gamma-Glutamyl transferase 7 is a novel regulator of glioblastoma growth
Connective-Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF/CCN2) Induces Astrogenesis and Fibronectin Expression of Embryonic Neural Cells In Vitro.
2015; 10 (8): e0133689
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant primary brain tumor in adults, with a median survival time of one and a half years. Traditional treatments, including radiation, chemotherapy, and surgery, are not curative, making it imperative to find more effective treatments for this lethal disease. ?-Glutamyl transferase (GGT) is a family of enzymes that was shown to control crucial redox-sensitive functions and to regulate the balance between proliferation and apoptosis. GGT7 is a novel GGT family member that is highly expressed in brain and was previously shown to have decreased expression in gliomas. Since other members of the GGT family were found to be altered in a variety of cancers, we hypothesized that GGT7 could regulate GBM growth and formation.To determine if GGT7 is involved in GBM tumorigenesis, we modulated GGT7 expression in two GBM cell lines (U87-MG and U138) and monitored changes in tumorigenicity in vitro and in vivo.We demonstrated for the first time that GBM patients with low GGT7 expression had a worse prognosis and that 87% (7/8) of primary GBM tissue samples showed a 2-fold decrease in GGT7 expression compared to normal brain samples. Exogenous expression of GGT7 resulted in a 2- to 3-fold reduction in proliferation and anchorage-independent growth under minimal growth conditions (1% serum). Decreasing GGT7 expression using either short interfering RNA or short hairpin RNA consistently increased proliferation 1.5- to 2-fold. In addition, intracranial injections of U87-MG cells with reduced GGT7 expression increased tumor growth in mice approximately 2-fold, and decreased mouse survival. To elucidate the mechanism by which GGT7 regulates GBM growth, we analyzed reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in GBM cells with modulated GGT7 expression. We found that enhanced GGT7 expression reduced ROS levels by 11-33%.Our study demonstrates that GGT7 is a novel player in GBM growth and that GGT7 can play a critical role in tumorigenesis by regulating anti-oxidative damage. Loss of GGT7 may increase the cellular ROS levels, inducing GBM occurrence and growth. Our findings suggest that GGT7 can be a promising biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for GBM.
View details for DOI 10.1186/s12885-015-1232-y
View details for Web of Science ID 000352602800001
View details for PubMedID 25884624
Neural Placode Tissue Derived From Myelomeningocele Repair Serves as a Viable Source of Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells.
Connective-tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a modular secreted protein implicated in multiple cellular events such as chondrogenesis, skeletogenesis, angiogenesis and wound healing. CTGF contains four different structural modules. This modular organization is characteristic of members of the CCN family. The acronym was derived from the first three members discovered, cysteine-rich 61 (CYR61), CTGF and nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV). CTGF is implicated as a mediator of important cell processes such as adhesion, migration, proliferation and differentiation. Extensive data have shown that CTGF interacts particularly with the TGF?, WNT and MAPK signaling pathways. The capacity of CTGF to interact with different growth factors lends it an important role during early and late development, especially in the anterior region of the embryo. ctgf knockout mice have several cranio-facial defects, and the skeletal system is also greatly affected due to an impairment of the vascular-system development during chondrogenesis. This study, for the first time, indicated that CTGF is a potent inductor of gliogenesis during development. Our results showed that in vitro addition of recombinant CTGF protein to an embryonic mouse neural precursor cell culture increased the number of GFAP- and GFAP/Nestin-positive cells. Surprisingly, CTGF also increased the number of Sox2-positive cells. Moreover, this induction seemed not to involve cell proliferation. In addition, exogenous CTGF activated p44/42 but not p38 or JNK MAPK signaling, and increased the expression and deposition of the fibronectin extracellular matrix protein. Finally, CTGF was also able to induce GFAP as well as Nestin expression in a human malignant glioma stem cell line, suggesting a possible role in the differentiation process of gliomas. These results implicate ctgf as a key gene for astrogenesis during development, and suggest that its mechanism may involve activation of p44/42 MAPK signaling. Additionally, CTGF-induced differentiation of glioblastoma stem cells into a less-tumorigenic state could increase the chances of successful intervention, since differentiated cells are more vulnerable to cancer treatments.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0133689
View details for PubMedID 26241738
dsDNA, ssDNA, G-quadruplex DNA, and nucleosomal DNA electrochemical screening using canthin-6-one alkaloid-modified electrodes
2014; 115: 546-552
Gliomas and the vascular fragility of the blood brain barrier.
