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease involve advanced technologies, such as cardiac imaging, for which there are often no underlying guideline documents. Because these technologies affect the quality of cardiovascular care and also have the potential to contribute to cardiovascular health expenditures, there is a need for more critical assessment of the use of technology, including the development of quality and performance measures in areas in which guideline recommendations are absent. The evaluation of quality in the use of cardiovascular technologies requires consideration of multiple parameters that differ from other healthcare processes. The present document describes methodology for development of 2 new classes of quality measures in these situations, appropriate use measures and structure/safety measures. Appropriate use measures are based on specific indications, processes, or parameters of care for which high level of evidence data and Class I or Class III guideline recommendations may be lacking but are addressed in ACCF appropriate use criteria documents. Structure/safety measures represent measures developed to address structural aspects of the use of healthcare technology (e.g., laboratory accreditation, personnel training, and credentialing) or quality issues related to patient safety when there are neither guidelines recommendations nor appropriate use criteria. Although the strength of evidence for appropriate use measures and structure/safety measures may not be as strong as that for formal performance measures, they are quality measures that are otherwise rigorously developed, reviewed, tested, and approved in the same manner as ACCF/AHA performance measures. The ultimate goal of the present document is to provide direction in defining and measuring the appropriate use-avoiding not only underuse but also overuse and misuse-and proper application of cardiovascular technology and to describe how such appropriate use measures and structure/safety measures might be developed for the purposes of quality improvement and public reporting. It is anticipated that this effort will help focus the national dialogue on the use of cardiovascular technology and away from the current concerns about volume and cost alone to a more holistic emphasis on value.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2011.07.007

    View details for PubMedID 21880456

  • Collaborative Care Intervention for Stable Ischemic Heart Disease ARCHIVES OF INTERNAL MEDICINE Fihn, S. D., Bucher, J. B., McDonell, M., Diehr, P., Rumsfeld, J. S., Doak, M., Dougherty, C., Gerrity, M., Heidenreich, P., Larsen, G., Lee, P. I., Lucas, L., McBryde, C., Nelson, K., Plomondon, M. E., Stadius, M., Bryson, C. 2011; 171 (16): 1471-1479

    Abstract

    Accumulating evidence suggests that collaborative models of care enhance communication among primary care providers, improving quality of care and outcomes for patients with chronic conditions. We sought to determine whether a multifaceted intervention that used a collaborative care model and was directed through primary care providers would improve symptoms of angina, self-perceived health, and concordance with practice guidelines for managing chronic stable angina.We conducted a prospective trial, cluster randomized by provider, involving patients with symptomatic ischemic heart disease recruited from primary care clinics at 4 academically affiliated Department of Veterans Affairs health care systems. Primary end points were changes over 12 months in symptoms on the Seattle Angina Questionnaire, self-perceived health, and concordance with practice guidelines.In total, 183 primary care providers and 703 patients participated in the study. Providers accepted and implemented 91.6% of 701 recommendations made by collaborative care teams. Almost half were related to medications, including adjustments to ?-blockers, long-acting nitrates, and statins. The intervention did not significantly improve symptoms of angina or self-perceived health, although end points favored collaborative care for 10 of 13 prespecified measures. While concordance with practice guidelines improved 4.5% more among patients receiving collaborative care than among those receiving usual care (P < .01), this was mainly because of increased use of diagnostic testing rather than increased use of recommended medications.A collaborative care intervention was well accepted by primary care providers and modestly improved receipt of guideline-concordant care but not symptoms or self-perceived health in patients with stable angina.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294825100011

    View details for PubMedID 21911632

  • Diabetes, quality of care, and in-hospital outcomes in patients hospitalized with heart failure AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Kapoor, J. R., Fonarow, G. C., Zhao, X., Kapoor, R., Hernandez, A. F., Heidenreich, P. A. 2011; 162 (3): 480-U95

    Abstract

    Diabetes mellitus is frequently comorbid with heart failure (HF). It is unclear if comorbid diabetes is associated with quality of care and in-hospital mortality.We analyzed 133,971 HF admissions from 431 hospitals between January 2005 and January 2010 comparing patients with and without diabetes.There were 54,352 (41%) patients hospitalized with HF with a history or newly diagnosed diabetes. After adjustment, patients with diabetes were as likely as patients without diabetes to appropriately receive the composite of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker and ?-blockers (odds ratio [OR] 0.99, 95% CI 0.94-1.04), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.92-1.05), evidence-based ?-blockers (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.98-1.1), and hydralazine/nitrates (OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.99-1.2). However, patients with diabetes were less likely to receive smoking cessation counseling (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81-0.98) and blood pressure control (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.78-0.84) and to attain the all-or-none composite measure (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.93-0.99). Patients with diabetes were more likely to receive an aldosterone antagonist for reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.11), lipid-lowering agent (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.26-1.41), and influenza vaccination (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.09). Diabetes was independently associated with longer hospital stay but not within-hospital mortality.With few exceptions, the application of evidence-based care and in-hospital outcomes were similar whether or not diabetes was present in this large contemporary cohort of patients hospitalized with HF.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2011.06.008

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294447400010

    View details for PubMedID 21884864

  • Mental Illness and Warfarin Use in Atrial Fibrillation AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MANAGED CARE Walker, G. A., Heidenreich, P. A., Phibbs, C. S., Go, A. S., Chiu, V. Y., Schmitt, S. K., Ananth, L., Frayne, S. M. 2011; 17 (9): 617-624

    Abstract

    To determine whether atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with mental health conditions (MHCs) were less likely than AF patients without MHCs to be prescribed warfarin and, if receiving warfarin, to maintain an International Normalized Ratio (INR) within the therapeutic range.Detailed chart review of AF patients using a Veterans Health Administration (VHA) facility in 2003.For a random sample of 296 AF patients, records identified clinician-diagnosed MHCs (independent variable) and AF-related care in 2003 (dependent variables), receipt of warfarin, INR values below/above key thresholds, and time spent within the therapeutic range (2.0-3.0) or highly out of range. Differences between the MHC and comparison groups were examined using X2 tests and logistic regression controlling for age and comorbidity.Among warfarin-eligible AF patients (n = 246), 48.5% of those with MHCs versus 28.9% of those without MHCs were not treated with warfarin (P = .004). Among those receiving warfarin and monitored in VHA, highly supratherapeutic INRs were more common in the MHC group; for example, 27.3% versus 1.6% had any INR >5.0 (P <.001). Differences persisted after adjusting for age and comorbidity.MHC patients with AF were less likely than those without MHC to have adequate management of their AF care. Interventions directed at AF patients with MHC may help to optimize their outcomes.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000295129700008

    View details for PubMedID 21902447

  • Cardiac resynchronization therapy and the relationship of percent biventricular pacing to symptoms and survival HEART RHYTHM Hayes, D. L., Boehmer, J. P., Day, J. D., Gilliam, F. R., Heidenreich, P. A., Seth, M., Jones, P. W., Saxon, L. A. 2011; 8 (9): 1469-1475

    Abstract

    With the advent of cardiac resynchronization therapy, it was unclear what percentage of biventricular pacing would be required to obtain maximal symptomatic and mortality benefit from the therapy. The optimal percentage of biventricular pacing and the association between the amount of continuous pacing and survival is unknown.The purpose of this study was to assess the optimal percentage of biventricular pacing and any association with survival in a large cohort of networked patients.A large cohort of 36,935 patients followed up in a remote-monitoring network, the LATITUDE Patient Management system (Boston Scientific Corp., Natick, Massachusetts), was assessed to determine the association between the percentage of biventricular pacing and mortality.The greatest magnitude of reduction in mortality was observed with a biventricular pacing achieved in excess of 98% of all ventricular beats. Atrial fibrillation and native atrial ventricular condition can limit a high degree of biventricular pacing. Incremental increases in mortality benefit are observed with an increasing percentage of biventricular pacing.Every effort should be made to reduce native atrioventricular conduction with cardiac resynchronization therapy systems in an attempt to achieve biventricular pacing as close to 100% as possible.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hrthm.2011.04.015

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294249200021

    View details for PubMedID 21699828

  • Real World Evaluation of Dual-Zone ICD and CRT-D Programming Compared to Single-Zone Programming: The ALTITUDE REDUCES Study JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY Gilliam, F. R., Hayes, D. L., Boehmer, J. P., Day, J., Heidenreich, P. A., Seth, M., Jones, P. W., Stein, K. M., Saxon, L. A. 2011; 22 (9): 1023-1029

    Abstract

    We evaluated the frequency of appropriate and inappropriate shocks and survival in patients using dual-zone programming versus single-zone programming.For the ALTITUDE REDUCES study, patients were followed for 1.6 ± 1.1 years. The 12-month incidence of any shock was lower for dual-versus single-zone programmed detection at rates ?170 bpm and between 170-200 bpm (P < 0.001). Appropriate shock rates at 1 year were also lower with dual-zone programming in these rate intervals (single zone 9.1%, 5.4%, P < 0.001, dual zone 6.7%, 4.7%, P < 0.02). There were no detectable differences between single- and dual-zone shock incidence at detection rates ? 200 bpm (P = 0.14). Inappropriate shock incidence was less with dual- versus single-zone detection at all detect rates <200 bpm, but not at rates ?200 bpm (P < 0.001, P = 0.37). The lowest risk of appropriate and inappropriate shock was associated with dual-zone programming and detection rates ?200 bpm (2.1%). Dual-zone detection was associated with more nonsustained and diverted therapy episodes but these patients did not have an increased risk of death compared to patients with single-zone programming. Patients programmed to low detection rate, single-zone detection and shock-only therapy also had the highest preshock mortality risk (P = 0.05).Shock incidence is lowest with either single- or dual-zone detection ?200 bpm. For detection rates <200 bpm, dual-zone programming is associated with a reduction in the incidence of total shocks, appropriate shocks, and inappropriate shocks.?

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1540-8167.2011.02086.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000295131200012

    View details for PubMedID 21627705

  • The Need for Multiple Measures of Hospital Quality Results From the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure Registry of the American Heart Association CIRCULATION Hernandez, A. F., Fonarow, G. C., Liang, L., Heidenreich, P. A., Yancy, C., Peterson, E. D. 2011; 124 (6): 712-719

    Abstract

    Process and outcome measures are often used to quantify quality of care in hospitals. Whether these quality measures correlate with one another and the degree to which hospital provider rankings shift on the basis of the performance metric is uncertain.Heart failure patients ? 65 years of age hospitalized in the Get With the Guidelines-Heart Failure registry of the American Heart Association were linked to Medicare claims from 2005 to 2006. Hospitals were ranked by (1) composite adherence scores for 5 heart failure process measures, (2) composite adherence scores for emerging quality measures, (3) risk-adjusted 30-day death after admission, and (4) risk-adjusted 30-day readmission after discharge. Hierarchical models using shrinkage estimates were performed to adjust for case mix and hospital volume. There were 19 483 patients hospitalized from 2005 to 2006 from 153 hospitals. The overall median composite adherence rate to heart process measures was 85.8% (25th, 75th percentiles 77.5, 91.4). Median 30-day risk-adjusted mortality was 9.0% (7.9, 10.4). Median risk-adjusted 30-day readmission was 22.9% (22.1, 23.5). The weighted ? for remaining within the top 20th percentile or bottom 20th percentile was ? 0.15 and the Spearman correlation overall was ? 0.21 between the different measures of quality of care. The average shift in ranks was 33 positions (13, 68) when criteria were changed from 30-day mortality to readmission and 51 positions (22, 76) when ranking metric changed from 30-day mortality to composite process adherence.Agreement between different methods of ranking hospital-based quality of care and 30-day mortality or readmission rankings was poor. Profiling quality of care will require multidimensional ranking methods and/or additional measures.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.026088

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293624800017

    View details for PubMedID 21788585

  • The Importance of Consistent, High-Quality Acute Myocardial Infarction and Heart Failure Care Results From the American Heart Association's Get With The Guidelines Program JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Wang, T. Y., Dai, D., Hernandez, A. F., Bhatt, D. L., Heidenreich, P. A., Fonarow, G. C., Peterson, E. D. 2011; 58 (6): 637-644

    Abstract

    This study examined the degree to which hospital performance for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and heart failure (HF) care processes are correlated.Although AMI and HF care processes may be amenable to similar quality improvement interventions, whether these are indeed correlated and whether hospitals with consistently superior performance for both care metrics have the best outcomes remains unknown.We compared hospital performance of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services AMI and HF core measures in 283 hospitals submitting 10 or more patients to the Get With The Guidelines AMI and HF programs between January 2005 and April 2009.Median hospital adherence to AMI and HF composite measures were 93% (interquartile range: 87% to 97%) and 92% (interquartile range: 85% to 96%), respectively, with only a modest correlation between hospital performance on these 2 composite metrics (r = 0.50; 95% confidence interval: 0.41 to 0.58). Hospitals with superior performance to both AMI and HF processes had significantly longer duration of Get With The Guidelines participation and lower adjusted in-hospital mortality (odds ratio: 0.79; 95% confidence interval: 0.63 to 0.99) for AMI and HF patients, whereas hospitals with superior adherence to either alone had similar mortality rates as hospitals with superior adherence to neither measure.Hospitals that had consistent, superior performance for both AMI and HF care had significantly lower risk-adjusted mortality than those with superior performance either alone or for neither measure. Whether a single scoring system to assess global, rather than condition-specific, quality of cardiovascular care would facilitate care quality improvement more consistently and would optimize patient outcomes merits further investigation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2011.05.012

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293167200014

    View details for PubMedID 21798428

  • Predictors of Hospital Length of Stay in Heart Failure: Findings from Get With the Guidelines JOURNAL OF CARDIAC FAILURE Whellan, D. J., Zhao, X., Hernandez, A. F., Liang, L., Peterson, E. D., Bhatt, D. L., Heidenreich, P. A., Schwamm, L. H., Fonarow, G. C. 2011; 17 (8): 649-656

    Abstract

    This study was undertaken to identify predictors of hospital length of stay (LOS) for heart failure (HF) patients using clinical variables available at the time of admission and hospital characteristics.A cohort of 70,094 HF patients discharged to home from 246 hospitals participating in the Get With the Guidelines-Heart Failure was analyzed for admission predictors for LOS. The analysis incorporated patient characteristics (PC) first, then added hospital characteristics (HC) followed by standard laboratory evaluations (SL), including troponin and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). There were 31,995 patients (45.6%) with LOS < 4 days, 26,750 (38.2%) with LOS 4 to 7 days, and 11,349 (16.2%) with LOS > 7 days. Patients with longer LOS had more comorbidities and a higher severity of disease on admission. Overall models explained a modest amount of LOS variation, with an r(2) of 4.8%, with PC responsible for 1.3% of variation and together with SL explained 2.2% of variation. HC did not change the variation.Based on admission vital signs and BNP levels, patients with longer LOS have more comorbidities and a higher disease severity. The ability to risk stratify for LOS based on patient admission and hospital characteristics is limited.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cardfail.2011.04.005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293938600006

    View details for PubMedID 21807326

  • Barriers and Facilitators to Implementing the 2010 Veteran's Administration (VA) CHF QUERI Hospital to Home (H2H) Initiative Oliva, N. L., Sahay, A., Gholami, P., Heidenreich, P. A. CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE INC MEDICAL PUBLISHERS. 2011: S75?S76
  • ACCF/AHA 2011 key data elements and definitions of a base cardiovascular vocabulary for electronic health records: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Data Standards. Circulation Weintraub, W. S., Karlsberg, R. P., Tcheng, J. E., Boris, J. R., Buxton, A. E., Dove, J. T., Fonarow, G. C., Goldberg, L. R., Heidenreich, P., Hendel, R. C., Jacobs, A. K., Lewis, W., Mirro, M. J., Shahian, D. M., Hendel, R. C., Bozkurt, B., Jacobs, J. P., Peterson, P. N., Roger, V. L., Smith, E. E., Tcheng, J. E., Wang, T. 2011; 124 (1): 103-123

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIR.0b013e31821ccf71

    View details for PubMedID 21646493

  • ACCF/AHA 2011 Key Data Elements and Definitions of a Base Cardiovascular Vocabulary for Electronic Health Records A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Data Standards CIRCULATION Weintraub, W. S., Karlsberg, R. P., Tcheng, J. E., Boris, J. R., Buxton, A. E., Dove, J. T., Fonarow, G. C., Goldberg, L. R., Heidenreich, P., Hendel, R. C., Jacobs, A. K., Lewis, W., Mirro, M. J., Shahian, D. M. 2011; 124 (1): 103-U220
  • ACCF/AHA 2011 Key Data Elements and Definitions of a Base Cardiovascular Vocabulary for Electronic Health Records A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Data Standards JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Weintraub, W. S., Karlsberg, R. P., Tcheng, J. E., Boris, J. R., Buxton, A. E., Dove, J. T., Fonarow, G. C., Goldberg, L. R., Heidenreich, P., Hendel, R. C., Jacobs, A. K., Lewis, W., Mirro, M. J., Shahian, D. M. 2011; 58 (2): 202-222

