Typhoid conjugate vaccines: a new tool in the fight against antimicrobial resistance.
The Lancet. Infectious diseases
Poverty and Community-Acquired Antimicrobial Resistance with Extended-Spectrum ss-Lactamase-Producing Organisms, Hyderabad, India
EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES
2018; 24 (8): 1490?96
Typhoid fever is an acute systemic infectious disease responsible for an estimated 12-20 million illnesses and over 150?000 deaths annually. In March, 2018, a new recommendation was issued by WHO for the programmatic use of typhoid conjugate vaccines in endemic countries. Health economic analyses of typhoid vaccines have informed funding decisions and national policies regarding vaccine rollout. However, by focusing only on averted typhoid cases and their associated costs, traditional cost-effectiveness analyses might underestimate crucial benefits of typhoid vaccination programmes, because the potential effect of typhoid vaccines on the treatment of patients with non-specific acute febrile illnesses is not considered. For every true case of typhoid fever, three to 25 patients without typhoid disease are treated with antimicrobials unnecessarily, conservatively amounting to more than 50 million prescriptions per year. Antimicrobials for suspected typhoid might therefore be an important selective pressure for the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance globally. We propose that large-scale, more aggressive typhoid vaccination programmes-including catch-up campaigns in children up to 15 years of age, and vaccination in lower incidence settings-have the potential to reduce the overuse of antimicrobials and thereby reduce antimicrobial resistance in many bacterial pathogens. Funding bodies and national governments must therefore consider the potential for broad reductions in antimicrobial use and resistance in decisions related to the rollout of typhoid conjugate vaccines.
View details for PubMedID 30170987
TUSKEGEE AND THE HEALTH OF BLACK MEN
QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS
2018; 133 (1): 407?55
The decreasing effectiveness of antimicrobial agents is a global public health threat, yet risk factors for community-acquired antimicrobial resistance (CA-AMR) in low-income settings have not been clearly elucidated. Our aim was to identify risk factors for CA-AMR with extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing organisms among urban-dwelling women in India. We collected microbiological and survey data in an observational study of primigravidae women in a public hospital in Hyderabad, India. We analyzed the data using multivariate logistic and linear regression and found that 7% of 1,836 women had bacteriuria; 48% of isolates were ESBL-producing organisms. Women in the bottom 50th percentile of income distribution were more likely to have bacteriuria (adjusted odds ratio 1.44, 95% CI 0.99-2.10) and significantly more likely to have bacteriuria with ESBL-producing organisms (adjusted odds ratio 2.04, 95% CI 1.17-3.54). Nonparametric analyses demonstrated a negative relationship between the prevalence of ESBL and income.
View details for DOI 10.3201/eid2408.171030
View details for Web of Science ID 000439050300012
View details for PubMedID 30014842
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6056104
Childhood Illness and the Gender Gap in Adolescent Education in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
2017; 140 (1)
JEL Codes: I14, O15 For forty years, the Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male passively monitored hundreds of adult black males with syphilis despite the availability of effective treatment. The study's methods have become synonymous with exploitation and mistreatment by the medical profession. To identify the study's effects on the behavior and health of older black men, we use an interacted difference-in-difference-in-differences model, comparing older black men to other demographic groups, before and after the Tuskegee revelation, in varying proximity to the study's victims. We find that the disclosure of the study in 1972 is correlated with increases in medical mistrust and mortality and decreases in both outpatient and inpatient physician interactions for older black men. Our estimates imply life expectancy at age 45 for black men fell by up to 1.5 years in response to the disclosure, accounting for approximately 35% of the 1980 life expectancy gap between black and white men and 25% of the gap between black men and women.
View details for PubMedID 30505005
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6258045
A commitment contract to achieve virologic suppression in poorly adherent patients with HIV/AIDS.
AIDS (London, England)
Achieving gender equality in education is an important development goal. We tested the hypothesis that the gender gap in adolescent education is accentuated by illnesses among young children in the household.Using Demographic and Health Surveys on 41?821 households in 38 low- and middle-income countries, we used linear regression to estimate the difference in the probability adolescent girls and boys were in school, and how this gap responded to illness episodes among children <5 years old. To test the hypothesis that investments in child health are related to the gender gap in education, we assessed the relationship between the gender gap and national immunization coverage.In our sample of 120?708 adolescent boys and girls residing in 38 countries, girls were 5.08% less likely to attend school than boys in the absence of a recent illness among young children within the same household (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.50%-4.65%). This gap increased to 7.77% (95% CI, 8.24%-7.30%) and 8.53% (95% CI, 9.32%-7.74%) if the household reported 1 and 2 or more illness episodes, respectively. The gender gap in schooling in response to illness was larger in households with a working mother. Increases in child vaccination rates were associated with a closing of the gender gap in schooling (correlation coefficient = 0.34, P = .02).Illnesses among children strongly predict a widening of the gender gap in education. Investments in early childhood health may have important effects on schooling attainment for adolescent girls.
View details for PubMedID 28759395
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5495535
Beyond Infrastructure: Understanding Why Patients Decline Surgery in the Developing World: An Observational Study in Cameroon.