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience
2014; 8: 418-?
The presence, characteristics, and potential clinical relevance of neural progenitor populations within the neural placodes of myelomeningocele patients remain to be studied. Neural stem cells are known to reside adjacent to ependyma-lined surfaces along the central nervous system axis.Given such neuroanatomic correlation and regenerative capacity in fetal development, we assessed myelomeningocele-derived neural placode tissue as a potentially novel source of neural stem and progenitor cells.Nonfunctional neural placode tissue was harvested from infants during the surgical repair of myelomeningocele and subsequently further analyzed by in vitro studies, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence. To assess lineage potential, neural placode-derived neurospheres were subjected to differential media conditions. Through assessment of platelet-derived growth factor ? (PDGFR?) and CD15 cell marker expression, Sox2+Olig2+ putative oligodendrocyte progenitor cells were successfully isolated.PDGFR?CD15 cell populations demonstrated the highest rate of self-renewal capacity and multipotency of cell progeny. Immunofluorescence of neural placode-derived neurospheres demonstrated preferential expression of the oligodendrocyte progenitor marker, CNPase, whereas differentiation to neurons and astrocytes was also noted, albeit to a limited degree.Neural placode tissue contains multipotent progenitors that are preferentially biased toward oligodendrocyte progenitor cell differentiation and presents a novel source of such cells for use in the treatment of a variety of pediatric and adult neurological disease, including spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, and metabolic leukoencephalopathies.OPC, oligodendrocyte progenitor cellPDGFR?, platelet-derived growth factor receptor ?SCI, spinal cord injury.
View details for DOI 10.1227/NEU.0000000000000918
View details for PubMedID 26225855
Retinoblastoma protein regulates the crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis, and favors glioblastoma resistance to etoposide.
Cell death & disease
Astrocytes, members of the glial family, interact through the exchange of soluble factors or by directly contacting neurons and other brain cells, such as microglia and endothelial cells. Astrocytic projections interact with vessels and act as additional elements of the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB). By mechanisms not fully understood, astrocytes can undergo oncogenic transformation and give rise to gliomas. The tumors take advantage of the BBB to ensure survival and continuous growth. A glioma can develop into a very aggressive tumor, the glioblastoma (GBM), characterized by a highly heterogeneous cell population (including tumor stem cells), extensive proliferation and migration. Nevertheless, gliomas can also give rise to slow growing tumors and in both cases, the afflux of blood, via BBB is crucial. Glioma cells migrate to different regions of the brain guided by the extension of blood vessels, colonizing the healthy adjacent tissue. In the clinical context, GBM can lead to tumor-derived seizures, which represent a challenge to patients and clinicians, since drugs used for its treatment must be able to cross the BBB. Uncontrolled and fast growth also leads to the disruption of the chimeric and fragile vessels in the tumor mass resulting in peritumoral edema. Although hormonal therapy is currently used to control the edema, it is not always efficient. In this review we comment the points cited above, considering the importance of the BBB and the concerns that arise when this barrier is affected.
View details for DOI 10.3389/fncel.2014.00418
View details for PubMedID 25565956
Late adherent human bone marrow stromal cells form bone and restore the hematopoietic microenvironment in vivo.
BioMed research international
2013; 2013: 790842-?