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2011.05.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292189300025

    View details for PubMedID 21652161

  • Patterns and Predictors of Evidence-Based Medication Continuation Among Hospitalized Heart Failure Patients (from Get With the Guidelines-Heart Failure) AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY Krantz, M. J., Ambardekar, A. V., Kaltenbach, L., Hernandez, A. F., Heidenreich, P. A., Fonarow, G. C. 2011; 107 (12): 1818-1823

    Abstract

    Hospitalized patients with heart failure and decreased ejection fraction are at substantial risk for mortality and rehospitalization, yet no acute therapies are proven to decrease this risk. Therefore, in-hospital use of medications proved to decrease long-term mortality is a critical strategy to improve outcomes. Although endorsed in guidelines, predictors of initiation and continuation of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), ? blockers, and aldosterone antagonists have not been well studied. We assessed noncontraindicated use patterns for the 3 medications using the Get With the Guidelines-Heart Failure (GWTG-HF) registry from February 2009 through March 2010. Medication continuation was defined as treatment on admission and discharge. Multivariable logistic regression using generalized estimating equations was used to determine factors associated with discharge use. In total 9,474 patients were enrolled during the study period. Of those treated before hospitalization, overall continuation rates were 88.5% for ACE inhibitors/ARBs, 91.6% for ? blockers, and 71.9% for aldosterone-antagonists. Of patients untreated before admission, 87.4% had ACE inhibitors/ARBs and 90.1% had ? blocker initiated during hospitalization or at discharge, whereas only 25.2% were started on an aldosterone antagonist. In multivariate analysis, admission therapy was most strongly associated with discharge use (adjusted odds ratios 7.4, 6.0, and 20.9 for ACE inhibitors/ARBs, ? blockers, and aldosterone antagonists, respectively). Western region, younger age, and academic affiliation were also associated with higher discharge use. Although ACE inhibitor/ARB and ?-blocker continuation rates were high, aldosterone antagonist use was lower despite potential eligibility. In conclusion, being admitted on evidence-based medications is the most powerful, independent predictor of discharge use.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2011.02.322

    View details for Web of Science ID 000291754900021

    View details for PubMedID 21482418

  • Potential impact of optimal implementation of evidence-based heart failure therapies on mortality AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Fonarow, G. C., Yancy, C. W., Hernandez, A. F., Peterson, E. D., Spertus, J. A., Heidenreich, P. A. 2011; 161 (6): 1024-U244

    Abstract

    Although multiple therapies have been shown to lower mortality in patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, their application in clinical practice has been less than ideal. To date, empiric estimation of the potential benefits that could be gained from eliminating these existing treatment gaps with optimal implementation has not been quantified.Eligibility criteria for each evidence-based HF therapy, the estimated frequency of use/nonuse of specific treatments, the case fatality rates, and the risk reductions due to treatment were obtained from published sources. The numbers of deaths prevented or postponed because of each guideline-recommended therapy and overall were determined.Among patients with HF with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction in the United States (n = 2,644,800), the number eligible but not currently treated ranged from 139,749 for hydralazine/isorbide dinitrate to 852,512 for implantable cardioverter defibrillators. The comparative number of deaths that could potentially be prevented per year with optimal implementation of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor antagonist is 6,516; ?-blockers, 12,922; aldosterone antagonists, 21,407; hydralazine/isorbide dinitrate, 6,655; cardiac resynchronization therapy, 8,317; and implantable cardioverter defibrillators, 12,179. If these treatment benefits were additive, optimal implementation of all 6 therapies could potentially prevent 67,996 deaths a year.A substantial number of HF deaths in this country could potentially be prevented by optimal implementation of evidence-based therapies. These data may underscore the importance of performance improvement efforts to translate evidence-based therapy to routine clinical practice so as to reduce contemporary HF mortality.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2011.01.027

    View details for Web of Science ID 000291343000003

    View details for PubMedID 21641346

  • The Year in Epidemiology, Health Services Research, and Outcomes Research JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Hlatky, M. A., Heidenreich, P. A. 2011; 57 (19): 1859-1866

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2011.01.020

    View details for Web of Science ID 000290210100003

    View details for PubMedID 21545941

  • Discharge to a Skilled Nursing Facility and Subsequent Clinical Outcomes Among Older Patients Hospitalized for Heart Failure CIRCULATION-HEART FAILURE Allen, L. A., Hernandez, A. F., Peterson, E. D., Curtis, L. H., Dai, D., Masoudi, F. A., Bhatt, D. L., Heidenreich, P. A., Fonarow, G. C. 2011; 4 (3): 293-300

    Abstract

    Heart failure (HF) is the leading cause of hospitalization among older Americans. Subsequent discharge to skilled nursing facilities (SNF) is not well described.We performed an observational analysis of Medicare beneficiaries ?65 years of age, discharged alive to SNF or home after ?3-day hospitalization for HF in 2005 and 2006 within the Get With The Guidelines-HF Program. Among 15 459 patients from 149 hospitals, 24.1% were discharged to an SNF, 22.3% to home with home health service, and 53.6% to home with self-care. SNF use varied significantly among hospitals (median, 10.2% versus 33.9% in low versus high tertiles), with rates highest in the Northeast. Patient factors associated with discharge to SNF included longer length of stay, advanced age, female sex, hypotension, higher ejection fraction, absence of ischemic heart disease, and a variety of comorbidities. Performance measures were modestly lower for patients discharged to SNF. Unadjusted absolute event rates were higher at 30 days (death, 14.4% versus 4.1%; rehospitalization, 27.0% versus 23.5%) and 1 year (death, 53.5% versus 29.1%; rehospitalization, 76.1% versus 72.2%) after discharge to SNF versus home, respectively (P<0.0001 for all). After adjustment for measured patient characteristics, discharge to SNF remained associated with increased death (hazard ratio, 1.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.66 to 1.87) and rehospitalization (hazard ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 1.14).Discharge to SNF is common among Medicare patients hospitalized for HF, and these patients face substantial risk for adverse events, with more than half dead within 1 year. These findings highlight the need to better characterize this unique patient population and understand the SNF care they receive.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.110.959171

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292869800013

    View details for PubMedID 21447803

  • Procedure Volume and Outcome You Should Take Into Account Each Hospital Reply JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Freeman, J. V., Wang, Y., Curtis, J. P., Heidenreich, P. A., Hlatky, M. A. 2011; 57 (16): 1714-1714
  • GENETIC DETERMINANTS OF DRAMATIC IMPROVEMENT IN LEFT VENTRICULAR FUNCTION IN PATIENTS WITH HEART FAILURE 60th Annual Scientific Session and Expo of the American-College-of-Cardiology (ACC) / I2 Summit / ACCF/Herman K. Gold Young Investigator's Award in Molecular and Cellular Cardiology Perez, M. V., Pavlovic, A., Wheeler, M. T., Dewey, F. E., Bernstein, D., Fowler, M. B., Robbins, R. C., Quertermous, T., Chan, K., Absher, D., Ho, M., Cretti, E., Southwick, A., Rosenthal, D., Myers, R. M., Heidenreich, P., Garrett, L., Sedehi, D., Kao, D., Salisbury, H., Ashley, E. A. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2011: E2041?E2041
  • Association of race/ethnicity with clinical risk factors, quality of care, and acute outcomes in patients hospitalized with heart failure AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Thomas, K. L., Hernandez, A. F., Dai, D., Heidenreich, P., Fonarow, G. C., Peterson, E. D., Yancy, C. W. 2011; 161 (4): 746-754

    Abstract

    Black and Hispanic populations are at increased risk for developing heart failure (HF) at a younger age and experience differential morbidity and possibly differential mortality compared with whites. Yet, there have been insufficient data characterizing the clinical presentation, quality of care, and outcomes of patients hospitalized with HF as a function of race/ethnicity.We analyzed 78,801 patients from 257 hospitals voluntarily participating in the American Heart Association's Get With The Guidelines-HF Program from January 2005 thru December 2008. There were 56,266 (71.4%) white, 17,775 (22.6%) black, and 4,760 (6.0%) Hispanic patients. In patients hospitalized with HF, we sought to assess clinical characteristics, adherence to core and other guideline-based HF care measures, and in-hospital mortality as a function of race and ethnicity.Relative to white patients, Hispanic and black patients were significantly younger (median age 78.0, 63.0, 64.0 years, respectively), had lower left ventricular ejection fractions, and had more diabetes mellitus and hypertension. With few exceptions, the provision of guideline-based care was comparable for black, Hispanic, and white patients. Black and Hispanic patients had lower in-hospital mortality than white patients: black/white odds ratio 0.69, 95% CI 0.62-0.78, P < .001 and Hispanic/white odds ratio 0.81, 95% CI 0.67-0.98, P = .03.Hispanic and black patients hospitalized with HF have more cardiovascular risk factors than white patients; however; they have similar or better in-hospital mortality rates. Within the context of a national HF quality improvement program, HF care was equitable and improved in all racial/ethnic groups over time.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2011.01.012

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289190500019

    View details for PubMedID 21473975

  • Developing Heart Failure (HF) Clinical Decision Support for Patients with Comorbidities. Goldstein, M. K., Martins, S. B., Tu, S. W., Heidenreich, P., Massie, B., Furmaga, E. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 2011: S146
  • A comparison of echocardiographic measures of diastolic function for predicting all-cause mortality in a predominantly male population AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Nguyen, P. K., Schnittger, I., Heidenreich, P. A. 2011; 161 (3): 530-537

    Abstract

    Prior studies demonstrating the prognostic value of echocardiographic measures of diastolic function have been limited by sample size, have included only select clinical populations, and have not incorporated newer measures of diastolic function nor determined their independent prognostic value. The objective of this study is to determine the independent prognostic value of established and new echocardiographic parameters of diastolic function.We included 3,604 consecutive patients referred to 1 of 3 echocardiography laboratories over a 2-year period. We obtained measurements of mitral inflow velocities, pulmonary vein filling pattern, mitral annulus motion (e'), and propagation velocity (V(p)). The primary end point was 1-year all-cause mortality.The mean age of the patients was 68 years, and 95% were male. There were 277 deaths during a mean follow-up of 248 ± 221 days. For patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), all measured parameters except for e' were associated with mortality (P < .05) on univariate analysis. For patients with preserved LVEF, the E-wave velocity was significantly associated with mortality (P < .05) on univariate analysis. The deceleration time/E-wave velocity ratio, V(p), and pulmonary vein filling pattern were borderline significant (P < .10). With multivariate analysis, only V(p) was associated with survival for both reduced (P = .02) and preserved LVEF groups (P = .01).In a large, clinically diverse population, most measures of diastolic function were predictive of all-cause mortality without adjustment for patient characteristics. On multivariate analysis, only V(p) was independently associated with total mortality. This association with mortality may be related to factors other than diastolic function and warrants further investigation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2010.12.010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288156400018

    View details for PubMedID 21392608

  • Non-Evidence-Based ICD Implantations in the United States JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Al-Khatib, S. M., Hellkamp, A., Curtis, J., Mark, D., Peterson, E., Sanders, G. D., Heidenreich, P. A., Hernandez, A. F., Curtis, L. H., Hammill, S. 2011; 305 (1): 43-49

    Abstract

    Practice guidelines do not recommend use of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) for primary prevention in patients recovering from a myocardial infarction or coronary artery bypass graft surgery and those with severe heart failure symptoms or a recent diagnosis of heart failure.To determine the number, characteristics, and in-hospital outcomes of patients who receive a non-evidence-based ICD and examine the distribution of these implants by site, physician specialty, and year of procedure.Retrospective cohort study of cases submitted to the National Cardiovascular Data Registry-ICD Registry between January 1, 2006, and June 30, 2009.In-hospital outcomes.Of 111,707 patients, 25,145 received non-evidence-based ICD implants (22.5%). Patients who received a non-evidence-based ICD compared with those who received an evidence-based ICD had a significantly higher risk of in-hospital death (0.57% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.48%-0.66%] vs 0.18% [95% CI, 0.15%-0.20%]; P <.001) and any postprocedure complication (3.23% [95% CI, 3.01%-3.45%] vs 2.41% [95% CI, 2.31%-2.51%]; P <.001). There was substantial variation in non-evidence-based ICDs by site. The rate of non-evidence-based ICD implants was significantly lower for electrophysiologists (20.8%; 95% CI, 20.5%-21.1%) than nonelectrophysiologists (24.8% [95% CI, 24.2%-25.3%] for nonelectrophysiologist cardiologists; 36.1% [95% CI, 34.3%-38.0%] for thoracic surgeons; and 24.9% [95% CI, 23.8%-25.9%] for other specialties) (P<.001 for all comparisons). There was no clear decrease in the rate of non-evidence-based ICDs over time (24.5% [6908/28,233] in 2006, 21.8% [7395/33,965] in 2007, 22.0% [7245/32,960] in 2008, and 21.7% [3597/16,549] in 2009; P <.001 for trend from 2006-2009 and P = .94 for trend from 2007-2009).Among patients with ICD implants in this registry, 22.5% did not meet evidence-based criteria for implantation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285924100023

    View details for PubMedID 21205965

  • Incremental Value of Clinical Data Beyond Claims Data in Predicting 30-Day Outcomes After Heart Failure Hospitalization CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR QUALITY AND OUTCOMES Hammill, B. G., Curtis, L. H., Fonarow, G. C., Heidenreich, P. A., Yancy, C. W., Peterson, E. D., Hernandez, A. F. 2011; 4 (1): 60-67

    Abstract

    Administrative claims data are used routinely for risk adjustment and hospital profiling for heart failure outcomes. As clinical data become more readily available, the incremental value of adding clinical data to claims-based models of mortality and readmission is unclear.We linked heart failure hospitalizations from the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure registry with Medicare claims data for patients discharged between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2006. We evaluated the performance of claims-only and claims-clinical regression models for 30-day mortality and readmission, and compared hospital rankings from both models. There were 25 766 patients from 308 hospitals in the mortality analysis, and 24 163 patients from 307 hospitals in the readmission analysis. The claims-clinical mortality model (area under the curve [AUC], 0.761; generalized R(2)=0.172) had better fit than the claims-only mortality model (AUC, 0.718; R(2)=0.113). The claims-only readmission model (AUC, 0.587; R(2)=0.025) and the claims-clinical readmission model (AUC, 0.599; R(2)=0.031) had similar performance. Among hospitals ranked as top or bottom performers by the claims-only mortality model, 12% were not ranked similarly by the claims-clinical model. For the claims-only readmission model, 3% of top or bottom performers were not ranked similarly by the claims-clinical model.Adding clinical data to claims data for heart failure hospitalizations significantly improved prediction of mortality, and shifted mortality performance rankings for a substantial proportion of hospitals. Clinical data did not meaningfully improve the discrimination of the readmission model, and had little effect on performance rankings.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.110.954693

    View details for Web of Science ID 000286311700012

    View details for PubMedID 21139093

  • A small pericardial effusion is a marker of increased mortality AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Mitiku, T. Y., Heidenreich, P. A. 2011; 161 (1)

    Abstract

    the study aimed to evaluate the prognostic importance of an incidental small pericardial effusion found on echocardiography.we identified 10,067 consecutive patients undergoing echocardiography at 1 of 3 laboratories. Patients were excluded if they were referred for evaluation of the pericardium (n = 133), had cardiac surgery within the previous 60 days (n = 393), had a moderate or greater pericardial effusion (>1 cm if circumferential, n = 29), had no follow-up (n = 153), or had inadequate visualization of the pericardial space (n = 9). The Social Security Death Index was used to determine survival.a small pericardial effusion was noted in 534 (5.7%) of 9,350 patients. Compared to patients without a small effusion, those with an effusion were slightly older (68 ± 13 vs 67 ± 12 years, P = .02) and had a lower ejection fraction (52% vs 55%, P < .0001). Mortality at 1 year was greater for patients with a small effusion (26%) compared to those without an effusion (11%, P < .0001). After adjustment for demographics, medical history, patient location, and other echocardiographic findings, small pericardial effusion remained associated with higher mortality (hazard ratio 1.17, 95% CI 1.09-1.28, P = .0002). Of 211 with an effusion and follow-up echocardiography (mean 547 days), 136 (60%) had resolution, 63 (28%) showed no change, and 12 (5%) had an increase in size, although no patient developed a large effusion or cardiac tamponade.the presence of a small asymptomatic pericardial effusion is associated with increased mortality.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2010.10.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285376200018

