Delineating the molecular and histological events that govern right ventricular recovery using a novel mouse model of PA de-banding.
Nanoparticle-Mediated Targeting of Pitavastatin to Small Pulmonary Arteries and Leukocytes by Intravenous Administration Attenuates the Progression of Monocrotaline-Induced Established Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in Rats.
International heart journal
2018; 59 (6): 1432?44
AIMS: The temporal sequence of events underlying functional right ventricular (RV) recovery after improvement of pulmonary hypertension-associated pressure overload are unknown. We sought to establish a novel mouse model of gradual RV recovery from pressure overload and use it to delineate RV reverse-remodeling events.METHODS AND RESULTS: Surgical pulmonary artery banding (PAB) around a 26G needle induced RV dysfunction with increased RV pressures, reduced exercise capacity and caused liver congestion, hypertrophic, fibrotic and vascular myocardial remodeling within 5 weeks of chronic RV pressure overload in mice. Gradual reduction of the afterload burden through PA band absorption (de-PAB) - after RV dysfunction and structural remodeling were established - initiated recovery of RV function (cardiac output, exercise capacity) along with rapid normalization in RV hypertrophy (RV/LV+S, cardiomyocyte area) and RV pressures (RVSP). RV fibrotic (collagen, elastic fibers, vimentin+ fibroblasts) and vascular (capillary density) remodeling were equally reversible, however reversal occurred at a later time-point after de-PAB, when RV function was already completely restored. Microarray gene expression (ClariomS, Thermo Fisher) along with gene ontology analyses in RV tissues revealed growth factors, immune modulators and apoptosis mediators as major cellular components underlying functional RV recovery.CONCLUSIONS: We established a novel gradual de-PAB mouse model and used it to demonstrate that established pulmonary hypertension-associated RV dysfunction is fully reversible. Mechanistically, we link functional RV improvement to hypertrophic normalization that precedes fibrotic and vascular reverse-remodeling events.TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: The right ventricle (RV) in pulmonary arterial hypertension possesses a remarkable ability to recover after lung transplantation. Yet, some transplant centers prefer a heart-lung instead of lung transplantation when the RV function is severely impaired because knowledge is lacking whether fibrotic and vascular myocardial remodeling are completely reversible once the increased afterload burden is relieved. We have developed a mouse model to study gradual unloading of the RV and identified key molecular components and the timing of RV reverse-remodeling events with the ultimate goal to understand the RV recovery process and identify ways how to support the RV during recovery.
View details for DOI 10.1093/cvr/cvz310
View details for PubMedID 31738411
A Translational Study of a New Therapeutic Approach for Acute Myocardial Infarction: Nanoparticle-Mediated Delivery of Pitavastatin into Reperfused Myocardium Reduces Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in a Preclinical Porcine Model.
2016; 11 (9): e0162425
Statins are known to improve pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) by their anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects in animal models. However, recent clinical studies have reported that clinically approved statin doses failed to improve clinical outcomes in patients with PAH. We therefore hypothesized that nanoparticle (NP) -mediated targeting of pitavastatin could attenuate the progression of established PAH.We induced PAH by subcutaneously injecting monocrotaline (MCT) in Sprague-Dawley rats. On day 14 after the MCT injection, animals that displayed established PAH on echocardiography were included. On day 17, they were randomly assigned to the following 5 groups: daily intravenous administration of (1) vehicle, (2) fluorescein-isothiocyanate-NP, (3) pitavastatin, (4) pitavastatin-NP, or (5) oral sildenafil. Intravenous NP was selectively delivered to small pulmonary arteries and circulating CD11b-positive leukocytes. On day 21, pitavastatin-NP attenuated the progression of PAH at lower doses than pitavastatin alone. This was associated with the inhibition of monocyte-mediated inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling of the pulmonary arteries. Interestingly, sildenafil attenuated the development of PAH, but had no effects on inflammation or remodeling of the pulmonary arteries. In separate experiments, only treatment with pitavastatin-NP reduced the mortality rate at day 35.NP-mediated targeting of pitavastatin to small pulmonary arteries and leukocytes attenuated the progression of established MCT-induced PAH and improved survival. Therapeutically, pitavastatin-NP was associated with anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects on small pulmonary arteries, which was completely distinct from the vasodilatory effect of sildenafil. Pitavastatin-NP can be a novel therapeutic modality for PAH.
View details for DOI 10.1536/ihj.17-683
View details for PubMedID 30369578
There is an unmet need to develop an innovative cardioprotective modality for acute myocardial infarction, for which interventional reperfusion therapy is hampered by ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. We recently reported that bioabsorbable poly(lactic acid/glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticle-mediated treatment with pitavastatin (pitavastatin-NP) exerts a cardioprotective effect in a rat IR injury model by activating the PI3K-Akt pathway and inhibiting inflammation. To obtain preclinical proof-of-concept evidence, in this study, we examined the effect of pitavastatin-NP on myocardial IR injury in conscious and anesthetized pig models.Eighty-four Bama mini-pigs were surgically implanted with a pneumatic cuff occluder at the left circumflex coronary artery (LCx) and telemetry transmitters to continuously monitor electrocardiogram as well as to monitor arterial blood pressure and heart rate. The LCx was occluded for 60 minutes, followed by 24 hours of reperfusion under conscious conditions. Intravenous administration of pitavastatin-NP containing ? 8 mg/body of pitavastatin 5 minutes before reperfusion significantly reduced infarct size; by contrast, pitavastatin alone (8 mg/body) showed no therapeutic effects. Pitavastatin-NP produced anti-apoptotic effects on cultured cardiomyocytes in vitro. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging performed 4 weeks after IR injury revealed that pitavastatin-NP reduced the extent of left ventricle remodeling. Importantly, pitavastatin-NP exerted no significant effects on blood pressure, heart rate, or serum biochemistry. Exploratory examinations in anesthetized pigs showed pharmacokinetic analysis and the effects of pitavastatin-NP on no-reflow phenomenon.NP-mediated delivery of pitavastatin to IR-injured myocardium exerts cardioprotective effects on IR injury without apparent adverse side effects in a preclinical conscious pig model. Thus, pitavastatin-NP represents a novel therapeutic modality for IR injury in acute myocardial infarction.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0162425
View details for PubMedID 27603665
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5014419