Glioblastomas (GBMs) are devastating tumors of the central nervous system, with a poor prognosis of 1-year survival. This results from a high resistance of GBM tumor cells to current therapeutic options, including etoposide (VP-16). Understanding resistance mechanisms may thus open new therapeutic avenues. VP-16 is a topoisomerase inhibitor that causes replication fork stalling and, ultimately, the formation of DNA double-strand breaks and apoptotic cell death. Autophagy has been identified as a VP-16 treatment resistance mechanism in tumor cells. Retinoblastoma protein (RB) is a classical tumor suppressor owing to its role in G1/S cell cycle checkpoint, but recent data have shown RB participation in many other cellular functions, including, counterintuitively, negative regulation of apoptosis. As GBMs usually display an amplification of the EGFR signaling involving the RB protein pathway, we questioned whether RB might be involved in mechanisms of resistance of GBM cells to VP-16. We observed that RB silencing increased VP-16-induced DNA double-strand breaks and p53 activation. Moreover, RB knockdown increased VP-16-induced apoptosis in GBM cell lines and cancer stem cells, the latter being now recognized essential to resistance to treatments and recurrence. We also showed that VP-16 treatment induced autophagy, and that RB silencing impaired this process by inhibiting the fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes. Taken together, our data suggest that RB silencing causes a blockage on the VP-16-induced autophagic flux, which is followed by apoptosis in GBM cell lines and in cancer stem cells. Therefore, we show here, for the first time, that RB represents a molecular link between autophagy and apoptosis, and a resistance marker in GBM, a discovery with potential importance for anticancer treatment.
View details for DOI 10.1038/cddis.2013.283
View details for PubMedID 23949216
Glioblastoma: Therapeutic challenges, what lies ahead
BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA-REVIEWS ON CANCER
2012; 1826 (2): 338-349
Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are a valuable resource for skeletal regenerative medicine because of their osteogenic potential. In spite of the very general term "stem cell," this population of cells is far from homogeneous, and different BMSCs clones have greatly different phenotypic properties and, therefore, potentially different therapeutic potential. Adherence to a culture flask surface is a primary defining characteristic of BMSCs. We hypothesized that based on the adherence time we could obtain an enriched population of cells with a greater therapeutic potential. We characterized two populations of bone marrow-derived cells, those that adhered by three days (R-cells) and those that did not adhere by three days but did by six days (L-cells). Clones derived from L-cells could be induced into adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic differentiation in vitro. L-cells appeared to have greater proliferative capacity, as manifested by larger colony diameter and clones with higher CD146 expression. Only clones from L-cells developed bone marrow stroma in vivo. We conclude that the use of late adherence of BMSCs is one parameter that can be used to enrich for cells that will constitute a superior final product for cell therapy in orthopedics.
View details for DOI 10.1155/2013/790842
View details for PubMedID 23710460
Astrocyte-induced synaptogenesis is mediated by transforming growth factor ß signaling through modulation of D-serine levels in cerebral cortex neurons.
journal of biological chemistry
2012; 287 (49): 41432-41445
Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most aggressive human cancers. Despite current advances in multimodality therapies, such as surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the outcome for patients with high grade glioma remains fatal. The knowledge of how glioma cells develop and depend on the tumor environment might open opportunities for new therapies. There is now a growing awareness that the main limitations in understanding and successfully treating GBM might be bypassed by the identification of a distinct cell type that has defining properties of somatic stem cells, as well as cancer-initiating capacity - brain tumor stem cells, which could represent a therapeutic target. In addition, experimental studies have demonstrated that the combination of antiangiogenic therapy, based on the disruption of tumor blood vessels, with conventional chemotherapy generates encouraging results. Emerging reports have also shown that microglial cells can be used as therapeutic vectors to transport genes and/or substances to the tumor site, which opens up new perspectives for the development of GBM therapies targeting microglial cells. Finally, recent studies have shown that natural toxins can be conjugated to drugs that bind to overexpressed receptors in cancer cells, generating targeted-toxins to selectively kill cancer cells. These targeted-toxins are highly effective against radiation- and chemotherapy-resistant cancer cells, making them good candidates for clinical trials in GBM patients. In this review, we discuss recent studies that reveal new possibilities of GBM treatment taking into account cancer stem cells, angiogenesis, microglial cells and drug delivery in the development of new targeted-therapies.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbcan.2012.05.004
View details for Web of Science ID 000310104900006
View details for PubMedID 22677165
Microglial stress inducible protein 1 promotes proliferation and migration in human glioblastoma cells.