    View details for PubMedID 21167348

  • Measuring Value From the Patient's Perspective CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR QUALITY AND OUTCOMES Heidenreich, P. A. 2011; 4 (1): 9-10
  • Regional Variation in the Use of Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators for Primary Prevention Results From the National Cardiovascular Data Registry CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR QUALITY AND OUTCOMES Matlock, D. D., Peterson, P. N., Heidenreich, P. A., Lucas, F. L., Malenka, D. J., Wang, Y., Curtis, J. P., Kutner, J. S., Fisher, E. S., Masoudi, F. A. 2011; 4 (1): 114-121

    Abstract

    Although the use of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) for the primary prevention of sudden cardiac death varies by sex, race, and hospital, geographic variation in ICD use remains unexplored. Our objective was to quantify regional variations in the utilization of primary prevention ICDs in the United States, and to evaluate if an association exists between utilization and physician supply or the proportion of patients meeting the trial inclusion criteria.This is a cross-sectional analysis among the Medicare, fee-for-service population from the National Cardiovascular Data Registry. Using hospital referral regions, we calculated the age-, sex-, and race-adjusted rates of ICD placement for each region and assessed the correlation between these rates and (1) physician supply and (2) the proportion of patients meeting trial inclusion criteria. Substantial variation was found across quintiles of rate ratios of ICD implantation, ranging from 0.39 to 1.77 (compared with a national mean rate of 1.0). This ratio was not correlated with the supply of cardiologists (R(2)=0.01), electrophysiologists (R(2)=0.01), or with the proportion of patients meeting trial inclusion criteria (R(2)<0.01). Over all, 13% of all patients receiving ICDs did not meet trial criteria.Marked geographic variation in the use of primary prevention ICDs exists across the United States that is not correlated with physician supply. Although >1 in 10 patients received ICDs outside of trial criteria, this potential overuse did not explain the variation. Future studies should consider underuse or misuse of primary prevention ICDs as causes of geographic variation.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.110.958264

    View details for Web of Science ID 000286311700019

    View details for PubMedID 21139094

  • ACCF/AHA/ACR/SCAI/SIR/SVM/SVN/SVS 2010 Performance Measures for Adults With Peripheral Artery Disease A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Performance Measures, the American College of Radiology, the Society for Cardiac Angiography and Interventions, the Society for Interventional Radiology, the Society for Vascular Medicine, the Society for Vascular Nursing, and the Society for Vascular Surgery (Writing Committee to Develop Clinical Performance Measures for Peripheral Artery Disease) CIRCULATION Olin, J. W., Allie, D. E., Belkin, M., Bonow, R. O., Casey, D. E., Creager, M. A., Gerber, T. C., Hirsch, A. T., Jaff, M. R., Kaufman, J. A., Lewis, C. A., Martin, E. T., Martin, L. G., Sheehan, P., Stewart, K. J., Treat-Jacobson, D., White, C. J., Zheng, Z., Masoudi, F. A., DeLong, E., Erwin, J. P., Goff, D. C., Grady, K., Green, L. A., Heidenreich, P. A., Jenkins, K. J., Loth, A. R., Peterson, E. D., Shahian, D. M., Brindis, R. G., Lewin, J. C., May, C., Shahriary, M., Chiu, J. S., Barrett, E. A., Brown, N., Robertson, R. M., Whitman, G. R., Randle, D. 2010; 122 (24): 2583-2618
  • Using Restriction to Minimize Bias in Observational Studies JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Turakhia, M. P., Heidenreich, P. A. 2010; 304 (21): 2359-2359

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284763900014

    View details for PubMedID 21119082

  • ACP Journal Club. CT coronary angiography was more accurate than stress testing for diagnosing CAD, especially in patients at intermediate risk. Annals of internal medicine Heidenreich, P. 2010; 153 (8): JC4-9
  • Reprint--AACVPR/ACCF/AHA 2010 update: performance measures on cardiac rehabilitation for referral to cardiac rehabilitation/secondary prevention services: a report of the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation and the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Performance Measures (Writing Committee to Develop Clinical Performance Measures for Cardiac Rehabilitation). Physical therapy Thomas, R. J., King, M., Lui, K., Oldridge, N., Piña, I. L., Spertus, J., Masoudi, F. A., DeLong, E., Erwin, J. P., Goff, D. C., Grady, K., Green, L. A., Heidenreich, P. A., Jenkins, K. J., Loth, A. R., Peterson, E. D., Shahian, D. M. 2010; 90 (10): 1373-1382

    View details for PubMedID 20889928

  • Heart Rate Predicts Mortality in Patients With Heart Failure and Preserved Systolic Function JOURNAL OF CARDIAC FAILURE Kapoor, J. R., Heidenreich, P. A. 2010; 16 (10): 806-811

    Abstract

    Elevated resting heart rates have been associated with increased mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure and decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (EF). It is unclear, though, if this association applies to those with heart failure and preserved EF.We determined outcome for 685 consecutive patients with a prior diagnosis of heart failure and a preserved EF (>50%) documented on echocardiography at 1 of 3 laboratories. Patients with non-sinus rhythm were excluded from the analysis. We determined adjusted mortality rates at 1 year after the echocardiogram. The mean age of the cohort was 70 ± 11 years. Of the 685 included patients, 87% had a history of hypertension, 50% had diabetes, and the mean EF was 60% ± 6%. All-cause mortality at 1 year was significantly lower in the group with heart rate below 60 beats/min (10%) when compared with the group with heart rates between 60 and 70 beats/min (18%), 71-90 beats/min (20%), and >90 beats/min (35%) (P < .0001). After adjustment for patient history, demographics, laboratory values, and echocardiographic findings, the hazard ratios for total mortality (relative to a heart rate of <60) were 1.26 (95% CI, 0.88-1.80) for HR 60-69, 1.47 (95% CI, 1.02-2.07) for HR 70-90, and 2.00 (95% CI, 1.31-3.04) for HR>90 (P = .01 across all groups).These data suggest that an elevated resting heart rate is a marker for increased mortality in patients with heart failure and preserved systolic function. Heart rate may be useful in these patients for improved cardiovascular risk assessment.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cardfail.2010.04.013

    View details for Web of Science ID 000282997500002

    View details for PubMedID 20932462

  • The Relation Between Hospital Procedure Volume and Complications of Cardioverter-Defibrillator Implantation From the Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Registry JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Freeman, J. V., Wang, Y., Curtis, J. P., Heidenreich, P. A., Hlatky, M. A. 2010; 56 (14): 1133-1139

    Abstract

    We sought to examine the relationship between hospital implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation volume and procedural complications in a contemporary, representative population.Hospitals that perform higher volumes of procedures generally have better clinical outcomes.We examined initial ICD implantations between January 2006 and December 2008 at hospitals participating in the NCDR (National Cardiovascular Data Registry) ICD Registry and evaluated the relationship between hospital annual implant volume and in-hospital adverse outcomes.The rate of adverse events declined progressively with increasing procedure volume (p trend < 0.0001). This relationship remained significant (p trend < 0.0001) after adjustment for patient clinical characteristics, operator characteristics, and hospital characteristics. The volume-outcome relationship was evident for all ICD subtypes, including single-chamber (p trend = 0.004), dual-chamber (p trend < 0.0001), and biventricular ICDs (p trend = 0.02).Patients who have an ICD implanted at a high-volume hospital are less likely to have an adverse event associated with the procedure than patients who have an ICD implanted at a low-volume hospital.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2010.07.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000282144700007

    View details for PubMedID 20863954

  • Review of the Registry's Fourth Year, Incorporating Lead Data and Pediatric ICD Procedures, and Use as a National Performance Measure HEART RHYTHM Hammill, S. C., Kremers, M. S., Stevenson, L. W., Heidenreich, P. A., Lang, C. M., Curtis, J. P., Wang, Y., Berul, C. I., Kadish, A. H., Al-Khatib, S. M., Pina, I. L., Walsh, M. N., Mirro, M. J., Lindsay, B. D., Reynolds, M. R., Pontzer, K., Blum, L., Masoudi, F., Rumsfeld, J., Brindis, R. G. 2010; 7 (9): 1340-1345

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hrthm.2010.07.015

    View details for Web of Science ID 000281444100034

    View details for PubMedID 20647056

  • Clinical Subtype of Atrial Fibrillation at the Time of Implantation and Subsequent Mortality among Veterans With Implantable Defibrillators Aleong, R., Sauer, W. H., Pellegnni, C. N., Yang, Y., Keung, E., Heidenreich, P., Rumsfeld, J. S., Massie, B. M., Varosy, P. D. CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE INC MEDICAL PUBLISHERS. 2010: S58
  • Heart Failure Symptoms Identified With Home Monitoring Predict Subsequent Shock and Death Heidenreich, P. A., Boehmer, J. P., Hayes, D. L., Gilliam, F. R., Day, J. D., Jones, P. W., Seth, M., Saxon, L. A. CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE INC MEDICAL PUBLISHERS. 2010: S85
  • History of Heart Failure and Mortality among Veterans With Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators Varosy, P. D., Pellegrini, C. N., Yang, Y., Keung, E., Heidenreich, P., Rumsfeld, J. S., Massie, B. M. CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE INC MEDICAL PUBLISHERS. 2010: S95?S96
  • Handheld Ultrasound, B-Natriuretic Peptide for Screening Stage B Heart Failure SOUTHERN MEDICAL JOURNAL Hebert, K., Horswell, R., Heidenreich, P., Miranda, J., Arcement, L. 2010; 103 (7): 616-622

    Abstract

    To determine if B-natriuretic peptide (BNP), handheld ultrasound, and echo interpretation was an accurate and reliable screening for stage B heart failure.One hundred and forty-five indigent diabetic patients were prospectively enrolled, and their BNP levels were measured. Each patient underwent a handheld echo.BNP was correlated with ejection fraction, but not with diastolic dysfunction. The area under the receiver-operator characteristic was 0.77. Kappa statistics for reliability in interpreting handheld echoes was 1.0.Results from this study suggested that BNP may be able to serve as a reliable screening tool for stage B heart failure in diabetic populations. Because BNP is an inexpensive blood test, it could be incorporated into the congestive heart failure diagnostic algorithm to determine which patients need imaging studies, namely echocardiography. Handheld echocardiography had interobserver reliability and is a promising alternative screening method.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SMJ.0b013e3181e1ffec

    View details for Web of Science ID 000279397000007

    View details for PubMedID 20531053

  • Reply to the letter to the editor for Obesity and survival in patients with heart failure and preserved systolic function: A U-shaped relationship AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Kapoor, J. R., Heidenreich, P. A. 2010; 159 (6)
  • Are quality improvements associated with the Get With the Guidelines-Coronary Artery Disease (GWTG-CAD) program sustained over time?: A longitudinal comparison of GWTG-CAD hospitals versus non-GWTG-CAD hospitals AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Xian, Y., Pan, W., Peterson, E. D., Heidenreich, P. A., Cannon, C. P., Hernandez, A. F., Friedman, B., Holloway, R. G., Fonarow, G. C. 2010; 159 (2)

    Abstract

    Previous reports have demonstrated that participation in GWTG-CAD, a national quality initiative of the American Heart Association, is associated with improved guideline adherence for patients hospitalized with CAD. We sought to establish whether these benefits from participation in GWTG-CAD were sustained over time.We used the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Hospital Compare database to examine 6 performance measures and one composite score for 3 consecutive 12-month periods including aspirin and beta-blocker on arrival/discharge, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I) for left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD), and adult smoking cessation counseling. The differences in guideline adherence between the GWTG-CAD hospitals (n = 440, 439, 429) and non-GWTG-CAD hospitals (n = 2,438, 2,268, 2,140) were evaluated for each 12-month period. A multivariate mixed-effects model was used to estimate the independent effect of GWTG-CAD over time adjusting for hospital characteristics.Compared with non-GWTG hospitals, the GWTG-CAD hospitals demonstrated higher guideline adherence for 6 performance measures. The largest differences existed for (1) aspirin at arrival (2.3%, 2.1%, and 1.6% for each 12-month period, respectively), (2) aspirin at discharge (3.4%, 2.2%, and 2.3%), (3) beta-blocker at arrival (3.4%, 2.9%, and 2.6%), and (4) beta-blocker at discharge (2.8%, 1.8%, and 1.5%). In multivariate analysis, the GWTG-CAD hospitals were independently associated with better adherence for 4 of the 6 measures (the exceptions were ACE-I for LVSD and smoking cessation counseling). Superior performance was also found for the composite measures. Although there was some narrowing between groups, GWTG-CAD hospitals maintained superior guideline adherence than non-GWTG-CAD hospitals for the entire 3-year period (adjusted differences 1.8%, 1.6%, and 1.4%).Hospitals participating in GWTG-CAD had modestly superior acute cardiac care and secondary prevention measures performance relative to non-GWTG-CAD. These benefits of GWTG-CAD participation were sustained over time and independent of hospital characteristics.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2009.11.002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000274287200007

    View details for PubMedID 20152218

  • Obesity and survival in patients with heart failure and preserved systolic function: A U-shaped relationship AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Kapoor, J. R., Heidenreich, P. A. 2010; 159 (1): 75-80

    Abstract

    Studies document better survival in heart failure patients with decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) and higher body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) compared to those with a lower BMI. However, it is unknown if this "obesity paradox" applies to heart failure patients with preserved EF or if it extends to the very obese (BMI >35).We determined all-cause mortality for 1,236 consecutive patients with a prior diagnosis of heart failure and a preserved EF (> or =50%).Obesity (BMI>30) was noted in 542 patients (44%). The mean age was 71 +/- 12 years, but this varied depending on BMI. One-year all-cause mortality decreased with increasing BMI, except at BMI >45 where mortality began to increase (55% if BMI <20, 38% if BMI 20-25, 26% if BMI 26-30, 25% if BMI 31-35, 17% if BMI 36-40, 18% if BMI 41-45, and 25% if BMI>45, P < .001). After adjustment for patient age, history, medications, and laboratory and echocardiographic parameters, the hazard ratios for total mortality (relative to BMI 26-30) were 1.68 (95% CI, 1.04-2.69) for BMI <20, 1.25 (95% CI, 0.92-1.68) for BMI 20 to 25, 0.99 (95% CI, 0.71-1.36) for BMI 31-35, 0.58 (95% CI, 0.35-0.97) for BMI 36 to 40, 0.79 (95% CI, 0.44-1.4) for BMI 41 to 45, and 1.38 (95% CI 0.74-2.6) for BMI >45 (P < .0001).Low BMI is associated with increased mortality in patients with heart failure and preserved systolic function. However, with a BMI of >45, mortality increased, raising the possibility of a U-shaped relationship between BMI and survival.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2009.10.026

    View details for Web of Science ID 000273051300011

    View details for PubMedID 20102870

  • The Year in Epidemiology, Health Services Research, and Outcomes Research JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Hlatky, M. A., Heidenreich, P. 2009; 54 (25): 2343-2351

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2009.10.013

    View details for Web of Science ID 000272768600001

    View details for PubMedID 20082921

  • Clinical characteristics and in-hospital outcome of patients with end-stage renal disease on dialysis referred for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation HEART RHYTHM Aggarwal, A., Wang, Y., Rumsfeld, J. S., Curtis, J. P., Heidenreich, P. A. 2009; 6 (11): 1565-1571

    Abstract

    Little is known about the clinical profile of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients who undergo implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation.This study sought to analyze the risk profile of ESRD patients admitted for ICD implantation.Patients undergoing first-time device implantation in National Cardiovascular Data Registry/ICD registry from 01/01/06 to 12/31/07 were analyzed (n = 164,069). Patients with ESRD (defined as those requiring dialysis) were compared with patients without ESRD. Primary outcome was in-hospital complications. Because length of hospital stay for ERSD patients was significantly longer (8 vs. 4 days), complications within 2 days of ICD implantation were also examined. The proportion of patients meeting approved indications for ICD implantation was evaluated.ESRD patients (n = 6,851, 4.4%) had higher rates of comorbid medical conditions, major complications, and total complications, and were less likely to receive an ICD for primary prevention. ESRD patients who received ICD implantation for primary prevention were more likely to meet trial criteria. ESRD patients were less likely to receive beta-blockers and angiotensin inhibitors (P <.0001). Unadjusted in-hospital mortality was almost 5-fold among patients with ESRD (1.9% vs. 0.4%, P <.0001). Multivariable analysis confirmed that ESRD was independently associated with total in-hospital complications (odds ratio [OR] = 1.38, 95% confidence interval: 1.23 to 1.54, P <.0001), and total complications at 2 days (OR = 1.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.05 to 1.36, P = .006).ESRD patients presenting for ICD implantation are sicker, and have higher rates of in-hospital complications even when accounting for overall longer length of hospital stay. Strategies to decrease complications among ESRD patients who undergo ICD implantation need exploration.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hrthm.2009.08.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000271817100005

