Clonally expanded CD8 T cells patrol the cerebrospinal fluid in Alzheimer's disease.
Undulating changes in human plasma proteome profiles across the lifespan.
2019; 25 (12): 1843?50
Alzheimer's disease is an incurable neurodegenerative disorder in which neuroinflammation has a critical function1. However, little is known about the contribution of the adaptive immune response in Alzheimer's disease2. Here, using integrated analyses of multiple cohorts, we identify peripheral and central adaptive immune changes in Alzheimer's disease. First, we performed mass cytometry of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and discovered an immune signature of Alzheimer's disease that consists of increased numbers of CD8+ T effector memory CD45RA+ (TEMRA) cells. In a second cohort, we found that CD8+ TEMRA cells were negatively associated with cognition. Furthermore, single-cell RNA sequencing revealed that T cell receptor (TCR) signalling was enhanced in these cells. Notably, by using several strategies of single-cell TCR sequencing in a third cohort, we discovered clonally expanded CD8+ TEMRA cells in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Finally, we used machine learning, cloning and peptide screens to demonstrate the specificity of clonally expanded TCRs in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Alzheimer's disease to two separate Epstein-Barr virus antigens. These results reveal an adaptive immune response in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid in Alzheimer's disease and provide evidence of clonal, antigen-experienced T cells patrolling the intrathecal space of brains affected by age-related neurodegeneration.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41586-019-1895-7
View details for PubMedID 31915375
Physiological blood-brain transport is impaired with age by a shift in transcytosis.
Aging is a predominant risk factor for several chronic diseases that limit healthspan1. Mechanisms of aging are thus increasingly recognized as potential therapeutic targets. Blood from young mice reverses aspects of aging and disease across multiple tissues2-10, which supports a hypothesis that age-related molecular changes in blood could provide new insights into age-related disease biology. We measured 2,925 plasma proteins from 4,263 young adults to nonagenarians (18-95 years old) and developed a new bioinformatics approach that uncovered marked non-linear alterations in the human plasma proteome with age. Waves of changes in the proteome in the fourth, seventh and eighth decades of life reflected distinct biological pathways and revealed differential associations with the genome and proteome of age-related diseases and phenotypic traits. This new approach to the study of aging led to the identification of unexpected signatures and pathways that might offer potential targets for age-related diseases.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41591-019-0673-2
View details for PubMedID 31806903
CD22 blockade restores homeostatic microglial phagocytosis in ageing brains
2019; 568 (7751): 187-+
CD22 blockade restores homeostatic microglial phagocytosis in ageing brains.
The vascular interfaceof the brain, known as the blood-brain barrier (BBB), is understood to maintain brain function in part via its low transcellular permeability1-3. Yet, recent studies have demonstrated that brain ageing is sensitive to circulatory proteins4,5. Thus, it is unclear whether permeability to individually injected exogenous tracers-as isstandard in BBB studies-fully represents blood-to-brain transport. Here we label hundreds of proteins constituting the mouse blood plasma proteome, and upon their systemic administration, study the BBB with its physiological ligand. We find that plasma proteins readily permeate the healthy brain parenchyma, with transport maintained by BBB-specific transcriptional programmes. Unlike IgG antibody, plasma protein uptake diminishes in the aged brain, driven by an age-related shift in transport from ligand-specific receptor-mediated to non-specific caveolar transcytosis. This age-related shift occurs alongside a specific loss of pericyte coverage. Pharmacological inhibition of the age-upregulated phosphatase ALPL, a predicted negative regulator of transport, enhances brain uptake of therapeutically relevant transferrin, transferrin receptor antibody and plasma. These findings reveal the extent of physiological protein transcytosis to the healthy brain, a mechanism of widespread BBB dysfunction with age and a strategy for enhanced drug delivery.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41586-020-2453-z
View details for PubMedID 32612231
Multiple Click-Selective tRNA Synthetases Expand Mammalian Cell-Specific Proteomics
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY
2018; 140 (23): 7046?51
Microglia maintain homeostasis in the central nervous system through phagocytic clearance of protein aggregates and cellular debris. This function deteriorates during ageing and neurodegenerative disease, concomitant with cognitive decline. However, the mechanisms of impaired microglial homeostatic function and the cognitive effects of restoring this function remain unknown. We combined CRISPR-Cas9 knockout screens with RNAsequencing analysis to discover age-related genetic modifiers of microglial phagocytosis. These screens identified CD22, a canonical Bcell receptor, as a negative regulator of phagocytosis that is upregulated on aged microglia. CD22 mediates the anti-phagocytic effect of alpha2,6-linked sialic acid, and inhibition of CD22 promotes the clearance of myelin debris, amyloid-beta oligomers and alpha-synuclein fibrils in vivo. Long-term central nervous system delivery of an antibody that blocks CD22 function reprograms microglia towards a homeostatic transcriptional state and improves cognitive function in aged mice. These findings elucidate a mechanism of age-related microglial impairment and a strategy to restore homeostasis in the ageing brain.
View details for PubMedID 30944478
Bioorthogonal tools enable cell-type-specific proteomics, a prerequisite to understanding biological processes in multicellular organisms. Here we report two engineered aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases for mammalian bioorthogonal labeling: a tyrosyl ( ScTyrY43G) and a phenylalanyl ( MmPheT413G) tRNA synthetase that incorporate azide-bearing noncanonical amino acids specifically into the nascent proteomes of host cells. Azide-labeled proteins are chemoselectively tagged via azide-alkyne cycloadditions with fluorophores for imaging or affinity resins for mass spectrometric characterization. Both mutant synthetases label human, hamster, and mouse cell line proteins and selectively activate their azido-bearing amino acids over 10-fold above the canonical. ScTyrY43G and MmPheT413G label overlapping but distinct proteomes in human cell lines, with broader proteome coverage upon their coexpression. In mice, ScTyrY43G and MmPheT413G label the melanoma tumor proteome and plasma secretome. This work furnishes new tools for mammalian residue-specific bioorthogonal chemistry, and enables more robust and comprehensive cell-type-specific proteomics in live mammals.
View details for DOI 10.1021/jacs.8b03074
View details for Web of Science ID 000435525500001
View details for PubMedID 29775058