2012; 200: 130-141
Assembly of synapses requires proper coordination between pre- and postsynaptic elements. Identification of cellular and molecular events in synapse formation and maintenance is a key step to understand human perception, learning, memory, and cognition. A key role for astrocytes in synapse formation and function has been proposed. Here, we show that transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) signaling is a novel synaptogenic pathway for cortical neurons induced by murine and human astrocytes. By combining gain and loss of function approaches, we show that TGF-?1 induces the formation of functional synapses in mice. Further, TGF-?1-induced synaptogenesis involves neuronal activity and secretion of the co-agonist of the NMDA receptor, D-serine. Manipulation of D-serine signaling, by either genetic or pharmacological inhibition, prevented the TGF-?1 synaptogenic effect. Our data show a novel molecular mechanism that might impact synaptic function and emphasize the evolutionary aspect of the synaptogenic property of astrocytes, thus shedding light on new potential therapeutic targets for synaptic deficit diseases.
View details for DOI 10.1074/jbc.M112.380824
View details for PubMedID 23055518
Equinatoxin II potentiates temozolomide- and etoposide-induced glioblastoma cell death.
Current topics in medicinal chemistry
2012; 12 (19): 2082-2093
Microglial activation is a key event in the progression and infiltration of tumors. We have previously demonstrated that the co-chaperone stress inducible protein 1 (STI1), a cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) ligand, promotes glioblastoma (GBM) proliferation. In the present study, we examined the influence of microglial STI1 in the growth and invasion of the human glioblastoma cell line GBM95. We demonstrated that soluble factors secreted by microglia into the culture medium (microglia conditioned medium; MG CM) caused a two-fold increase in the proliferation of GBM95 cells. This effect was reversed when STI1 was removed from the MG CM. In this context, we have shown that microglial cells synthesize and secrete STI1. Interestingly, no difference was observed in proliferation rates when GBM cells were maintained in MG CM or MG CM containing an anti-PrP(C) neutralizing antibody. Moreover, rec STI1 and rec STI1(?230-245), which lack the PrP(C) binding site, both promoted similar levels of GBM95 proliferation. In the migration assays, MG CM favored the migration of GBM95 cells, but migration failed when STI1 was removed from the MG CM. We detected metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) activity in the MG CM, and when cultured microglia were treated with an anti-STI1 antibody, MMP-9 activity decreased. Our results suggest that STI1 is secreted by microglia and favors tumor growth and invasion through the participation of MMP-9 in a PrP(C)-independent manner.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2011.10.025
View details for PubMedID 22062133
Glioblastoma cells: a heterogeneous and fatal tumor interacting with the parenchyma.
2011; 89 (15-16): 532-539
Glioblastoma (GBM) is considered incurable due to its resistance to current cancer treatments. So far, all clinically available alternatives for treating GBM are limited, evoking the development of novel treatment strategies that can more effectively manage these tumors. Extensive effort is being dedicated to characterize the molecular basis of GBM resistance to chemotherapy and to explore novel therapeutic procedures that may improve overall survival. Cytolysins are toxins that form pores in target cell membranes, modifying ion homeostasis and leading to cell death. These pore-forming toxins might be used, therefore, to enhance the efficiency of conventional chemotherapeutic drugs, facilitating their entrance into the cell. In this study, we show that a non-cytotoxic concentration of equinatoxin II (EqTx-II), a pore-forming toxin from the sea anemone Actinia equina, potentiates the cytotoxicity induced by temozolomide (TMZ), a first-line GBM treatment, and by etoposide (VP-16), a second- or third-line GBM treatment. We also suggest that this effect is selective to GBM cells and occurs via PI3K/Akt pathway inhibition. Finally, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed that a non-cytotoxic concentration of EqTx-II potentiates the VP-16-induced inhibition of GBM growth in vivo. These combined therapies constitute a new and potentially valuable tool for GBM treatment, leading to the requirement of lower concentrations of chemotherapeutic drugs and possibly reducing, therefore, the adverse effects of chemotherapy.