    View details for PubMedID 19879533

  • THE INFLUENCE OF ECONOMIC INCENTIVES AND REGULATORY FACTORS ON THE ADOPTION OF TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES: A CASE STUDY OF TECHNOLOGIES USED TO TREAT HEART ATTACKS HEALTH ECONOMICS Bech, M., Christiansen, T., Dunham, K., Lauridsen, J., Lyttkens, C. H., McDonald, K., McGuire, A. 2009; 18 (10): 1114-1132

    Abstract

    The Technological Change in Health Care Research Network collected unique patient-level data on three procedures for treatment of heart attack patients (catheterization, coronary artery bypass grafts and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty) for 17 countries over a 15-year period to examine the impact of economic and institutional factors on technology adoption. Specific institutional factors are shown to be important to the uptake of these technologies. Health-care systems characterized as public contract systems and reimbursement systems have higher adoption rates than public-integrated health-care systems. Central control of funding of investments is negatively associated with adoption rates and the impact is of the same magnitude as the overall health-care system classification. GDP per capita also has a strong role in initial adoption. The impact of income and institutional characteristics on the utilization rates of the three procedures diminishes over time.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/hec.1417

    View details for Web of Science ID 000269942100002

    View details for PubMedID 18972326

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2740812

  • Survival among patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction treated with atenolol. Congestive heart failure (Greenwich, Conn.) Kapoor, J. R., Heidenreich, P. A. 2009; 15 (5): 213-217

    Abstract

    Metoprolol succinate, carvedilol, and bisoprolol are approved for use in heart failure. Other beta-blockers have been found to be inferior (metoprolol tartrate) or have not been studied (atenolol). The authors compared all-cause mortality following treatment with either atenolol, carvedilol, or metoprolol tartrate for 974 patients with left ventricular function < or =40%. The unadjusted mortality at 6 months was lower with atenolol (3.2%) and carvedilol (4.2%) when compared with metoprolol tartrate (7.5%, P< or =.039). However, patients with atenolol were older but had less prior heart failure. After adjustment for the propensity to be treated with atenolol, patients actually treated with atenolol had a significantly lower risk of death compared with treatment with metoprolol tartrate and comparable outcome to those treated with carvedilol. These results suggest that atenolol may be useful for patients with heart failure treatment and highlight the need for a randomized trial comparing atenolol with established beta-blockers.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1751-7133.2009.00096.x

    View details for PubMedID 19751421

  • NATIONAL ICD REGISTRY ANNUAL REPORT 2008 Review of the ICD Registry's Third Year, Expansion to include Lead Data and Pediatric ICD Procedures, and Role for Measuring Performance HEART RHYTHM Hammill, S. C., Kremers, M. S., Kadish, A. H., Stevenson, L. W., Heidenreich, P. A., Lindsay, B. D., Mirro, M. J., Radford, M. J., McKay, C., Wang, Y., Lang, C. M., Pontzer, K., Rumsfed, J., Phurrough, S. E., Curtis, J. P., Brindis, R. G. 2009; 6 (9): 1397-1401
  • Review of the ICD Registry's third year, expansion to include lead data and pediatric ICD procedures, and role for measuring performance. Heart rhythm Hammill, S. C., Kremers, M. S., Kadish, A. H., Stevenson, L. W., Heidenreich, P. A., Lindsay, B. D., Mirro, M. J., Radford, M. J., McKay, C., Wang, Y., Lang, C. M., Pontzer, K., Rumsfeld, J., Phurrough, S. E., Curtis, J. P., Brindis, R. G. 2009; 6 (9): 1397-1401

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hrthm.2009.07.015

    View details for PubMedID 19716099

  • Use of implantable cardioverter defibrillators for primary prevention in the community: Do women and men equally meet trial enrollment criteria? AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Daugherty, S. L., Peterson, P. N., Wang, Y., Curtis, J. P., Heidenreich, P. A., Lindenfeld, J., Vidaillet, H. J., Masoudi, F. A. 2009; 158 (2): 224-229

    Abstract

    Fewer women than men undergo implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation for the primary prevention of sudden cardiac death. The criteria used to select patients for ICD implantation may be more permissive among men than for women. We hypothesized that women who undergo primary prevention ICD implantation more often meet strict trial enrollment criteria for this therapy.We studied 59,812 patients in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry ICD registry undergoing initial primary prevention ICD placement between January 2005 and April 2007. Patients were classified as meeting or not meeting enrollment criteria of either the MADIT-II or SCD-HeFT trials. Multivariable analyses assessed the association between gender and concordance with trial criteria adjusting for demographic, clinical, and system characteristics.Among the cohort, 27% (n = 16,072) were women. Overall, 85.2% of women and 84.5% of men met enrollment criteria of either trial (P = .05). In multivariable analyses, women were equally likely to meet trial criteria (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.99-1.10) than men. Significantly more women than men met the trial enrollment criteria among patients older than age 65 (86.6% of women vs 85.3% of men, OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.19), but this difference was not found among younger patients (82.5% of women vs 83.0% of men, OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.89-1.07).In a national cohort undergoing primary prevention ICD implantation, older women were only slightly more likely then men to meet the enrollment criteria for MADIT II or SCD-HeFT. Relative overutilization in men is not an important explanation for gender differences in ICD implantation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2009.05.018

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268749000012

    View details for PubMedID 19619698

  • Inequality in treatment use among elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction: USA, Belgium and Quebec BMC HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH Perelman, J., Shmueli, A., McDonald, K. M., Pilote, L., Saynina, O., Closon, M. 2009; 9

    Abstract

    Previous research has provided evidence that socioeconomic status has an impact on invasive treatments use after acute myocardial infarction. In this paper, we compare the socioeconomic inequality in the use of high-technology diagnosis and treatment after acute myocardial infarction between the US, Quebec and Belgium paying special attention to financial incentives and regulations as explanatory factors.We examined hospital-discharge abstracts for all patients older than 65 who were admitted to hospitals during the 1993-1998 period in the US, Quebec and Belgium with a primary diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. Patients' income data were imputed from the median incomes of their residential area. For each country, we compared the risk-adjusted probability of undergoing each procedure between socioeconomic categories measured by the patient's area median income.Our findings indicate that income-related inequality exists in the use of high-technology treatment and diagnosis techniques that is not justified by differences in patients' health characteristics. Those inequalities are largely explained, in the US and Quebec, by inequalities in distances to hospitals with on-site cardiac facilities. However, in both Belgium and the US, inequalities persist among patients admitted to hospitals with on-site cardiac facilities, rejecting the hospital location effect as the single explanation for inequalities. Meanwhile, inequality levels diverge across countries (higher in the US and in Belgium, extremely low in Quebec).The findings support the hypothesis that income-related inequality in treatment for AMI exists and is likely to be affected by a country's system of health care.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1472-6963-9-130

    View details for Web of Science ID 000269526100002

    View details for PubMedID 19643011

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3277323

  • ACCF/ASNC/ACR/AHA/ASE/SCCT/SCMR/SNM 2009 Appropriate Use Criteria for Cardiac Radionuclide Imaging A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, the American College of Radiology, the American Heart Association, the American Society of Echocardiography, the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and the Society of Nuclear Medicine Endorsed by the American College of Emergency Physicians JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Hendel, R. C., Berman, D. S., Di Carli, M. F., Heidenreich, P. A., Henkin, R. E., Pellikka, P. A., Pohost, G. M., Williams, K. A. 2009; 53 (23): 2201-2229

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2009.02.013

    View details for Web of Science ID 000266568200018

    View details for PubMedID 19497454

  • ACCF/ASNC/ACR/AHA/ASE/SCCT/SCMR/SNM 2009 appropriate use criteria for cardiac radionuclide imaging: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, the American College of Radiology, the American Heart Association, the American Society of Echocardiography, the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, and the Society of Nuclear Medicine. Circulation Hendel, R. C., Berman, D. S., Di Carli, M. F., Heidenreich, P. A., Henkin, R. E., Pellikka, P. A., Pohost, G. M., Williams, K. A. 2009; 119 (22): e561-87

    Abstract

    The American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF), along with key specialty and subspecialty societies, conducted an appropriate use review of common clinical scenarios where cardiac radionuclide imaging (RNI) is frequently considered. This document is a revision of the original Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (SPECT MPI) Appropriateness Criteria, published 4 years earlier, written to reflect changes in test utilization and new clinical data, and to clarify RNI use where omissions or lack of clarity existed in the original criteria. This is in keeping with the commitment to revise and refine appropriate use criteria (AUC) on a frequent basis. The indications for this review were drawn from common applications or anticipated uses, as well as from current clinical practice guidelines. Sixty-seven clinical scenarios were developed by a writing group and scored by a separate technical panel on a scale of 1 to 9 to designate appropriate use, inappropriate use, or uncertain use. In general, use of cardiac RNI for diagnosis and risk assessment in intermediate- and high-risk patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) was viewed favorably, while testing in low-risk patients, routine repeat testing, and general screening in certain clinical scenarios were viewed less favorably. Additionally, use for perioperative testing was found to be inappropriate except for high selected groups of patients. It is anticipated that these results will have a significant impact on physician decision making, test performance, and reimbursement policy, and will help guide future research.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.192519

    View details for PubMedID 19451357

  • The Year in Epidemiology, Health Services Research, and Outcomes Research JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Hlatky, M. A., Heidenreich, P. A. 2009; 53 (16): 1459-1466

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2009.01.038

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265160200010

    View details for PubMedID 19371831

  • Gender Differences in Procedure-Related Adverse Events in Patients Receiving Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Therapy CIRCULATION Peterson, P. N., Daugherty, S. L., Wang, Y., Vidaillet, H. J., Heidenreich, P. A., Curtis, J. P., Masoudi, F. A. 2009; 119 (8): 1078-U30

    Abstract

    Women are at higher risk than men for adverse events with certain invasive cardiac procedures. Our objective was to compare rates of in-hospital adverse events in men and women receiving implantable cardioverter- defibrillator (ICD) therapy in community practice.Using the National Cardiovascular Data Registry ICD Registry, we identified patients undergoing first-time ICD implantation between January 2006 and December 2007. Outcomes included in-hospital adverse events after ICD implantation. Multivariable analysis assessed the association between gender and in-hospital adverse events, with adjustment for demographic, clinical, procedural, physician, and hospital characteristics. Of 161,470 patients, 73% were male, and 27% were female. Women were more likely to have a history of heart failure (81% versus 77%, P<0.01), worse New York Heart Association functional status (57% versus 50% in class III and IV, P<0.01), and nonischemic cardiomyopathy (44% versus 27%, P<0.01) and were more likely to receive biventricular ICDs (39% versus 34%, P<0.01). In unadjusted analyses, women were more likely to experience any adverse event (4.4% versus 3.3%, P<0.001) and major adverse events (2.0% versus 1.1%, P<0.001). In multivariable models, women had a significantly higher risk of any adverse event (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.39) and major adverse events (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.57 to 1.86).Women are more likely than men to have in-hospital adverse events related to ICD implantation. Efforts are needed to understand the reasons for higher ICD implantation-related adverse event rates in women and to develop strategies to reduce the risk of these events.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.793463

    View details for Web of Science ID 000263772100004

    View details for PubMedID 19221223

  • Ethnic and racial disparities in cardiac resynchronization therapy HEART RHYTHM Farmer, S. A., Kirkpatrick, J. N., Heidenreich, P. A., Curtis, J. P., Wang, Y., Groeneveld, P. W. 2009; 6 (3): 325-331

    Abstract

    Racial/ethnic differences in the use of cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D) may result from underprovision or overprovision relative to published guidelines.The purpose of this study was to examine the National Cardiovascular Data Registry (NCDR) ICD Registry for ethnic/racial differences in use of CRT-D.We studied white, black, and Hispanic patients who received either an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) or CRT-D between January 2005 and April 2007. Two multivariate logistic regression models were fit with the following outcome variables: (1) receipt of either ICD or CRT-D and (2) receipt of CRT-D outside of published guidelines.Of 108,341 registry participants, 22,205 met inclusion criteria for the first analysis and 27,165 met criteria for the second analysis. Multivariate analysis indicated CRT-eligible black (odds ratio [OR] 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75-0.95; P <.004) and Hispanic (OR 0.83; 95% CI, 0.71-0.99; P <.033) patients were less likely to receive CRT-D than were white patients. A substantial proportion of patients received CRT-D outside of published guidelines, although black (OR 1.18; 95% CI, 1.02-1.36; P = .001) and Hispanic (OR 1.17; 95% CI, 1.02-1.36; P = .03) patients were more likely to meet all three eligibility criteria.Black and Hispanic patients who were eligible for CRT-D were less likely to receive therapy compared with white patients. Conversely, in the context of widespread out-of-guideline use of CRT-D, black and Hispanic patients were more likely to meet established criteria. Our findings suggest systematic racial/ethnic differences in the treatment of patients with advanced heart failure.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hrthm.2008.12.018

    View details for Web of Science ID 000264228100007

    View details for PubMedID 19251206

  • SYSTEMIC DISORDERS IN HEART DISEASE Radiation induced heart disease HEART Heidenreich, P. A., Kapoor, J. R. 2009; 95 (3): 252-258
  • Is Anyone Too Old for an Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator? CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR QUALITY AND OUTCOMES Heidenreich, P. A., Tsai, V. 2009; 2 (1): 6-8
  • ACC/AHA 2008 statement on performance measurement and reperfusion therapy: a report of the ACC/AHA Task Force on Performance Measures (Work Group to address the challenges of performance measurement and reperfusion therapy). Circulation Masoudi, F. A., Bonow, R. O., Brindis, R. G., Cannon, C. P., DeBuhr, J., Fitzgerald, S., Heidenreich, P. A., Ho, K. K., Krumholz, H. M., Leber, C., Magid, D. J., Nilasena, D. S., Rumsfeld, J. S., Smith, S. C., Wharton, T. P., DeLong, E., Estes, N. A., Goff, D. C., Grady, K., Green, L. A., Loth, A. R., Peterson, E. D., Radford, M. J., Rumsfeld, J. S., Shahian, D. M. 2008; 118 (24): 2649-2661

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.191100

    View details for PubMedID 19001026

  • ACC/AHA 2008 Statement on Performance Measurement and Reperfusion Therapy: A Report of the ACC/AHA Task Force on Performance Measures (Work Group to Address the Challenges of Performance Measurement and Reperfusion Therapy) CIRCULATION Masoudi, F. A., Bonow, R. O., Brindis, R. G., Cannon, C. P., DeBuhr, J., Fitzgerald, S., Heidenreich, P. A., Ho, K. K., Krumholz, H. M., Leber, C., Magid, D. J., Nilasena, D. S., Rumsfeld, J. S., Smith, S. C., Wharton, T. P. 2008; 118 (24): 2649-2661
  • ACC/AHA 2008 Statement on Performance Measurement and Reperfusion Therapy A Report of the ACC/AHA Task Force on Performance Measures (Work Group to Address the Challenges of Performance Measurement and Reperfusion Therapy) JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Masoudi, F. A., Bonow, R. O., Brindis, R. G., Cannon, C. P., DeBuhr, J., Fitzgerald, S., Heidenreich, P. A., Ho, K. K., Krumholz, H. M., Leber, C., Magid, D. J., Nilasena, D. S., Rumsfeld, J. S., Smith, S. C., Wharton, T. P. 2008; 52 (24): 2100-2112

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2008.10.013

    View details for Web of Science ID 000261324000016

    View details for PubMedID 19056001

  • The Heart Failure Clinic: A Consensus Statement of the Heart Failure Society of America JOURNAL OF CARDIAC FAILURE Hauptman, P. J., Rich, M. W., Heidenreich, P. A., Chin, J., Cummings, N., Dunlap, M. E., Edwards, M. L., Gregory, D., O'Connor, C. M., Pezzella, S. M., Philbin, E. 2008; 14 (10): 801-815

