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Academic Appointments


  • Clinical Associate Professor, Radiology

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  • CT patterns of fungal pulmonary infections of the lung: Comparison of standard-dose and simulated low-dose CT EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY Christe, A., Lin, M. C., Yen, A. C., Hallett, R. L., Roychoudhury, K., Schmitzberger, F., Fleischmann, D., Leung, A. N., Rubin, G. D., Vock, P., Roos, J. E. 2012; 81 (10): 2860-2866

    Abstract

    To assess the effect of radiation dose reduction on the appearance and visual quantification of specific CT patterns of fungal infection in immuno-compromised patients.Raw data of thoracic CT scans (64 0.75 mm, 120 kVp, 300 reference mAs) from 41 consecutive patients with clinical suspicion of pulmonary fungal infection were collected. In 32 patients fungal infection could be proven (median age of 55.5 years, range 35-83). A total of 267 cuboids showing CT patterns of fungal infection and 27 cubes having no disease were reconstructed at the original and 6 simulated tube currents of 100, 40, 30, 20, 10, and 5 reference mAs. Eight specific fungal CT patterns were analyzed by three radiologists: 76 ground glass opacities, 42 ground glass nodules, 51 mixed, part solid, part ground glass nodules, 36 solid nodules, 5 lobulated nodules, 6 spiculated nodules, 14 cavitary nodules, and 37 foci of air-space disease. The standard of reference was a consensus subjective interpretation by experts whom were not readers in the study.The mean sensitivity and standard deviation for detecting pathological cuboids/disease using standard dose CT was 0.91 0.07. Decreasing dose did not affect sensitivity significantly until the lowest dose level of 5 mAs (0.87 0.10, p=0.012). Nodular pattern discrimination was impaired below the dose level of 30 reference mAs: specificity for fungal 'mixed nodules' decreased significantly at 20, 10 and 5 reference mAs (p<0.05). At lower dose levels, classification drifted from 'solid' to 'mixed nodule', although no lesion was missed.Our simulation data suggest that tube current levels can be reduced from 300 to 30 reference mAs without impairing the diagnostic information of specific CT patterns of pulmonary fungal infections.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ejrad.2011.06.059

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308079700067

    View details for PubMedID 21835569

  • Diagnosing invasive fungal disease in critically ill patients CRITICAL REVIEWS IN MICROBIOLOGY Hsu, J. L., Ruoss, S. J., Bower, N. D., Lin, M., Holodniy, M., Stevens, D. A. 2011; 37 (4): 277-312

    Abstract

    Fungal infections are increasing, with a changing landscape of pathogens and emergence of new groups at risk for invasive disease. We review current diagnostic techniques, focusing on studies in critically ill patients. Microbiological cultures, the current "gold standard", demonstrate poor sensitivity, thus diagnosis of invasive disease in the critically ill is difficult. This diagnostic dilemma results in under- or over-treatment of patients, potentially contributing to poor outcomes and antifungal resistance. While other current diagnostic tests perform moderately well, many lack timeliness, efficacy, and are negatively affected by treatments common to critically ill patients. New nucleic acid-based research is promising.

    View details for DOI 10.3109/1040841X.2011.581223

    View details for Web of Science ID 000295616800001

    View details for PubMedID 21749278

  • CT Screening and Follow-Up of Lung Nodules: Effects of Tube Current-Time Setting and Nodule Size and Density on Detectability and of Tube Current-Time Setting on Apparent Size AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY Christe, A., Torrente, J. C., Lin, M., Yen, A., Hallett, R., Roychoudhury, K., Schmitzberger, F., Vock, P., Roos, J. 2011; 197 (3): 623-630