View details for PubMedID 23167797
Tenascin-C in the extracellular matrix promotes the selection of highly proliferative and tubulogenesis-defective endothelial cells
EXPERIMENTAL CELL RESEARCH
2011; 317 (15): 2073-2085
Glioblastomas (GBMs) are considered to be one of the deadliest human cancers, characterized by a high proliferative rate, aggressive invasiveness and insensitivity to radio- and chemotherapy, as well as a short patient survival period. Moreover, GBMs are among the most vascularized and invasive cancers in humans. Angiogenesis in GBMs is correlated with the grade of malignancy and is inversely correlated with patient survival. One of the first steps in tumor invasions is migration. GBM cells have the ability to infiltrate and disrupt physical barriers such as basement membranes, extracellular matrix and cell junctions. The invasion process includes the overexpression of several members of a super-family of zinc-based proteinases, the Metzincin, in particular a sub-group, metalloproteinases. Another interesting aspect is that, inside the GBM tissue, there are up to 30% of microglia or macrophages. However, little is known about the immune performance and interactions of the microglia with GBMs. These singular properties of GBMs will be described here. A sub-population of cells with stem-like properties may be the source of tumors since, apparently, GBM stem cells (GSCs) are highly resistant to current cancer treatments. These cancer therapies, while killing the majority of tumor cells, ultimately fail in GBM treatment because they do not eliminate GSCs, which survive to regenerate new tumors. Finally, GBM patient prognostic has shown little improvement in decades. In this context, we will discuss how the membrane-acting toxins called cytolysins can be a potential new tool for GBM treatment.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.lfs.2011.04.022
View details for PubMedID 21641917
Protein kinase C activity regulates d-serine availability in the brain
JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY
2011; 116 (2): 281-290
The extracellular matrix (ECM) contains important cues for tissue homeostasis and morphogenesis. The matricellular protein tenascin-C (TN-C) is overexpressed in remodeling tissues and cancer. In the present work, we studied the effect of different ECM-which exhibited a significant diversity in their TN-C content-in endothelial survival, proliferation and tubulogenic differentiation: autologous (endothelial) ECM devoid of TN-C, but bearing large amounts of FN; fibroblast ECM, bearing both high TN-C and FN contents; and finally, glioma-derived matrices, usually poor in FN, but very rich in TN-C. HUVECs initially adhered to the immobilized matrix produced by U373 MG glioma cells, but significantly detached and died by anoikis (50 to 80%) after 24h, as compared with cells incubated with endothelial and fibroblast matrices. Surviving endothelial cells (20 to 50%) became up to 6-fold more proliferative and formed 74-97% less tube-like structures in vitro than cells grown on non-tumoral matrices. An antibody against the EGF-like repeats of tenascin-C (TN-C) partially rescued cells from the tubulogenic defect, indicating that this molecule is responsible for the selection of highly proliferative and tubulogenic defective endothelial cells. Interestingly, by using defined substrata, in conditions that mimic glioma and normal cell ECM composition, we observed that fibronectin (FN) modulates the TN-C-induced selection of endothelial cells. Our data show that TN-C is able to modulate endothelial branching morphogenesis in vitro and, since it is prevalent in matrices of injured and tumor tissues, also suggest a role for this protein in vascular morphogenesis, in these physiological contexts.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.yexcr.2011.06.006
View details for Web of Science ID 000293682400001
View details for PubMedID 21740900
On the fate of extracellular hemoglobin and heme in brain
JOURNAL OF CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW AND METABOLISM
2009; 29 (6): 1109-1120