Annals of surgery
Assess whether a commitment contract informed by behavioral economics leads to persistent virologic suppression among HIV-positive patients with poor antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence.Single-center pilot randomized clinical trial, plus a non-randomized control group.Publicly-funded HIV clinic in Atlanta, Georgia, USA.The study involved three arms. (i) Participants in the provider visit incentive arm received $30 after attending each scheduled provider visit. (ii) Participants in the incentive choice arm were given a choice between the above arrangement and a commitment contract that made the $30 payment conditional on both attending the provider visit and meeting an ART adherence threshold. (iii) The passive control arm received routine care and no incentives.110 HIV-infected adults with a recent plasma HIV-1 viral load (pVL)?>?200?copies/mL despite ART. The sample sizes of the three groups were as follows: provider visit incentive, n?=?21; incentive choice, n?=?19; passive control, n?=?70.Virologic suppression (pVL?200?copies/mL) at the end of the incentive period and at an unanticipated post-incentive study visit approximately three months later.The odds of suppression were higher in the incentive choice arm than in the passive control arm at the post-incentive visit (adjusted odds ratio 3.93, 95%CI 1.19 to 13.04, p?=?0.025). The differences relative to the passive control arm at the end of the incentive period and relative to the provider visit incentive arm at both points in time were not statistically significant.Commitment contracts can improve ART adherence and virologic suppression.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01455740.
View details for DOI 10.1097/QAD.0000000000001543
View details for PubMedID 28514277
Antibiotic Use in Cold and Flu Season and Prescribing Quality: A Retrospective Cohort Study.
2015; 53 (12): 1066-1071
Out-of-pocket health expenditures and antimicrobial resistance in low-income and middle-income countries: an economic analysis
LANCET INFECTIOUS DISEASES
2015; 15 (10): 1203-1210
Risk factors for AIDS-defining illnesses among a population of poorly adherent people living with HIV/AIDS in Atlanta, Georgia
AIDS CARE-PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIO-MEDICAL ASPECTS OF AIDS/HIV
2015; 27 (7): 844-848
The aim of this study was to quantify and describe a population of patients in rural Cameroon who present with a surgically treatable illness but ultimately decline surgery, and to understand the patient decision-making process and identify key socioeconomic factors that result in barriers to care.An estimated 5 billion people lack access to safe, affordable surgical care and anesthesia when needed, and this unmet need resides disproportionally in low-income countries (LICs). An understanding of the socioeconomic factors underlying decision-making is key to future efforts to expand surgical care delivery in this population. We assessed patient decision-making in a LIC with a cash-based health care economy.Standardized interviews were conducted of a random sample of adult patients with treatable surgical conditions over a 7-week period in a tertiary referral hospital in rural Cameroon. Main outcome measures included participant's decision to accept or decline surgery, source of funding, and the relative importance of various factors in the decision-making process.Thirty-four of 175 participants (19.4%) declined surgery recommended by their physician. Twenty-six of 34 participants declining surgery (76.4%) cited procedure cost, which on average equaled 6.4 months' income, as their primary decision factor. Multivariate analysis revealed female gender [odds ratio (OR) 3.35, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.14-5.25], monthly earnings (OR 0.83, 95% CI, 0.77-0.89), supporting children in school (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.13-1.31), and inability to borrow funds from family or the community (OR 6.49, 95% CI 4.10-10.28) as factors associated with declining surgery.Nearly one-fifth of patients presenting to a surgical clinic with a treatable condition did not ultimately receive needed surgery. Both financial and sociocultural factors contribute to the decision to decline care.
View details for PubMedID 27849672
The Effect of the TseTse Fly on African Development
AMERICAN ECONOMIC REVIEW
2015; 105 (1): 382-410
In order to achieve the programmatic goals established in the National HIV/AIDS Strategy, virologic suppression remains the most important outcome within the HIV care continuum for individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Therefore, clinicians have dedicated substantial resources to improve adherence and clinic retention for individuals on ART; however, these efforts should be focused first on those most at risk of morbidity and mortality related to AIDS. Our study aimed to characterize the factors that are associated with AIDS-defining illnesses (ADIs) amongst people living with HIV (PLHIV) who are poorly adherent or retained in care in order to identify those at highest risk of poor clinical outcomes. We recruited 99 adult PLHIV with a history of poor adherence to ART, poor clinic attendance, or unsuppressed viral load (VL) from the Infectious Disease Program (IDP) of the Grady Health System in Atlanta, Georgia between January and May 2011 to participate in a survey investigating the acceptability of a financial incentive for improving adherence. Clinical outcomes including the number of ADI episodes in the last five years, VLs, and CD4 counts were abstracted from medical records. Associations between survey items and number of ADIs were performed using chi-square analysis. In our study, 36.4% of participants had ?1 ADI in the last five years. The most common ADIs were Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, recurrent bacterial pneumonia, and esophageal candidiasis. Age <42.5 years (OR 2.52, 95% CI = 1.08-5.86), male gender (OR 3.51, 95% CI = 1.08-11.34), CD4 nadir <200 cells/無 (OR 11.92, 95% CI = 1.51-94.15), unemployment (OR 3.54, 95% CI = 1.20-10.40), and travel time to clinic <30 minutes (OR 2.80, 95% CI = 1.20-6.52) were all significantly associated with a history of ?1 ADI in the last five years. Awareness of factors associated with ADIs may help clinicians identify which poorly adherent PLHIV are at highest risk of HIV-related morbidity.
View details for DOI 10.1080/09540121.2015.1007114
View details for Web of Science ID 000353482500005
View details for PubMedID 25660100