    Abstract

    Outpatient care accounts for a significant proportion of total heart failure (HF) expenditures. This observation, plus an expanding list of treatment options, has led to the development of the disease-specific HF clinic.The goals of the HF clinic are to reduce mortality and rehospitalization rates and improve quality of life for patients with HF through individualized patient care. A variety of staffing configurations can serve to meet these goals. Successful HF clinics require an ongoing commitment of resources, the application of established clinical practice guidelines, an appropriate infrastructure, and a culture of quality assessment.This consensus statement will identify the components of HF clinics, focusing on systems and procedures most likely to contribute to the consistent application of guidelines and, consequently, optimal patient care. The domains addressed are: disease management, functional assessment, quality of life assessment, medical therapy and drug evaluation, device evaluation, nutritional assessment, follow-up, advance planning, communication, provider education, and quality assessment.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cardfail.2008.10.005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262021100001

    View details for PubMedID 19041043

  • Standards for Measures Used for Public Reporting of Efficiency in Health Care A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association Interdisciplinary Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research and the American College of Cardiology Foundation CIRCULATION Krumholz, H. M., Keenan, P. S., Brush, J. E., Bufalino, V. J., Chernew, M. E., Epstein, A. J., Heidenreich, P. A., Ho, V., Masoudi, F. A., Matchar, D. B., Normand, S. T., Rumsfeld, J. S., Schuur, J. D., Smith, S. C., Spertus, J. A., Walsh, M. N. 2008; 118 (18): 1885-1893

    Abstract

    The assessment of medical practice is evolving rapidly in the United States. An initial focus on structure and process performance measures assessing the quality of medical care is now being supplemented with efficiency measures to quantify the "value" of healthcare delivery. This statement, building on prior work that articulated standards for publicly reported outcomes measures, identifies preferred attributes for measures used to assess efficiency in the allocation of healthcare resources. The attributes identified in this document combined with the previously published standards are intended to serve as criteria for assessing the suitability of efficiency measures for public reporting. This statement identifies the following attributes to be considered for publicly reported efficiency measures: integration of the quality and cost; valid cost measurement and analysis; minimal incentive to provide poor quality care; and proper attribution of the measure. The attributes described in this statement are relevant to a wide range of efforts to profile the efficiency of various healthcare providers, including hospitals, healthcare systems, managed-care organizations, physicians, group practices, and others that deliver coordinated care.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.190500

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260426200015

    View details for PubMedID 18838567

  • Obesity and Mortality in Patients with Heart Failure and Preserved Systolic Function Kapoor, J. R., Heidenreich, P. A. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2008: S795
  • Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Demonstrates Superiority of Screening Young Athletes with 12-Lead Electrocardiogram versus History and Physical in Preventing Sudden Cardiac Death Wheeler, M. T., Heidenreich, P. A., Froelicher, V. F., Hlatky, M. A., Ashley, E. A. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2008: S1163
  • Standards for Measures Used for Public Reporting of Efficiency in Health Care A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association Interdisciplinary Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research and the American College of Cardiology Foundation JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Krumholz, H. M., Keenan, P. S., Brush, J. E., Bufalino, V. J., Chernew, M. E., Epstein, A. J., Heidenreich, P. A., Ho, V., Masoudi, F. A., Matchar, D. B., Normand, S. T., Rumsfeld, J. S., Schuur, J. D., Smith, S. C., Spertus, J. A., Walsh, M. N. 2008; 52 (18): 1518-1526

    Abstract

    The assessment of medical practice is evolving rapidly in the United States. An initial focus on structure and process performance measures assessing the quality of medical care is now being supplemented with efficiency measures to quantify the "value" of healthcare delivery. This statement, building on prior work that articulated standards for publicly reported outcomes measures, identifies preferred attributes for measures used to assess efficiency in the allocation of healthcare resources. The attributes identified in this document combined with the previously published standards are intended to serve as criteria for assessing the suitability of efficiency measures for public reporting. This statement identifies the following attributes to be considered for publicly reported efficiency measures: integration of the quality and cost; valid cost measurement and analysis; minimal incentive to provide poor quality care; and proper attribution of the measure. The attributes described in this statement are relevant to a wide range of efforts to profile the efficiency of various healthcare providers, including hospitals, healthcare systems, managed-care organizations, physicians, group practices, and others that deliver coordinated care.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2008.09.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260258800014

    View details for PubMedID 19017522

  • Improving heart failure care with a reminder attached to the echocardiography report AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Heidenreich, P. 2008; 121 (10): 853-854

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjmed.2008.06.021

    View details for Web of Science ID 000259564200006

    View details for PubMedID 18823852

  • Preventing tomorrow's sudden cardiac death today: Dissemination of effective therapies for sudden cardiac death prevention AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Al-Khatib, S. M., Sanders, G. D., Carlson, M., Cicic, A., Curtis, A., Fonarow, G. C., Groeneveld, P. W., Hayes, D., Heidenreich, P., Mark, D., Peterson, E., Prystowsky, E. N., Sager, P., Salive, M. E., Thomas, K., Yancy, C. W., Zareba, W., Zipes, D. 2008; 156 (4): 613-622

    Abstract

    Because the burden of sudden cardiac death (SCD) is substantial, it is important to use all guideline-driven therapies to prevent SCD. Among those therapies is the implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). When indicated, ICD use is beneficial and cost-effective. Unfortunately, studies suggest that most patients who have indications for this therapy for primary or secondary prevention of SCD are not receiving it. To explore potential reasons for this underuse and to propose potential facilitators for ICD dissemination, the Duke Center for the Prevention of SCD at the Duke Clinical Research Institute (Durham, NC) organized a think tank meeting of experts on this issue. The meeting took place on December 12 and 13, 2007, and it included representatives of clinical cardiology, cardiac electrophysiology, general internal medicine, economics, health policy, the US Food and Drug Administration, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, the Agency for Health care Research and Quality, and the device and pharmaceutical industry. Although the meeting was funded by industry participants, this article summarizing the presentations and discussions that occurred at the meeting presents the expert opinion of the authors.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2008.05.027

    View details for Web of Science ID 000259963300001

    View details for PubMedID 18926144

  • Low-dose growth hormone is cardioprotective in uremia JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY Rabkin, R., Awwad, I., Chen, Y., Ashley, E. A., Sun, D., Sood, S., Clusin, W., Heidenreich, P., Piecha, G., Gross, M. 2008; 19 (9): 1774-1783

    Abstract

    Growth hormone (GH) is required to maintain normal cardiac structure and function and has a positive effect on cardiac remodeling in experimental and possibly human disease. Cardiac resistance to GH develops in the uremic state, perhaps predisposing to the characteristic cardiomyopathy associated with uremia. It was hypothesized that administration of low-dosage GH may have a salutary effect on the cardiac remodeling process in uremia, but because high levels of GH have adverse cardiac effects, administration of high-dosage GH may worsen uremic cardiomyopathy. In rats with chronic renal failure, quantitative cardiac morphology revealed a decrease in total capillary length and capillary length density and an increase in mean intercapillary distance and fibroblast volume density evident. Low-dosage GH prevented these changes. Collagen and TGF-beta immunostaining, increased in chronic renal failure, were also reduced by GH, suggesting a mechanism for its salutary action. Low-dosage GH also prevented thickening of the carotid artery but did not affect aortic pathology. In contrast, high-dosage GH worsened several of these variables. These results suggest that low-dosage GH may benefit the heart and possibly the carotid arteries in chronic renal failure.

    View details for DOI 10.1681/ASN.2007121386

    View details for Web of Science ID 000259167000021

    View details for PubMedID 18650479

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2518445

  • National ICD Registry annual report 2007: Review of the Registry's second year, data collected, and plans to add lead and pediatric ICD procedures HEART RHYTHM Hammill, S. C., Kremers, M. S., Stevenson, L. W., Kadish, A. H., Heidenreich, P. A., Lindsay, B. D., Mirro, M. J., Radford, M. J., Wang, Y., Curtis, J. P., Lang, C. M., Harder, J. C., Brindis, R. G. 2008; 5 (9): 1359-1363
  • Review of the Registry's second year, data collected, and plans to add lead and pediatric ICD procedures. Heart rhythm Hammill, S. C., Kremers, M. S., Stevenson, L. W., Kadish, A. H., Heidenreich, P. A., Lindsay, B. D., Mirro, M. J., Radford, M. J., Wang, Y., Curtis, J. P., Lang, C. M., Harder, J. C., Brindis, R. G. 2008; 5 (9): 1359-1363

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hrthm.2008.07.015

    View details for PubMedID 18774117

  • Evaluation of Polymorphisms in Candidate Genes in the Dramatic Response to Pharmacologic Therapy of Heart Failure Basic Cardiovascular Sciences Conference Wheeler, M. T., Pavlovic, A., Dewey, F., Perez, M., Absher, D., Ho, M. Y., Cretti, E., Southwick, A., Rosenthal, D. N., Bernstein, D., Myers, R. M., Heidenreich, P. A., Fowler, M. B., Robbins, R. C., Ashley, E. A. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2008: E64?E65
  • Overrepresentation of neuronal development pathways in heart failure patients who dramatically responded to pharmaceutical therapy 12th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Heart-Failure-Society-of-America Pavlovic, A., Perez, M., Absher, D., Wheeler, M., Ho, M., Dewey, R., Cretti, L., Southwick, A., Rosenthal, D., Bernstein, D., Myers, R. M., Heidenreich, P., Fowler, M. B., Robbins, R., Ashley, E. CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE INC MEDICAL PUBLISHERS. 2008: S41?S41
  • Is Quantitation a Good Value? JACC-CARDIOVASCULAR IMAGING Heidenreich, P. 2008; 1 (3): 404-404

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jcmg.2008.02.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000207649800020

    View details for PubMedID 19356456

  • Heart transplant for status 2 patients may not be cost effective Vaidya, V., Yajnik, M., Heidenreich, P., Patel, J., Kittleson, M., Kawano, M., Vaidya, A., Ankrom, A., Ardehali, A., Kobashigawa, J. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2008: A258
  • Computed tomographic angiography had high sensitivity for coronary artery disease in patients at intermediate risk. ACP journal club Heidenreich, P. 2008; 148 (2): 51-?

    View details for PubMedID 18311881

  • Heart failure disease management programs: A cost-effectiveness analysis AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Chan, D. C., Heidenreich, P. A., Weinstein, M. C., Fonarow, G. C. 2008; 155 (2): 332-338

    Abstract

    Heart failure (HF) disease management programs have shown impressive reductions in hospitalizations and mortality, but in studies limited to short time frames and high-risk patient populations. Current guidelines thus only recommend disease management targeted to high-risk patients with HF.This study applied a new technique to infer the degree to which clinical trials have targeted patients by risk based on observed rates of hospitalization and death. A Markov model was used to assess the incremental life expectancy and cost of providing disease management for high-risk to low-risk patients. Sensitivity analyses of various long-term scenarios and of reduced effectiveness in low-risk patients were also considered.The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of extending coverage to all patients was $9700 per life-year gained in the base case. In aggregate, universal coverage almost quadrupled life-years saved as compared to coverage of only the highest quintile of risk. A worst case analysis with simultaneous conservative assumptions yielded an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $110,000 per life-year gained. In a probabilistic sensitivity analysis, 99.74% of possible incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were <$50,000 per life-year gained.Heart failure disease management programs are likely cost-effective in the long-term along the whole spectrum of patient risk. Health gains could be extended by enrolling a broader group of patients with HF in disease management.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2007.10.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000252812800024

    View details for PubMedID 18215605

  • Racial and ethnic differences in cardiac resynchronization therapy outside of published guidelines Farmer, S. A., Kirkpatrick, J. N., Heidenreich, P. A., Curtis, J. P., Wang, Y., Groeneveld, P. W., Natl Cardiovasc Data Registry LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2007: 859
  • Differences in implantation-related complications between men and women receiving ICD therapy for primary prevention Peterson, P. N., Luther, S. A., Wang, Y., Vidaillet, H. J., Krumholz, H. M., Heidenreich, P. A., Curtis, J. P., Masoudi, F. A., NCDR LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2007: 823
  • Racial and ethnic differences in nationwide utilization of cardiac resynchronization therapy Farmer, S. A., Kirkpatrick, J. N., Heidenreich, P. A., Curtis, J. P., Wang, Y., Groeneveld, P. W., Natl Cardiovasc Data Registry LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2007: 823
  • Sex differences in the characteristics of patients receiving ICD therapy for primary prevention Daugherty, S. L., Peterson, P. N., Wang, Y., Curtis, J. P., Heidenreich, P. A., Krumholz, H. M., Vidaillet, H. J., Masoudi, F. A., NCDR LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2007: 823
  • Quality indicators for the care of heart failure in vulnerable elders JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY Heidenreich, P. A., Fonarow, G. C. 2007; 55: S340-S346
  • Review of the registry's first year, data collected, and future plans HEART RHYTHM Hammill, S. C., Stevenson, L. W., Kadish, A. H., Kremers, M. S., Heidenreich, P., Lindsay, B. D., Mirro, M. J., Radford, M. J., Wang, Y., Lang, C. M., Harder, J. C., Brindis, R. G. 2007; 4 (9): 1260-1263

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hrthm.2007.07.021

    View details for Web of Science ID 000249448800037

    View details for PubMedID 17765637

  • Stress echocardiography safely classified more patients as low risk of serious CAD than exercise electrocardiography. Evidence-based medicine Heidenreich, P. A. 2007; 12 (4): 119-?

    View details for PubMedID 17885167

  • ACCF/ASE/ACEP/ASNC/SCAI/SCCT/SCMR 2007 appropriateness criteria for transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Quality Strategic Directions Committee Appropriateness Criteria Working Group, American Society of Echocardiography, American College of Emergency Physicians, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, and the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance endorsed by the American College of Chest Physicians and the Society of Critical Care Medicine. Journal of the American College of Cardiology Douglas, P. S., Khandheria, B., Stainback, R. F., Weissman, N. J., Brindis, R. G., Patel, M. R., Khandheria, B., Alpert, J. S., FitzGerald, D., Heidenreich, P., Martin, E. T., Messer, J. V., Miller, A. B., Picard, M. H., Raggi, P., Reed, K. D., Rumsfeld, J. S., Steimle, A. E., Tonkovic, R., Vijayaraghavan, K., Weissman, N. J., Yeon, S. B., Brindis, R. G., Douglas, P. S., Hendel, R. C., Patel, M. R., Peterson, E., Wolk, M. J., Allen, J. M. 2007; 50 (2): 187-204

    View details for PubMedID 17616306

  • Stress echocardiography safely classified more patients as low risk for serious CAD than exercise electrocardiography. ACP journal club Heidenreich, P. A. 2007; 147 (1): 10-?