D-serine is a co-agonist of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) and plays important roles in synaptic plasticity mechanisms. Serine racemase (SR) is a brain-enriched enzyme that converts L-serine to D-serine. SR interacts with the protein interacting with C-kinase 1 (PICK1), which is known to direct protein kinase C (PKC) to its targets in cells. Here, we investigated whether PKC activity regulates SR activity and D-serine availability in the brain. In vitro, PKC phosphorylated SR and decreased its activity. PKC activation increased SR phosphorylation in serine residues and reduced D-serine levels in astrocyte and neuronal cultures. Conversely, PKC inhibition decreased basal SR phosphorylation and increased cellular D-serine levels. In vivo modulation of PKC activity regulated both SR phosphorylation and D-serine levels in rat frontal cortex. Finally, rats that completed an object recognition task showed decreased SR phosphorylation and increased D-serine/total serine ratios, which was markedly correlated with decreased PKC activity in both cortex and hippocampus. Results indicate that PKC phosphorylates SR in serine residues and regulates D-serine availability in the brain. This interaction may be relevant for the regulation of physiological and pathological mechanisms linked to NMDAR function.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2010.07102.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000285394800012
View details for PubMedID 21070240
STI1 promotes glioma proliferation through AUPK and PI3K pathways
2007; 55 (16): 1690-1698
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a major cause of disability in adults worldwide. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is complex, involving both inflammatory and redox components triggered by the extravasation of blood into the cerebral parenchyma. Hemoglobin, heme, and iron released therein seem be important in the brain damage observed in ICH. However, there is a lack of information concerning hemoglobin traffic and metabolism in brain cells. Here, we investigated the fate of hemoglobin and heme in cultured neurons and astrocytes, as well as in the cortex of adult rats. Hemoglobin was made traceable by conjugation to Alexa 488, whereas a fluorescent heme analogue (tin-protoporphyrin IX) was prepared to allow heme tracking. Using fluorescence microscopy we observed that neurons were more efficient in uptake hemoglobin and heme than astrocytes. Exposure of cortical neurons to hemoglobin or heme resulted in an oxidative stress condition. Viability assays showed that neurons were more susceptible to both hemoglobin and heme toxicity than astrocytes. Together, these results show that neurons, rather than astrocytes, preferentially take up hemoglobin-derived products, indicating that these cells are actively involved in the ICH-associated brain damage.
View details for DOI 10.1038/jcbfm.2009.34
View details for Web of Science ID 000266451700005
View details for PubMedID 19337276
Gliomas are tumors derived from glia or their precursors within the central nervous system. Clinically, gliomas are divided into four grades and the glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), also referred as grade IV astrocytoma, is the most aggressive and the most common glioma in humans. The prognosis for patients with GBM remains dismal, with a median survival of 9-12 months. Despite their striking heterogeneity, common alterations in specific cellular signal transduction pathways occur within most GBMs. Previous work from our group identified the co-chaperone stress-inducible protein 1 (STI1) as a cell surface ligand for cellular prion (PrP(C)), which leads to the activation of several signal transduction pathways, some of which modulate cell survival. In the present work, we used thymidine incorporation assays to investigate the effect of STI1 upon proliferation of the human glioblastoma-derived cell line A172. Here we report that STI1 is secreted by and induces proliferation in tumor cells, an effect that is modulated by the Erk and PI3K pathways, and that, in contrast to glioma cells, STI1 does not induce proliferation of normal glia. In addition, our data suggest the involvement of PrP(C) in STI1-induced proliferation of A172 cells. These results provide initial evidence of a new functional role for STI1 on the physiology of human gliomas, and may lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets in these tumors.
View details for DOI 10.1002/glia.20579
View details for Web of Science ID 000250702300008
View details for PubMedID 17886292