The CEP19-RABL2 GTPase Complex Binds IFT-B to Initiate Intraflagellar Transport at the Ciliary Base.
Development of mice without Cip/Kip CDK inhibitors
BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS
2012; 427 (2): 285-292
Highly conserved intraflagellar transport (IFT) protein complexes direct both the assembly of primary cilia and the trafficking of signaling molecules. IFT complexes initially accumulate at the base of the cilium and periodically enter the cilium, suggesting an as-yet-unidentified mechanism that triggers ciliary entry of IFT complexes. Using affinity-purification and mass spectrometry of interactors of the centrosomal and ciliopathy protein, CEP19, we identify CEP350, FOP, and the RABL2B GTPase as proteins organizing the first known mechanism directing ciliary entry of IFT complexes. We discover that CEP19 is recruited to the ciliary base by the centriolar CEP350/FOP complex and then specifically captures GTP-bound RABL2B, which is activated via its intrinsic nucleotide exchange. Activated RABL2B then captures and releases its single effector, the intraflagellar transport B holocomplex, from the large pool of pre-docked IFT-B complexes, and thus initiates ciliary entry of IFT.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.devcel.2017.05.016
View details for PubMedID 28625565
Genetic Reevaluation of the Role of F-Box Proteins in Cyclin D1 Degradation
MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BIOLOGY
2012; 32 (3): 590-605
Timely exit of cells from the cell cycle is essential for proper cell differentiation during embryogenesis. Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors (CKIs) of the Cip/Kip family (p21, p27, and p57) are negative regulators of cell cycle progression and are thought to be essential for development. However, the extent of functional redundancy among Cip/Kip family members has remained largely unknown. We have now generated mice that lack all three Cip/Kip CKIs (TKO mice) and compared them with those lacking each possible pair of these proteins (DKO mice). We found that the TKO embryos develop normally until midgestation but die around embryonic day (E) 13.5, slightly earlier than p27/p57 DKO embryos. The TKO embryos manifested morphological abnormalities as well as increased rates of cell proliferation and apoptosis in the placenta and lens that were essentially indistinguishable from those of p27/p57 DKO mice. Unexpectedly, the proliferation rate and cell cycle profile of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking all three Cip/Kip CKIs did not differ substantially from those of control MEFs. The abundance and kinase activity of CDK2 were markedly increased, whereas CDK4 activity and cyclin D1 abundance were decreased, in both p27/p57 DKO and TKO MEFs during progression from G(0) to S phase compared with those in control MEFs. The extents of the increase in CDK2 activity and the decrease in CDK4 activity and cyclin D1 abundance were greater in TKO MEFs than in p27/p57 DKO MEFs. These results suggest that p27 and p57 play an essential role in mouse development after midgestation, and that p21 plays only an auxiliary role in normal development (although it is thought to be a key player in the response to DNA damage).
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.09.041
View details for Web of Science ID 000310651400011
View details for PubMedID 23000166
p57 Is Required for Quiescence and Maintenance of Adult Hematopoietic Stem Cells
CELL STEM CELL
2011; 9 (3): 262-271
D-type cyclins play a pivotal role in G(1)-S progression of the cell cycle, and their expression is frequently deregulated in cancer. Cyclin D1 has a half-life of only ~30 min as a result of its ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation, with various F-box proteins, including Fbxo4, Fbxw8, Skp2, and Fbxo31, having been found to contribute to its ubiquitylation. We have now generated Fbxo4-deficient mice and found no abnormalities in these animals. Cyclin D1 accumulation was thus not observed in Fbxo4(-/-) mouse tissues. The half-life of cyclin D1 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) prepared from Fbxo4(-/-), Fbxw8(-/-), and Fbxo4(-/-); Fbxw8(-/-) mice also did not differ from that in wild-type MEFs. Additional depletion of Skp2 and Fbxo31 in Fbxo4(-/-); Fbxw8(-/-) MEFs by RNA interference did not affect cyclin D1 stability. Although Fbxo31 depletion in MEFs increased cyclin D1 abundance, this effect appeared attributable to upregulation of cyclin D1 mRNA. Furthermore, abrogation of the function of the Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein (SCF) complex or the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) complexes did not alter the half-life of cyclin D1, whereas cyclin D1 degradation was dependent largely on proteasome activity. Our genetic analyses thus do not support a role for any of the four F-box proteins examined in cyclin D1 degradation during normal cell cycle progression. They suggest the existence of other ubiquitin ligases that target cyclin D1 for proteolysis.
View details for DOI 10.1128/MCB.06570-11
View details for Web of Science ID 000299309800001
View details for PubMedID 22124152
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3266600
Quiescence is required for the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Members of the Cip/Kip family of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors (p21, p27, p57) have been implicated in HSC quiescence, but loss of p21 or p27 in mice affects HSC quiescence or functionality only under conditions of stress. Although p57 is the most abundant family member in quiescent HSCs, its role has remained uncharacterized. Here we show a severe defect in the self-renewal capacity of p57-deficient HSCs and a reduction of the proportion of the cells in G(0) phase. Additional ablation of p21 in a p57-null background resulted in a further decrease in the colony-forming activity of HSCs. Moreover, the HSC abnormalities of p57-deficient mice were corrected by knocking in the p27 gene at the p57 locus. Our results therefore suggest that, among Cip/Kip family CDK inhibitors, p57 plays a predominant role in the quiescence and maintenance of adult HSCs.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2011.06.014
View details for Web of Science ID 000295024200012
View details for PubMedID 21885021