    View details for PubMedID 17608375

  • ACCF/ASE/ACEP/ASNC/SCAI/SCCT/SCMR 2007 appropriateness criteria for transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY Douglas, P. S., Khandheria, B., Stainback, R. F., Weissman, N. J., Brindis, R. G., Patel, M. R., Khandheria, B., Alpert, J. S., FitzGerald, D., Heidenreich, P., Martin, E. T., Messer, J. V., Miller, A. B., Picard, M. H., Raggi, P., Reed, K. D., Rumsfeld, J. S., Steimle, A. E., Torkovic, R., Vijayaraghavan, K., Weissman, N. J., Yeon, S. B., Brindis, R. G., Douglas, P. S., Hendel, R. C., Patel, M. R., Peterson, E., Wolk, M. J., Allen, J. M. 2007; 20 (7): 787-805
  • ACCF/ASE/ACEP/ASNC/SCAI/SCCT/SCMR 2007 appropriateness criteria for transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Quality Strategic Directions Committee Appropriateness Criteria Working Group, American Society of Echocardiography, American College of Emergency Physicians, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, and the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance. Endorsed by the American College of Chest Physicians and the Society of Critical Care Medicine. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography Douglas, P. S., Khandheria, B., Stainback, R. F., Weissman, N. J., Brindis, R. G., Patel, M. R., Alpert, J. S., FitzGerald, D., Heidenreich, P., Martin, E. T., Messer, J. V., Miller, A. B., Picard, M. H., Raggi, P., Reed, K. D., Rumsfeld, J. S., Steimle, A. E., Tonkovic, R., Vijayaraghavan, K., Yeon, S. B., Hendel, R. C., Peterson, E., Wolk, M. J., Allen, J. M. 2007; 20 (7): 787-805

    View details for PubMedID 17617305

  • Cost effectiveness of whole breast IMRT for reduction of moist desquamation Strauss, J. B., Chen, S. S., Dickler, A. T., Griem, K. L. AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY. 2007
  • Temporal trends in clinical characteristics, treatments, and outcomes for heart failure hospitalizations, 2002 to 2004: findings from Acute Decompensated Heart Failure National Registry (ADHERE) AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Fonarow, G. C., Heywood, J. T., Heidenreich, P. A., Lopatin, M., Yancy, C. W. 2007; 153 (6): 1021-1028

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to assess temporal trends in clinical characteristics, treatments, quality indicators, and outcomes for heart failure (HF) hospitalizations.Characteristics, treatments, quality measures, and inhospital outcomes were measured over 12 consecutive quarters (January 2002 to December 2004) using data from 159,168 enrollments from 285 ADHERE hospitals.Baseline characteristics were similar or showed only modest changes, and severity of illness by logistic regression was unchanged over all 12 quarters. Inhospital treatment changed significantly over time with inotrope use decreasing from 14.7% to 7.9% (P < .0001). Discharge instructions increased 133%; smoking counseling, 132%; left ventricular function measurement, 8%; and beta-blocker use, 29% (all P < .0001). Clinical outcomes improved over time, including need for mechanical ventilation, which decreased 5.3% to 3.4% (relative risk 0.64, P < .0001); length of stay (mean), 6.3 to 5.5 days; and mortality, 4.5% to 3.2% (relative risk 0.71, P < .0001).Over a 3-year period, demographics and clinical characteristics were relatively similar, but significant changes in intravenous therapy, enhancements in conformity to quality-of-care measures, increased administration of evidence-based HF medications, and substantial improvements in inhospital morbidity and mortality were observed during hospitalization for HF.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2007.03.012

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247540600019

    View details for PubMedID 17540205

  • Heart failure disease management programs: A cost-effectiveness analysis Chan, D. C., Heidenreich, P. A., Weinstein, M. C., Fonarow, G. C. SPRINGER. 2007: 39
  • ACC/AHA 2007 Methodology for the Development of Clinical Data Standards - A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Data Standards JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Radford, M. J., Heidenreich, P. A., Bailey, S. R., Goff, D. C., Grover, F. L., Havranek, E. P., Kuntz, R. E., Malenka, D. J., Peterson, E. D., Redberg, R. F., Roger, V. L. 2007; 49 (7): 830-837

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2007.01.002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000244319900017

    View details for PubMedID 17306718

  • ACC/AHA 2007 methodology for the development of clinical data standards - A report of the American College of Cardiology American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Data Standards CIRCULATION Radford, M. J., Heidenreich, P. A., Bailey, S. R., Goff, D. C., Grover, F. L., Havranek, E. P., Kuntz, R. E., Malenka, D. J., Peterson, E. D., Redberg, R. F., Roger, V. L. 2007; 115 (7): 936-943
  • ACC/AHA/HRS 2006 Key Data Elements and Definitions for Electrophysiological Studies and Procedures A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Data Standards (ACC/AHA/HRS Writing Committee to Develop Data Standards on Electrophysiology) CIRCULATION Buxton, A. E., Calkins, H., Callans, D. J., DiMarco, J. P., Fisher, J. D., Greene, H. L., Haines, D. E., Hayes, D. L., Heidenreich, P. A., Miller, J. M., Poppas, A., Prystowsky, E. N., Schoenfeld, M. H., Zimetbaum, P. J., Heidenreich, P. A., Goff, D. C., Grover, F. L., Malenka, D. J., Peterson, E. D., Radford, M. J., Redberg, R. F. 2006; 114 (23): 2534-2570
  • ACC/AHA/HRS 2006 key data elements and definitions for electrophysiological studies and procedures - A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Data Standards (ACC/AHA/HRS Writing Committee to Develop Data Standards on Electrophysiology) JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Buxton, A. E., Calkins, H., Callans, D. J., DiMarco, J. P., Fisher, J. D., Greene, H. L., Haines, D. E., Hayes, D. L., Heidenreich, P. A., Miller, J. M., Poppas, A., Prystowsky, E. N., Schoenfeld, M. H., Zimetbaum, P. J., Goff, D. C., Grover, F. L., Malenka, D. J., Peterson, E. D., Radford, M. J., Redberg, R. F. 2006; 48 (11): 2360-2396

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2006.09.020

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242520900043

    View details for PubMedID 17161282

  • The diffusion of medical technology, local conditions, and technology re-invention: A comparative case study on coronary stenting HEALTH POLICY Hashimoto, H., Noguchi, H., Heidenreich, P., Saynina, O., Moreland, A., Miyazaki, S., Ikeda, S., Kaneko, Y., Ikegami, N. 2006; 79 (2-3): 221-230

    Abstract

    Innovation of medical technology is a major driving force behind the increase in medical expenditures in developed countries. Previous studies identified that the diffusion of medical technology varied across countries according to the characteristics of regulatory policy and payment systems. Based on Roger's diffusion of innovation theory, this study purported to see how local practice norms, the evolving nature of diffusing technology, and local clinical needs in addition to differences in politico-economic systems would affect the process of innovation diffusion. Taking a case of coronary stenting, an innovative therapeutic technology in early 1990s, we provided a case study of hospital-based data between two teaching high-tech hospitals in Japan and the US for discussion. Stenting began to be widely used in both countries when complementary new technology modified its clinical efficacy, but the diffusion process still differed between the two hospitals due to (1) distinctive payment systems for hospitals and physicians, (2) practice norms in favor of percutaneous intervention rather than bypass surgery that was shaped by payment incentives and cultural attitudes, and (3) local patient's clinical characteristics that the technology had to be tailored for. The case study described the diffusion of stent technology as a dynamic process between patients, physicians, hospitals, health care systems, and technology under global and local conditions.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.healthpol.2006.01.005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241834100010

    View details for PubMedID 16473435

  • Costs and quality-of-life effects of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY Groeneveld, P. W., Matta, M. A., Suh, J. J., Heidenreich, P. A., Shea, J. A. 2006; 98 (10): 1409-1415

    Abstract

    Although the clinical efficacy of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) has been convincingly demonstrated in clinical trials, the impact of ICDs on health care costs and recipients' quality of life (QOL) is less certain. The existing medical research on the health care costs and QOL effects of ICDs was reviewed and summarized. Medline and the Institute for Scientific Information's Web of Knowledge were searched for publications reporting costs of care and QOL assessments of ICD recipients. Unpublished and non-peer-reviewed "gray" publications were excluded. Reports were included if they reported primary, original patient data that were collected after 1993, when nonthoracotomy defibrillators entered clinical practice. Two reviewers independently evaluated publications for relevance and quality, abstracted study data, and summarized the findings. Excessive heterogeneity among studies prevented formal meta-analysis, so a narrative synthesis was performed, and key themes were identified from the published research. There were limited published data on the costs of ICD care, especially for the primary prevention of sudden cardiac death. The published research on ICD QOL lacked large, multicenter, longitudinal studies. Many ICD QOL studies were performed in small numbers of patients at single centers. Initial ICD implantation costs ranged (in 2006 United States dollars) from $28,500 to $55,200, with annual follow-up costs ranging from $4,800 to $17,000. QOL was higher for ICD recipients than for patients treated with antiarrhythmic drugs, but there was a substantial prevalence of anxiety, depression, and "loss of control" in ICD recipients, particularly in those who had received ICD shocks. In conclusion, ICD implantation remains costly but may be becoming less expensive over time, and ICD recipients' QOL is significantly affected by their devices.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2006.06.041

    View details for Web of Science ID 000244052400024

    View details for PubMedID 17134641

  • Are registry hospitals different? A comparison of patients admitted to hospitals of a commercial heart failure registry with those from national and community cohorts AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Heidenreich, P. A., Fonarow, G. C. 2006; 152 (5): 935-939

    Abstract

    Clinical registries have been created to address questions that are difficult to answer with clinical trials. However, the applicability of registry findings to the general population has been questioned because of concerns over potential bias in the selection of participating hospitals. The purpose of this study was to determine if patients admitted to hospitals participating in a heart failure registry (ADHERE) are comparable with patients admitted to other hospitals, including those admitted to Framingham area hospitals.We used a 20% random sample of all Medicare patients discharged during 1984 to 2001 to determine rates of hospitalization, procedure use, and survival after a first admission for heart failure (none in the prior 3 years). Hospitals were classified as participating in the ADHERE registry (n = 189), located within or near Framingham, MA (n = 9), or other (n = 5541).A total of 725,702 first admissions were identified, including 80,338 to ADHERE hospitals and 1716 to Framingham area hospitals. Minimal differences in patient characteristics were noted between patients admitted to ADHERE and non-ADHERE hospitals, although patients admitted to Framingham area hospitals were more likely to be white (95%) than were patients admitted to ADHERE (84%) or other hospitals (87%, P < .0001). Mortality at 1 year was 35.8% for ADHERE, 36.2% for other hospitalized patients, and 32.9% for Framingham patients (P < .0001). Rehospitalization for heart failure at 90 days was 13.0% for following admission to ADHERE, 13.0% to other hospitals, and 16.4% to Framingham hospitals (P = .0004). After adjustment for patient characteristics, differences in outcome between ADHERE and non-ADHERE hospitals remained minimal.Patients admitted with heart failure to ADHERE registry hospitals had similar baseline characteristics and outcomes to other patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2006.06.037

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241745800028

    View details for PubMedID 17070163

  • Clinical significance of HDL-c levels among patients with LDL-c less than 60 mg/dl deGoma, E., Leeper, N. J., Heidenreich, P. A. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2006: 899
  • Statin use in patients with extremely low LDL levels is associated with improved survival Leeper, N. J., Ardehali, R., DeGoma, E. M., Heidenreich, P. A. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2006: 827?28
  • Association of functional and health status measures in heart failure JOURNAL OF CARDIAC FAILURE Myers, J., Zaheer, N., Quaglietti, S., Madhavan, R., Froelicher, V., Heidenreich, P. 2006; 12 (6): 439-445

    Abstract

    A wide variety of instruments have been used to assess the functional capabilities and health status of patients with chronic heart failure (HF), but it is not known how well these tests are correlated with one another, nor which one has the best association with measured exercise capacity.Forty-one patients with HF were assessed with commonly used functional, health status, and quality of life measures, including maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing, the Duke Activity Status Index (DASI), the Veterans Specific Activity Questionnaire (VSAQ), the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ), and 6-minute walk distance. Pretest clinical variables, including age, resting pulmonary function tests (forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity), and ejection fraction (EF) were also considered. The association between performance on these functional tools, clinical variables, and exercise test responses including peak VO2 and the VO2 at the ventilatory threshold, was determined. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2) was significantly related to VO2 at the ventilatory threshold (r = 0.76, P < .001) and estimated METs from treadmill speed and grade (r = 0.72, P < .001), but had only a modest association with 6-minute walk performance (r = 0.49, P < .01). The functional questionnaires had modest associations with peak VO2 (r = 0.37, P < .05 and r = 0.26, NS for the VSAQ and DASI, respectively). Of the components of the KCCQ, peak VO2 was significantly related only to quality of life score (r = 0.46, P < .05). Six-minute walk performance was significantly related to KCCQ physical limitation (r = 0.53, P < .01) and clinical summary (r = 0.44, P < .05) scores. Among pretest variables, only age and EF were significantly related to peak VO2 (r = -0.58, and 0.46, respectively, P < .01). Multivariately, age and KCCQ quality of life score were the only significant predictors of peak VO2, accounting for 72% of the variance in peak VO2.Commonly used functional measures, symptom tools, and quality of life assessments for patients with HF are poorly correlated with one another and are only modestly associated with exercise test responses. These findings suggest that exercise test responses, non-exercise test estimates of physical function, and quality of life indices reflect different facets of health status in HF and one should not be considered a surrogate for another.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cardfail.2006.04.004

    View details for PubMedID 16911910

  • National trends in outcomes among elderly patients with heart failure AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Kosiborod, M., Lichtman, J. H., Heidenreich, P. A., Normand, S. T., Wang, Y., Brass, L. M., Krumholz, H. M. 2006; 119 (7)

    Abstract

    Despite dramatic changes in heart failure management during the 1990s, little is known about the national heart failure mortality trends during this time period, particularly among the elderly. The purpose of this study was to determine temporal trends in outcomes of elderly patients with heart failure between 1992 and 1999.We analyzed a national sample of 3,957,520 Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years or more who were hospitalized with heart failure between 1992 and 1999, assessing temporal trends in 30-day and 1-year all-cause mortality and 30-day and 6-month all-cause hospital readmission. In risk-adjusted analyses, mortality and readmission for each year between 1994 and 1999 were compared with the referent year of 1993.Crude 30-day and 1-year mortality decreased slightly (range for 1992-1999: 11.0%-10.3% and 32.5%-31.7%, respectively), whereas 30-day and 6-month readmission increased (10.2%-13.8% and 35.4%-40.3%, respectively). After risk adjustment, there was no change in 30-day mortality between 1993 and 1999 (eg, for 1999 vs 1993, odds ratio [OR] 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-1.02). One-year mortality was lower in 1994 compared with 1993 (OR 0.91, 95% CI, 0.90-0.92), but data from subsequent years suggested no continuous improvement after 1994 (1999 vs 1993: OR 0.93, 95% CI, 0.92-0.94). Thirty-day readmission increased (1999 vs 1993: OR 1.09, 95% CI, 1.07-1.10), but there was no change in 6-month readmission (1999 vs 1993: OR 1.00, 95% CI, 0.99-1.01).We found no substantial improvement in mortality and hospital readmission during the 1990s among elderly patients hospitalized with heart failure. These findings suggest that recent innovations in heart failure management have not yet translated into better outcomes in this population.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjmed.2005.11.019

    View details for Web of Science ID 000238835500014

    View details for PubMedID 16828634

  • Patient-reported economic burden and the health status of heart failure patients JOURNAL OF CARDIAC FAILURE Conard, M. W., Heidenreich, P., Rumsfeld, J. S., Weintraub, W. S., Spertus, J. 2006; 12 (5): 369-374

    Abstract

    Heart failure (HF) guidelines recommend treatment with multiple medications to improve survival, functioning, and quality of life. Yet, HF treatments can be costly, resulting in significant economic burden for some patients. To date, there are few data on the impact of patients' perceived difficulties in affording medical care on their health outcomes.Comprehensive clinical data, health status, and the perceived economic burden of 539 HF outpatients from 13 centers were assessed at baseline and 1 year later. Health status was quantified with the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire overall summary score. Cross-sectional and longitudinal (1-year) analyses were conducted comparing the health status of patients with and without self-reported economic burden. Patients with economic burden had significantly lower health status scores at both baseline and 1 year later. Although baseline perceptions of economic burden were associated with poorer health status, patients' perceived difficulty affording medical care at 1 year was a more important determinant of lower 1-year health status.HF patients reporting difficulty affording their medical care had lower perceived health status than those reporting little to no economic burden. More research is needed to further evaluate this association and to determine whether addressing perceived economic difficulties affording health care can improve HF patients' health status.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cardfail.2006.03.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000238518600009

    View details for PubMedID 16762800

  • The value of BNP testing ARCHIVES OF INTERNAL MEDICINE Hlatky, M., Heidenreich, P. 2006; 166 (10): 1063-1064

    View details for Web of Science ID 000237720500001

    View details for PubMedID 16717166

  • A dilated inferior vena cava is a marker of poor survival AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Nath, J., Vacek, J. L., Heidenreich, P. A. 2006; 151 (3): 730-735

    Abstract

    The inferior vena cava (IVC) morphology is often used to estimate right atrial pressure; however, the association of IVC morphology and outcome is poorly described.We evaluated 4383 consecutive outpatients (98% men) undergoing echocardiography at 1 of 3 Veterans Affairs laboratories.Of the 3729 with adequate images, 3295 (88%) had a normal IVC (< 2 cm), 358 (10%) had a dilated IVC that collapsed at least 50% with inspiration, and 76 (2%) had dilated IVC that did not collapse. Compared with patients with a normal IVC, those with a dilated IVC were older (66 +/- 13 vs 69 +/- 12 years if dilated with collapse and 70 +/- 12 years if dilated without collapse, P = .0005) and were more likely to have a history of heart failure (11% vs 18% if dilated with collapse and 38% if dilated without collapse, P < .0001). The 90-day and 1-year survival rates were 99% and 95% for those with a normal IVC, 98% and 91% for those with a dilated IVC with collapse, and 89% and 67% for those with a dilated IVC without collapse (P < .0001). After adjustment for clinical and echocardiographic characteristics including left and right ventricular function and pulmonary artery pressure, a dilated IVC without collapse remained associated with increased mortality: hazard ratio 1.43 (1.29-1.57 compared with a normal IVC, P < .0001).A dilated IVC without collapse with inspiration is associated with worse survival in men independent of a history of heart failure, other comorbidities, ventricular function, and pulmonary artery pressure.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2005.04.023

