Bio

Clinical Focus


  • Anesthesia
  • Critical Care Medicine
  • Global Health

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Director, Global Anesthesia and Critical Care Learning Resource Center (2019 - Present)
  • Co-Director, Global Anesthesia Fellowship (2013 - Present)
  • Co-Director, Global Anesthesia Division (2011 - Present)

Honors & Awards


  • Stanford Leadership Development Nomination, Stanford University (2014)
  • Stanford Advanced Leadership Program Nomination, Stanford University (2013)
  • Stanford Faculty Development Nomination, Stanford University (2013)
  • Anesthesia Teaching Scholar Award, Stanford University (2009)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Honorary Associate Professor, University of Rwanda (2018 - Present)
  • Canadian Anesthesiologists' Society - International Education Foundation, CASIEF (2017 - Present)
  • ASA-GHO Rwanda Program Lead, ASA (2017 - Present)
  • ASA-Global Humanitarian Outreach, American Society of Anesthesiologists (2015 - Present)
  • Board of Directors, Eden I&R (2019 - Present)

Professional Education


  • Board Certification: Anesthesia, American Board of Anesthesiology (2009)
  • Board Certification: Critical Care Medicine, American Board of Anesthesiology (2009)
  • Fellowship: Stanford University Pulmonary and Critical Care Fellowship (2009) CA
  • Residency: University of Texas Southwestern Medical School Registrar (2008) TX
  • Internship: Baptist Health System Inc (2005) AL
  • Medical Education: University of Alabama School of Medicine (2004) AL

Community and International Work


  • EdenI&R, Alameda County

    Topic

    Social Services and Resources

    Partnering Organization(s)

    Eden I&R, 211

    Populations Served

    All

    Location

    Bay Area

    Ongoing Project

    No

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    No

  • Operation Access

    Topic

    Anesthesia

    Partnering Organization(s)

    Operation Access, Kaiser Permanente

    Populations Served

    Uninsured Bay Area Community

    Location

    Bay Area

    Ongoing Project

    Yes

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    No

  • MEPI - University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe

    Topic

    Anesthesia and ICU education

    Partnering Organization(s)

    Stanford University

    Populations Served

    Peri-operative and ICU

    Location

    International

    Ongoing Project

    Yes

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    Yes

  • University of Rwanda Anesthesia Training Program and Residency, Rwanda

    Topic

    Anesthesia and Critical Care Medicine

    Partnering Organization(s)

    ASA-GHO, CASIEF

    Populations Served

    Rwanda - Peri-operative and ICU

    Location

    International

    Ongoing Project

    Yes

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    Yes

Publications

All Publications


  • Correction to: Barriers to Effective Transfusion Practices in Limited-Resource Settings: From Infrastructure to Cultural Beliefs. World journal of surgery Mohammed, A. D., Ntambwe, P., Crawford, A. M. 2020

    Abstract

    The article "Barriers to Effective Transfusion Practices in Limited-Resource Settings: From Infrastructure to Cultural Beliefs".

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00268-020-05692-y

    View details for PubMedID 32705534

  • Barriers to Effective Transfusion Practices in Limited-Resource Settings: From Infrastructure to Cultural Beliefs. World journal of surgery Mohammed, A. D., Ntambwe, P., Crawford, A. M. 2020

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Surgery and anesthesia are indivisible parts of health care, but safe and timely care requires more than operating rooms and skilled providers. One vital component of a functional surgical system is reliable blood transfusion. While almost half of all blood is donated in high-income countries (HICs), over eighty percent of the global population lives outside of these countries. High-income countries have on average 30 donations per 1000 people, and the average age of transfusion recipient is over 65. Most low-income countries (LICs) have fewer than five donations per 1000 people, where maternal hemorrhage and childhood anemia are the most common indications for transfusion. In LICs, greater than 50% of blood is administered to children under 5years of age. This study aims to snapshot, by survey, available resources for transfusion and then discusses the infrastructure and cultural barriers to optimal transfusion practice.METHODS: In January 2019, a 10-question survey was sent electronically to physician anesthesiologists working in low- and middle-income countries to examine resources and practice patterns for blood transfusion. Subsequent discussions illustrate obstacles contributing to low availability of blood products and illuminate infrastructure and cultural barriers preventing optimal transfusion practices.SURVEY RESULTS: Acquiring whole blood takes hours. Clinicians wait days to receive packed red blood cells or platelets. Fresh frozen plasma is available but untimely. For many, protocols for massive transfusion are rare, and for transfusion, ratios are nonexistent. Complete blood counts take hours, and coagulation profiles are severely delayed.DISCUSSION OF INFRASTRUCTURE AND CULTURAL BARRIERS: With few voluntary, unpaid, donors and inconsistent supply of testing kits, donated blood is unsafe.Donors are seasonal for farming communities, endemic malaria areas, and student donors recruited through schools.Cultural beliefs fuel distrust.Transfusion specialists, concentrated in urban areas, see rural patients presenting late. Inadequate triaging and supervision jeopardize patients to shock. Inadequate blood storage leads to waste. Modeling systems from HICs fail to overcome hurdles faced by clinicians working with distinctive belief systems and unique patient populations.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00268-020-05461-x

    View details for PubMedID 32157404

  • Editorial comment: anesthetic management of a malnourished, 7-year-old child in Malawi undergoing a pneumonectomy. A & A case reports Crawford, A. M. 2014; 3 (6): 72-?

    View details for DOI 10.1213/XAA.0000000000000087

    View details for PubMedID 25611523

  • Modulatory effects of hypercapnia on in vitro and in vivo pulmonary endothelial-neutrophil adhesive responses during inflammation CYTOKINE Liu, Y., Chacko, B. K., Ricksecker, A., Shingarev, R., Andrews, E., Patel, R. P., Lang, J. D. 2008; 44 (1): 108?17

    Abstract

    Reducing tidal volume as a part of a protective ventilation strategy may result in hypercapnia. In this study, we focused on the influence of hypercapnia on endothelial-neutrophil responses in models of inflammatory-stimulated human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) and in an animal model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury. Neutrophil adhesion and adhesion molecules expression and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) were analyzed in TNF-alpha and LPS-treated HMVEC exposed to either eucapnia or hypercapnia. In the in vivo limb, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell counts and differentials, adhesion molecule and chemokine expression were assessed in LPS-treated rabbits ventilated with either low tidal volume ventilation and eucapnia or hypercapnia. In both the in vitro and in vivo models, hypercapnia significantly increased neutrophil adhesion and adhesion molecule expression compared to eucapnia. Activity of NF-kappaB was significantly enhanced by hypercapnia in the in vitro experiments. IL-8 expression was greatest both in vitro and in vivo under conditions of hypercapnia and concomitant inflammation. CD11a expression was greatest in isolated human neutrophils exposed to hypercapnia+LPS. Our results demonstrate that endothelial-neutrophil responses per measurement of fundamental molecules of adhesion are significantly increased during hypercapnia and that hypercapnia mimics conditions of eucapnia+inflammation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cyto.2008.06.016

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260700600018

    View details for PubMedID 18713668

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2610255

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