    Abstract

    The purpose of the study was to quantify and compare the effect of CT dose and of size and density of nodules on the detectability of lung nodules and to quantify the influence of CT dose on the size of the nodules.From 50 patients a total of 125 cuboidal regions of interest (3 3 1.5 cm volumes) showing a single nodule (? 8 mm) and 27 normal cuboids were selected. Image sets were reconstructed with the software from raw data simulating different dose levels: 300 (original dose), 220, 180, 140, 100, 80, 60, 50, 40, 30, 20, 10, and 5 reference mAs. A logistic regression model was used to analyze detectability for three blinded readers. Odds ratios were calculated for nodule size smaller than 3 mm versus 3 mm and larger and for nodule attenuation of -300 HU and greater versus less than -300 HU.Tube current-time settings of 10 mAs and greater were not associated with a significant difference in individual reader sensitivity compared with the standard setting of 300 mAs. At 5 mAs only one reader had a significant decrease in sensitivity, from 82% to 77% (p = 0.0035). According to the odds ratios and logistic regression results, the strongest negative effect on sensitivity can be assumed for low nodule density followed by small nodule size and dose level. The mean nodule volume measurement error between 5 and 300 mAs was 2.2% 18% (SD) and much lower than the interobserver volume measurement error rate of 38% 45%.The results show the feasibility of a low-dose CT protocol at 10 mAs for follow-up of lung nodules. Computer-aided volume measurement in follow-up of lung nodules decreases interobserver variability.

    View details for DOI 10.2214/AJR.10.5288

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294165600046

    View details for PubMedID 21862804

  • Yield of diagnostic procedures for invasive fungal infections in neutropenic febrile patients with chest computed tomography abnormalities MYCOSES Ho, D. Y., Lin, M., Schaenman, J., Rosso, F., Leung, A. N., Coutre, S. E., Sista, R. R., Montoya, J. G. 2011; 54 (1): 59-70

    Abstract

    Haematological patients with neutropenic fever are frequently evaluated with chest computed tomography (CT) to rule out invasive fungal infections (IFI). We retrospectively analysed data from 100 consecutive patients with neutropenic fever and abnormal chest CT from 1998 to 2005 to evaluate their chest CT findings and the yield of diagnostic approaches employed. For their initial CTs, 79% had nodular opacities, with 24.1% associated with the halo sign. Other common CT abnormalities included pleural effusions (48%), ground glass opacities (37%) and consolidation (31%). The CT findings led to a change in antifungal therapy in 54% of the patients. Fifty-six patients received diagnostic procedures, including 46 bronchoscopies, 25 lung biopsies and seven sinus biopsies, with a diagnostic yield for IFI of 12.8%, 35.0% and 83.3%, respectively. In conclusion, chest CT plays an important role in the evaluation of haematological patients with febrile neutropenia and often leads to a change in antimicrobial therapy. Pulmonary nodules are the most common radiological abnormality. Sinus or lung biopsies have a high-diagnostic yield for IFI as compared to bronchoscopy. Patients with IFI may not have sinus/chest symptoms, and thus, clinicians should have a low threshold for performing sinus/chest imaging, and if indicated and safe, a biopsy of the abnormal areas.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1439-0507.2009.01760.x

    View details for PubMedID 19793207

  • Freehand MRI-Guided Preoperative Needle Localization of Breast Lesions After MRI-Guided Vacuum-Assisted Core Needle Biopsy Without Marker Placement JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING van de Ven, S. M., Lin, M. C., Daniel, B. L., Sareen, P., Lipson, J. A., Pal, S., Dirbas, F. M., Ikeda, D. M. 2010; 32 (1): 101-109

    Abstract

    To evaluate the feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided preoperative needle localization (PNL) of breast lesions previously sampled by MRI-guided vacuum-assisted core needle biopsy (VACNB) without marker placement.We reviewed 15 women with 16 breast lesions undergoing MRI-guided VACNB without marker placement who subsequently underwent MRI-guided PNL, both on an open 0.5T magnet using freehand techniques. Mammograms and specimen radiographs were rated for lesion visibility; MRI images were rated for lesion visibility and hematoma formation. Imaging findings were correlated with pathology.The average prebiopsy lesion size was 16 mm (range 4-50 mm) with 13/16 lesions located in mammographically dense breasts. Eight hematomas formed during VACNB (average size 13 mm, range 8-19 mm). PNL was performed for VACNB pathologies of cancer (5), high-risk lesions (5), or benign but discordant findings (6) at 2-78 days following VACNB. PNL targeted the lesion (2), hematoma (4), or surrounding breast architecture (10). Wire placement was successful in all 16 lesions. Final pathology showed six cancers, five high-risk lesions, and five benign findings.MRI-guided PNL is successful in removing lesions that have previously undergone VACNB without marker placement by targeting the residual lesion, hematoma, or surrounding breast architecture, even in mammographically dense breasts.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.22148

    View details for Web of Science ID 000279439600013

    View details for PubMedID 20575077

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