    View details for Web of Science ID 000236353900029

    View details for PubMedID 16504642

  • AHA/ACCF scientific statement on the evaluation of syncope: from the American Heart Association Councils on Clinical Cardiology, Cardiovascular Nursing, Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, and Stroke, and the Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Working Group; and the American College of Cardiology Foundation In Collaboration With the Heart Rhythm Society. Journal of the American College of Cardiology Strickberger, S. A., Benson, D. W., Biaggioni, I., Callans, D. J., Cohen, M. I., Ellenbogen, K. A., Epstein, A. E., Friedman, P., Goldberger, J., Heidenreich, P. A., Klein, G. J., Knight, B. P., Morillo, C. A., Myerburg, R. J., Sila, C. A. 2006; 47 (2): 473-484

    View details for PubMedID 16412888

  • AHA/ACCF scientific statement on the evaluation of syncope - From the American Heart Association Councils on Clinical Cardiology, Cardiovascular Nursing, Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, and Stroke, and the Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Working Group; and the American College of Cardiology Foundation in collaboration with the Heart Rhythm Society - Endorsed by the American Autonomic Society JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Strickberger, S. A., Benson, W., Biaggioni, I., Callans, D. J., Cohen, M. I., Ellenbogen, K. A., Epstein, A. E., Friedman, P., Goldberger, J., Heidenreich, P. A., Klein, G. J., Knight, B. P., Morillo, C. A., Myerburg, R. J., Sila, C. A. 2006; 47 (2): 473-484
  • AHA/ACCF scientific statement on the evaluation of syncope - From the American Heart Association Councils on clinical cardiology, cardiovascular nursing, cardiovascular disease in the young, and stroke, and the quality of care and outcomes research interdisciplinary working group; and the American College of Cardiology Foundation in collaboration with the Heart Rhythm Society - Endorsed by the American Autonomic Society CIRCULATION Strickberger, S. A., Benson, W., Biaggioni, I., Callans, D. J., Cohen, M. I., Ellenbogen, K. A., Epstein, A. E., Friedman, P., Goldberger, J., Heidenreich, P. A., Klein, G. J., Knight, B. P., Morillo, C. A., Myerburg, R. J., Sila, C. A. 2006; 113 (2): 316-327
  • Peripheral edema due to heart disease: Diagnosis and outcome CLINICAL CARDIOLOGY Shah, M. G., Cho, S., Atwood, J. E., Heidenreich, P. A. 2006; 29 (1): 31-35

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether baseline physical examination and history are useful in identifying patients with cardiac edema as defined by echocardiography, and to compare survival for patients with cardiac and noncardiac causes of edema.Physical examination and history data can help to identify patients with edema who have significant cardiac disease.We reviewed the medical records of 278 consecutive patients undergoing echocardiography for evaluation of peripheral edema. We classified cardiac edema as the presence of any of the following: left ventricular ejection fraction < 45%, systolic pulmonary artery pressure > 45 mmHg, reduced right ventricular function, enlarged right ventricle, and a dilated inferior vena cava.The mean age of the 243 included patients was 67 +/- 12 years and 92% were male. A cardiac cause of edema was found in 56 (23%). Independent predictors of a cardiac cause of edema included chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, odds ratio [OR] 1.74, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-2.60) and crackles (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.26-3.10). The specificity for a cardiac cause of edema was high (91% for COPD, 93% for crackles); however, the sensitivity was quite low (27% for COPD, for 24% crackles). Compared with patients without a cardiac cause of edema, those with a cardiac cause had increased mortality (25 vs. 8% at 2 years, p < 0.01), even after adjustment for other characteristics (hazard ratio 1.55, 95% CI 1.08-2.24).A cardiac cause of edema is difficult to predict based on history and examination and is associated with high mortality.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000234454100008

    View details for PubMedID 16477775

  • Will beta-blockers save money? JOURNAL OF CARDIAC FAILURE Heidenreich, P. A. 2005; 11 (9): 657-658
  • Diastolic dysfunction after mediastinal irradiation AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Heidenreich, P. A., Hancock, S. L., Vagelos, R. H., Lee, B. K., Schnittger, I. 2005; 150 (5): 977-982

    Abstract

    Mediastinal irradiation is known to cause cardiac disease, but its effect on left ventricular diastolic function is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of diastolic dysfunction and its association with prognosis in asymptomatic patients after mediastinal irradiation.We recruited 294 patients who had received at least 35 Gy to the mediastinum for treatment of Hodgkin disease. Each patient underwent resting echocardiography, stress echocardiography, and nuclear scintigraphy. Survival free from cardiac events was determined during 3.2 years of follow-up.The mean age of the included patients was 42 years, and 49% were male. Adequate measurements of diastolic function were obtained in 282 (97%) patients. Diastolic dysfunction was considered mild in 26 (9%) and moderate in 14 (5%). Exercise-induced ischemia was more common in patients with diastolic dysfunction (23%) than those with normal diastolic function (11%, P = .008). After adjustment for patient demographics, clinical characteristics, and radiation history, patients with diastolic dysfunction had worse event-free survival than patients with normal function (hazard ratio 1.66, 95% CI 1.06-2.4).There is a high prevalence of diastolic dysfunction in asymptomatic patients after mediastinal irradiation, and the presence of diastolic dysfunction is associated with stress-induced ischemia and a worse prognosis. Screening with Doppler echocardiography may be helpful in identifying patients at risk for subsequent cardiac events.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2004.12.026

    View details for Web of Science ID 000233478800024

    View details for PubMedID 16290974

  • Monitoring clinical changes in patients with heart failure: A comparison of methods AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Spertus, J., Peterson, E., Conard, M. W., Heidenreich, P. A., Krumholz, H. M., Jones, P., McCullough, P. A., Pina, I., Tooley, J., Weintraub, W. S., Rumsfeld, J. S. 2005; 150 (4): 707-715

    Abstract

    Although monitoring the clinical status of patients with heart failure rests at the core of clinical medicine, the ability of different techniques to reflect clinical change has not been evaluated. This study sought to describe changes in various measures of disease status associated with gradations of clinical change.A prospective, 14-center cohort of 476 outpatients was assessed at baseline and 6 +/- 2 weeks to compare changes in 7 heart failure measures with clinically observed change. Measures included health status instruments (the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire [KCCQ], Short Form-12, and EQ-5D), physician-assessed functional class (New York Heart Association [NYHA]), an exercise test (6-minute walk), patient weight, and a biomarker (B-type natriuretic peptide). Cardiologists, blinded to all measures except weight and NYHA, categorized clinical change ranging from large deterioration to large improvement.The KCCQ, NYHA, and 6-minute walk test were most sensitive to clinical change. For patients with large, moderate, and small deteriorations, the KCCQ decreased by 25 +/- 16, 17 +/- 14, and 5.3 +/- 11 points, respectively. For patients with small, moderate, and large improvements, the KCCQ increased by 5.7 +/- 16, 10.5 +/- 16, and 22.3 +/- 16 points, respectively (P < .01 for all compared with the no change group). New York Heart Association and 6-minute walk distance were significantly different for those with moderate and large changes (P < .05) but neither revealed a difference between those with small versus no clinical deterioration. The KCCQ had the highest c statistic for monitoring individual patients, followed by NYHA and 6-minute walk.The KCCQ, followed by the NYHA and the 6-minute walk test, most accurately reflected clinical change in patients with heart failure.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2004.12.010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000232953300016

    View details for PubMedID 16209970

  • ACC/AHA key data elements and definitions for measuring the clinical management and outcomes of patients with chronic heart failure: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Data Standards (Writing Committee to Develop Heart Failure Clinical Data Standards): developed in collaboration with the American College of Chest Physicians and the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation: endorsed by the Heart Failure Society of America. Circulation Radford, M. J., Arnold, J. M., Bennett, S. J., Cinquegrani, M. P., Cleland, J. G., Havranek, E. P., Heidenreich, P. A., Rutherford, J. D., Spertus, J. A., Stevenson, L. W., Goff, D. C., Grover, F. L., Malenka, D. J., Peterson, E. D., Redberg, R. F. 2005; 112 (12): 1888-1916

    View details for PubMedID 16162914

  • ACC/AHA key data elements and definitions for measuring the clinical management and outcomes of patients with chronic heart failure CIRCULATION Radford, M. J., Arnold, J. M., Bennett, S. J., Cinquegrani, M. P., Cleland, J. G., Havranek, E. P., Heidenreich, P. A., Rutherford, J. D., Spertus, J. A., Stevenson, L. W. 2005; 112 (12): 1888-1916
  • The relationship between B-type natriuretic peptide and health status in patients with heart failure JOURNAL OF CARDIAC FAILURE Luther, S. A., McCullough, P. A., Havranek, E. P., Rumsfeld, J. S., Jones, P. G., Heidenreich, P. A., Peterson, E. D., Rathore, S. S., Krumholz, H. M., Weintraub, W. S., Spertus, J. A., Masoudi, F. A. 2005; 11 (6): 414-421

    Abstract

    Although B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels have been proposed as a means of assessing disease severity in patients with heart failure, it is not known if BNP levels are correlated with health status (symptom burden, functional limitation, and quality of life).We studied 342 outpatients with systolic heart failure from 14 centers at baseline and 6 +/- 2 weeks with BNP levels and the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ), a heart-failure-specific health status instrument. We assessed the correlation between KCCQ scores and BNP at baseline and changes in KCCQ according to changes in BNP levels between baseline and follow-up. Mean baseline BNP levels were 379 +/- 387 pg/mL and mean KCCQ summary scores were 62 +/- 23 points. Although baseline BNP and KCCQ were both associated with New York Heart Association classification (P < .001 for both), BNP and KCCQ were not correlated (r(2) = 0.008, P = .15). There was no significant relationship between changes in BNP and KCCQ regardless of the threshold used to define a clinically meaningful BNP change. For example, using >50% BNP change threshold, KCCQ improved by 3.7 +/- 14.2 in patients with decreasing BNP, improved by 1.7 +/- 13.6 in patients with no BNP change, and improved by 1.0 +/- 13.4 in patients with increasing BNP (P = .6).BNP and health status are not correlated in outpatients with heart failure in the short term. This suggests that these measures may assess different aspects of heart failure severity, and that physiologic measures do not reflect patients' perceptions of the impact of heart failure on their health status.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cardfail.2005.02.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000231643400002

    View details for PubMedID 16105631

  • Correlation between right ventricular indices and clinical improvement in epoprostenol treated pulmonary hypertension patients ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY-A JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR ULTRASOUND AND ALLIED TECHNIQUES Nath, J., DeMarco, T., Hourigan, L., Heidenreich, P. A., Foster, E. 2005; 22 (5): 374-379

    Abstract

    The aim of this study was to evaluate which parameter of right ventricular (RV) echocardiographic best mirrors the clinical status of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension on epoprostenol therapy were identified via hospital registry. Twenty patients, (16 females, 4 males) were included in the study, 9 with primary pulmonary hypertension and 11 with other diseases. Echocardiograms before therapy and at 22.7 (+/-9.3) months into therapy were compared. The right ventricular myocardial performance index (RVMPI) was measured as the sum of the isometric contraction time and the isometric relaxation time divided by right ventricular ejection time. Other measures included peak tricuspid regurgitation jet velocity (TRV), pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP), pulmonary valve velocity time integral (PVVTI), PASP/PVVTI (as an index of total pulmonary resistance) and symptoms by New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class. Echo parameters of right ventricular function were analyzed in patients, before and during therapy. There was significant improvement of NYHA class in patients following epoprostenol therapy (P < 0.0001). Peak tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity (pre 4.2 +/- 0.6 m/sec, post 3.8 +/- 0.7 m/sec, P = 0.02) and PASP/PVVTI (pre 6.7 +/- 3.3 mmHg/m per second, post 4.8 +/- 2.2 mmHg/m per second, P < 0.0001) were significantly improved during treatment. RVMPI did not improve (pre 0.6 +/- 0.3, post 0.6 +/- 0.3, P = 0.54). Changes in NYHA class did not correlate with changes in RVMPI (P = 0.33) or changes in PASP/PVVTI (P = 0.58). Despite significant improvements in TRV, PASP/PVVTI, and NYHA class, there was no significant change in RVMPI on epoprostenol therapy. Changes in right ventricular indices were not correlated with changes in NYHA class.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000229202200002

    View details for PubMedID 15901287

  • A systolic murmur is a common presentation of aortic regurgitation detected by echocardiography - P. A. Heidenreich, I. Schnittger, S. L. Hancock, J. E. Atwood: Clin cardiol 2004;27 : 502-506 - Reply CLINICAL CARDIOLOGY Heidenreich, P. A., Schnittger, I., Hancock, S. L., Atwood, J. E. 2005; 28 (3): A30-A30
  • Trends in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator racial disparity - The importance of geography JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Groeneveld, P. W., Heidenreich, P. A., Garber, A. M. 2005; 45 (1): 72-78

    Abstract

    The study was designed to determine whether racial disparity in utilization of the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) has improved over time, and whether small-area geographic variation in ICD utilization contributed to national levels of racial disparity.Although racial disparities in cardiac procedures have been well-documented, it is unknown whether there has been improvement over time. Low ICD utilization rates in predominantly black geographic areas may have exacerbated national levels of disparity.Discharge abstracts from elderly black and white Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized with ventricular arrhythmias from 1990 to 2000 were analyzed to determine if ICD implantation occurred within 90 days of initial hospitalization. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to assess the relationship between ICD implantation, year of admission, and the percentage of black inhabitants in each patient's county of hospitalization while controlling for clinical, hospital, and demographic characteristics.There was improvement in ICD implantation racial disparity: In the period 1990 to 1992, black patients had an odds ratio of 0.52 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.42 to 0.64) for receiving an ICD compared with whites. However, by 1999 to 2000, the odds ratio for blacks had risen to 0.69 (95% CI 0.61 to 0.78) (test-for-trend p=0.01). Approximately 20% of this trend could be explained by reduction in geographic variation in ICD use between areas with larger black and predominantly white populations.Rates of ICD implants became more equal among whites and blacks during the 1990s, although persistent disparity remained at the decade's end. Geographic equalization in cardiovascular procedure rates may be an essential mechanism in rectifying disparities in health care.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2004.07.061

    View details for Web of Science ID 000226012600014

    View details for PubMedID 15629377

  • Measuring the quality of the VA Health Care System. Health services research Heidenreich, P. A. 2004; 39 (6): 1793-1798

    View details for PubMedID 15533187

  • Cilostazol, clopidogrel or ticlopidine to prevent sub-acute stent thrombosis: A meta-analysis of randomized trials AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Schleinitz, M. D., Olkin, I., Heidenreich, P. A. 2004; 148 (6): 990-997

    Abstract

    Sub-acute thrombosis is a serious complication of coronary artery stenting. Clopidogrel plus aspirin is the accepted prophylactic regimen, but has yet to be proven superior to ticlopidine plus aspirin, and a new regimen combining cilostazol and aspirin has been introduced.We conducted a meta-analysis of all trials that compared >or=2 oral anti-thrombotic strategies in patients undergoing coronary stent placement to determine which treatment optimally prevents adverse cardiac events in the 30 days following stent insertion. We used meta-regression to compare all strategies to a shared control strategy: ticlopidine plus aspirin. We also compared randomized trials to historically controlled and other non-randomized trials. We conducted sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis to assess for possible heterogeneity.In comparison to ticlopidine plus aspirin the odds-ratios for cardiac events, with 95% confidence intervals were: aspirin alone, 4.29 (3.09-5.97), coumadin plus aspirin, 2.65 (2.18-3.21), clopidogrel plus aspirin, 1.06 (0.86-1.31), cilostazol plus aspirin, 0.73 (0.47-1.14). Among trials that compared clopidogrel plus aspirin to ticlopidine plus aspirin, historically controlled trials were statistically distinct from randomized trials. The analysis of cilostazol was sensitive to the small size of the included studies.Neither clopidogrel plus aspirin nor cilostazol plus aspirin can be statistically distinguished from ticlopidine plus aspirin for the prevention of adverse cardiac events in the 30 days after stenting. A randomized trial including cilostazol is warranted.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2004.03.066

    View details for Web of Science ID 000225970400012

    View details for PubMedID 15632883

  • Age, functional capacity, and health-related quality of life in patients with heart failure JOURNAL OF CARDIAC FAILURE Masoudi, F. A., Rumsfeld, J. S., Havranek, E. P., House, J. A., Peterson, E. D., Krumholz, H. M., Spertus, J. A., Spertus, J., Tsuyuki, R. T., Clark, C. B., Hott, B., Havranek, E. P., Masoudi, F. A., Rumsfeld, J. S., Kale, P., Williams, R. E., Heidenreich, P. A., Peterson, E. D., McCullough, P., Krumholz, H., Dunlap, M., Goff, D. 2004; 10 (5): 368-373

    Abstract

    Although heart failure disproportionately affects older persons and is associated with significant physical disability, existing data on physical limitations and health-related quality of life (HRQL) derive largely from studies of younger subjects. We compared the relationship between functional limitation and HRQL between older and younger patients with heart failure.We evaluated 546 outpatients with heart failure enrolled in a multicenter prospective cohort study. At baseline and 6 +/- 2 weeks later, functional status was assessed by New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification and 6-minute walk testing. HRQL was measured with the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ). Comparing older (age >65 years, n = 218) and younger patients (n = 328), we assessed baseline HRQL across strata of functional status. In the 484 patients who completed follow-up (194 older and 290 younger patients), we also assessed the changes in HRQL associated with changes in functional status over time. At baseline, older patients had better HRQL than younger patients (mean KCCQ score 60 +/- 25 versus 54 +/- 28, P = .005) in spite of worse NYHA class (mean 2.54 versus 2.35, P < .001) and lower 6-minute walk distances (824 +/- 378 versus 1064 +/- 371 feet, P < .001). After multivariable adjustment including baseline NYHA class, older age was independently correlated with better HRQL (beta = +7.9 points, P < .001). At follow-up, older patients with a deterioration in NYHA class experienced marked declines in HRQL compared with younger patients (mean HRQL change of -14.4 points versus +0.3 points, respectively, P < .001). Analyses using 6-minute walk distance as the functional measure yielded similar results.Although older patients with heart failure have relatively good HRQL in spite of significant functional limitations, they are at risk for worsening HRQL with further decline in functional status. These results underscore the importance of treatments aimed at maintaining functional status in older persons with heart failure, including those with significant baseline functional limitations.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cardfail.2004.01.009

    View details for Web of Science ID 000224591200003

    View details for PubMedID 15470645

  • A systolic murmur is a common presentation of aortic regurgitation detected by echocardiography CLINICAL CARDIOLOGY Heidenreich, P. A., Schnittger, I., Hancock, S. L., Atwood, J. E. 2004; 27 (9): 502-506

    Abstract

    The finding of aortic regurgitation at a classical examination is a diastolic murmur.Aortic regurgitation is more likely to be associated with a systolic than with a diastolic murmur during routine screening by a noncardiologist physician.In all, 243 asymptomatic patients (mean age 42 +/- 10 years) with no known cardiac disease but at risk for aortic valve disease due to prior mediastinal irradiation (> or = 35 Gy) underwent auscultation by a noncardiologist followed by echocardiography. A systolic murmur was considered benign if it was grade < or = II/VI, not holosystolic, was not heard at the apex, did not radiate to the carotids, and was not associated with a diastolic murmur.Of the patients included, 122 (49%) were male, and 86 (35%) had aortic regurgitation, which was trace in 20 (8%), mild in 52 (21%), and moderate in 14 (6%). A systolic murmur was common in patients with aortic regurgitation, occurring in 12 (86%) with moderate, 26 (50%) with mild, 6 (30%) with trace, and 27 (17%) with no aortic regurgitation (p < 0.0001). The systolic murmurs were classified as benign in 21 (78%) patients with mild and 8 (67%) with moderate aortic regurgitation. Diastolic murmurs were rare, occurring in two (14%) with moderate, two (4%) with mild, and three (2%) with no aortic regurgitation (p=0.15).An isolated systolic murmur is a common auscultatory finding by a noncardiologist in patients with moderate or milder aortic regurgitation. A systolic murmur in patients at risk for aortic valve disease should prompt a more thorough physical examination for aortic regurgitation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000223604300004

    View details for PubMedID 15471160

  • Health-care costs and exercise capacity CHEST Weiss, J. P., Froelicher, V. F., Myers, J. N., Heidenreich, P. A. 2004; 126 (2): 608-613

    Abstract

    While the beneficial effect of exercise capacity on mortality is well-accepted, its effect on health-care costs remains uncertain. This study investigates the relationship between exercise capacity and health-care costs.The Veterans Affairs Health Care System recently implemented a Decision Support System that provides data on patterns of care, patient outcomes, workload, and costs. Total inpatient and outpatient costs were derived from existing administrative and clinical data systems, were adjusted for relative value units, and were expressed in relative cost units. We used univariable and multivariable analyses to evaluate the 1-year total costs in the year following a standard exercise test. Costs were compared with exercise capacity estimated in metabolic equivalents (METs), other test results, and clinical variables for 881 consecutive patients who were referred for clinical reasons for treadmill testing at the Palo Alto Veterans Affairs Health Care System facility between October 1, 1998, and September 30, 2000.The patients had a mean age of 59 years, 95% were men, and 74% were white. Eight patients (< 1%) died during the year of follow-up. Exercise testing showed an average maximum heart rate of 138 beats/min, 8.2 METs, and a peak Borg scale of 17. In unadjusted analysis, costs were incrementally lower by an average of 5.4% per MET increase (p < 0.001). In a multivariable analysis adjusting for demographic variables, treadmill test performance and results, and clinical history, METs were found to be the most significant predictor of cost (F-statistic, 21.8; p < 0.001).These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that exercise capacity is inversely associated with health-care costs.

    View details for PubMedID 15302750

  • Patient adherence: The next frontier in quality improvement AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Heidenreich, P. A. 2004; 117 (2): 130-132

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjmed.2004.03.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000222615700011

    View details for PubMedID 15234651

  • Managed care, information, and diffusion: The case of treatment for heart-attack patients Joint Meeting of the Society-of-Government-Economists/116th Annual Meeting of the American-Economic-Association Baker, L. C., Afendulis, C. C., Heidenreich, P. A. AMER ECONOMIC ASSOC. 2004: 347?51
  • Increasing rates of cardiac device infections among Medicare beneficiaries: 1990-1999 AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Cabell, C. H., Heidenreich, P. A., Chu, V. H., Moore, C. M., Stryjewski, M. E., Corey, G. R., Fowler, V. G. 2004; 147 (4): 582-586

    Abstract

    Although cardiac devices have been found to reduce symptoms and mortality rates in appropriate patient populations, the implications of certain important risks, such as infection, are incompletely understood. The purpose of this study was to use a large population-based database to define the population that is at risk for cardiac device infections, determine the prevalence of device infections, and study changes in the rates of cardiac device implantation and infection in the past decade.Patients with cardiac device implantations and infections were identified with claims files from the Health Care Finance Administration for Medicare beneficiaries from January 1, 1990, through December 31, 1999. Rates of implantation of cardiac devices were determined. Time trend analyses were performed to determine the significance of the observed change in rates.Cardiac device implantation rates increased from 3.26 implantations per 1000 beneficiaries in 1990 to 4.64 implantations per 1000 beneficiaries in 1999, which represents an increase of 42% in 10 years (P for trend <.001). Cardiac device infections showed a larger increase, from 0.94 device infections per 1000 beneficiaries in 1990 to 2.11 device infections per 1000 beneficiaries in 1999, which represents an increase of 124% during the study period (P for trend <.001).During the previous decade, there was a significant increase in both cardiac device implantations and infections in elderly patients, although the increase in the rates of device infections was substantially higher. Additional studies are needed to better understand the relationship and timing between cardiac device implantation and infection.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2003.06.005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000226896900005

    View details for PubMedID 15077071

  • Cost-effectiveness of carvedilol versus metoprolol tartrate for patients with heart failure Heidenreich, P. A. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2004: 425A
  • Impact of tricuspid regurgitation on long-term survival JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Nath, J., Foster, E., Heidenreich, P. A. 2004; 43 (3): 405-409

    Abstract

    The goal of this study was to examine mortality associated with tricuspid regurgitation (TR) after controlling for left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), right ventricular (RV) dilation and dysfunction, and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP).Tricuspid regurgitation is a frequent echocardiographic finding; however, the association with prognosis is unclear.We retrospectively identified 5,223 patients (age 66.5 +/- 12.8 years; predominantly male) undergoing echocardiography at one of three Veterans Affairs Medical Center laboratories over a period of four years. Follow-up data were available for four years (mean 498 +/- 402 days). Kaplan-Meier and proportional hazards methods were used to compare differences in survival among TR grades.Mortality increased with increasing severity of TR. The one-year survival was 91.7% with no TR, 90.3% with mild TR, 78.9% with moderate TR, and 63.9% with severe TR. Moderate or greater TR was associated with increased mortality regardless of PASP (hazard ratio [HR] 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16 to 1.49 for PASP >40 mm Hg; HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.62 for PASP < or =40 mm Hg) and LVEF (HR 1.49, 95% CI 1.34 to 1.66 for EF <50%; HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.37 to 1.71 for EF > or =50%). When adjusted for age, LVEF, inferior vena cava size, and RV size and function, survival was worse for patients with moderate (HR 1.17, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.42) and severe TR (HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.66) than for those with no TR.We conclude that increasing TR severity is associated with worse survival in men regardless of LVEF or pulmonary artery pressure. Severe TR is associated with a poor prognosis, independent of age, biventricular systolic function, RV size, and dilation of the inferior vena cava.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2003.09.036

    View details for Web of Science ID 000188588100014

    View details for PubMedID 15013122

  • The effect of ethnicity on survival in male veterans referred for electrocardiography and treadmill testing ARCHIVES OF INTERNAL MEDICINE PRAKASH, M., Partington, S., Froelicher, V. F., Heidenreich, P. A., Myers, J. 2003; 163 (18): 2204-2210

    Abstract

    Ethnic differences in the relationship between access to health care and survival are difficult to define because of many confounding factors, such as socioeconomic status and baseline differences in health. Because the Veterans Affairs health care system offers health care largely without financial considerations, it provides an ideal setting in which to identify and understand ethnic differences in health outcomes. Previous studies in this area have lacked clinical and cardiovascular data with which to adjust for baseline differences in patients' health.Data were collected from consecutive men referred for resting electrocardiography (ECG) (n = 41 087) or exercise testing (n = 6213) during 12 years. We compared ethnic differences in survival between whites, blacks, and Hispanics after considering baseline differences in age and hospitalization status. We also adjusted for electrocardiogram abnormalities and cardiac risk factors, exercise test results, and cardiovascular comorbidities.White patients tended to be older and had more baseline comorbidities and cardiovascular interventions when they presented for testing. White patients had increased mortality rates compared with blacks and Hispanics. In the ECG population, after adjusting for demographics and baseline electrocardiogram abnormalities, Hispanics had improved survival compared with whites and blacks. In the exercise test population, after adjusting for the same factors, as well as adjusting for the presence of cardiovascular comorbidities, cardiac risk factors, and exercise test findings, Hispanics also exhibited improved survival compared with the other 2 ethnicities. There were no differences in mortality rates between whites and blacks.Our findings demonstrate that the health care provided to veterans referred for routine ECG or exercise testing is not associated with poorer survival in ethnic minorities.

    View details for PubMedID 14557218

  • Asymptomatic cardiac disease following mediastinal irradiation JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Heidenreich, P. A., Hancock, S. L., Lee, B. K., Mariscal, C. S., Schnittger, I. 2003; 42 (4): 743-749

    Abstract

    This study was designed to evaluate the potential benefit of screening previously irradiated patients with echocardiography.Mediastinal irradiation is known to cause cardiac disease. However, the prevalence of asymptomatic cardiac disease and the potential for intervention before symptom development are unknown.We recruited 294 asymptomatic patients (mean age 42 +/- 9 years, 49% men, mean mantle irradiation dose 43 +/- 0.3 Gy) treated with at least 35 Gy to the mediastinum for Hodgkin's disease. After providing written consent, each patient underwent electrocardiography and transthoracic echocardiography. Valvular disease was common and increased with time following irradiation. Patients who had received irradiation more than 20 years before evaluation had significantly more mild or greater aortic regurgitation (60% vs. 4%, p < 0.0001), moderate or greater tricuspid regurgitation (4% vs. 0%, p = 0.06), and aortic stenosis (16% vs. 0%, p = 0.0008) than those who had received irradiation within 10 years. The number needed to screen to detect one candidate for endocarditis prophylaxis was 13 (95% confidence interval [CI] 7 to 44) for patients treated within 10 years and 1.6 (95% CI 1.3 to 1.9) for those treated at least 20 years ago. Compared with the Framingham Heart Study population, mildly reduced left ventricular fractional shortening (<30%) was more common (36% vs. 3%), and age- and gender-adjusted left ventricular mass was lower (90 +/- 27 g/m vs. 117 g/m) in irradiated patients.There is a high prevalence of asymptomatic heart disease in general, and aortic valvular disease in particular, following mediastinal irradiation. Screening echocardiography should be considered for patients with a history of mediastinal irradiation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S0735-1097(03)00759-9

    View details for Web of Science ID 000184780600027

    View details for PubMedID 12932613

  • Racial disparity in cardiac procedures and mortality among long-term survivors of cardiac arrest CIRCULATION Groeneveld, P. W., Heidenreich, P. A., Garber, A. M. 2003; 108 (3): 286-291

    Abstract

    It is unknown whether white and black Medicare beneficiaries have different rates of cardiac procedure utilization or long-term survival after cardiac arrest.A total of 5948 elderly Medicare beneficiaries (5429 white and 519 black) were identified who survived to hospital discharge between 1990 and 1999 after admission for cardiac arrest. Demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical information about these patients was obtained from Medicare administrative files, the US census, and the American Hospital Association's annual institutional survey. A Cox proportional hazard model that included demographic and clinical predictors indicated a hazard ratio for mortality of 1.30 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.55) for blacks aged 66 to 74 years compared with whites of the same age. The addition of cardiac procedures to this model lowered the hazard ratio for blacks to 1.23 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.46). In analyses stratified by race, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) had a mortality hazard ratio of 0.53 (95% CI 0.45 to 0.62) for white patients and 0.50 (95% CI 0.27 to 0.91) for black patients. Logistic regression models that compared procedure rates between races indicated odds ratios for blacks aged 66 to 74 years of 0.58 (95% CI 0.36 to 0.94) to receive an ICD and 0.50 (95% CI 0.34 to 0.75) to receive either revascularization or an ICD.There is racial disparity in long-term mortality among elderly cardiac arrest survivors. Both black and white patients benefited from ICD implantation, but blacks were less likely to undergo this potentially life-saving procedure. Lower rates of cardiac procedures may explain in part the lower survival rates among black patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/01.CIR.0000079164.95019.5A

    View details for Web of Science ID 000184282200012

    View details for PubMedID 12835222

  • Pharmacologic management of heart failure and left ventricular systolic dysfunction: effect in female, black, and diabetic patients, and cost-effectiveness. Evidence report/technology assessment (Summary) Shekelle, P., Morton, S., Atkinson, S., Suttorp, M., Tu, W., Heidenreich, P., Gubens, M., Maglione, M., Jungvig, L., Roth, E., Newberry, S. 2003: 1-6

    View details for PubMedID 14571595

  • 34th Bethesda Conference: Task force #5--Is atherosclerosis imaging cost effective? Journal of the American College of Cardiology Mark, D. B., Shaw, L. J., Lauer, M. S., O'Malley, P. G., Heidenreich, P. 2003; 41 (11): 1906-1917

    View details for PubMedID 12798557

  • Efficacy of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers in the management of left ventricular systolic dysfunction according to race, gender, and diabetic status - A meta-analysis of major clinical trials JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Shekelle, P. G., Rich, M. W., Morton, S. C., Atkinson, S. W., Tu, W. L., Maglione, M., Rhodes, S., Barrett, M., Fonarow, G. C., Greenberg, B., Heidenreich, P. A., Knabel, T., Konstam, M. A., Steimle, A., Stevenson, L. W. 2003; 41 (9): 1529-1538

    Abstract

    This study sought to assess the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and beta-blockers on all-cause mortality in patients with left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction according to gender, race, and the presence of diabetes.Major randomized clinical trials have established that ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers have life-saving benefits in patients with LV systolic dysfunction. Most patients enrolled in these trials were Caucasian men. Whether an equal effect is achieved in women, non-Caucasians, and patients with major comorbidities has not been established.The authors performed a meta-analysis of published and individual patient data from the 12 largest randomized clinical trials of ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers to produce random effects estimates of mortality for subgroups.Data support beneficial reductions in all-cause mortality for the use of beta-blockers in men and women, the use of ACE inhibitors and some beta-blockers in black and white patients, and the use of ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers in patients with or without diabetes. Women with symptomatic LV systolic dysfunction probably benefit from ACE inhibitors, but women with asymptomatic LV systolic dysfunction may not have reduced mortality when treated with ACE inhibitors (pooled relative risk = 0.96; 95% confidence interval: 0.75 to 1.22). The pooled estimate of three beta-blocker studies supports a b