Bachelor of Science, University of Washington (2005)
Doctor of Philosophy, University of California San Francisco (2011)
Robert Malenka, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
Several symptoms associated with chronic pain, including fatigue and depression, are characterized by reduced motivation to initiate or complete goal-directed tasks. However, it is unknown whether maladaptive modifications in neural circuits that regulate motivation occur during chronic pain. Here, we demonstrate that the decreased motivation elicited in mice by two different models of chronic pain requires a galanin receptor 1-triggered depression of excitatory synaptic transmission in indirect pathway nucleus accumbens medium spiny neurons. These results demonstrate a previously unknown pathological adaption in a key node of motivational neural circuitry that is required for one of the major sequela of chronic pain states and syndromes.
View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1253994
View details for Web of Science ID 000339651300039
A fundamental and still largely unresolved question is how neurons achieve rapid delivery of selected signaling receptors throughout the elaborate dendritic arbor. Here we show that this requires a conserved sorting machinery called retromer. Retromer-associated endosomes are distributed within dendrites in ?2 ?m intervals and supply frequent membrane fusion events into the dendritic shaft domain immediately adjacent to (<300 nm from) the donor endosome and typically without full endosome discharge. Retromer-associated endosomes contain ?-adrenergic receptors as well as ionotropic glutamate receptors, and retromer knockdown reduces extrasynaptic insertion of adrenergic receptors as well as functional expression of AMPA and NMDA receptors at synapses. We propose that retromer supports a broadly distributed network of plasma membrane delivery to dendrites, organized in micron-scale axial territories to render essentially all regions of the postsynaptic surface within rapid diffusion distance of a local exocytic event.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.neuron.2014.02.018
View details for Web of Science ID 000333804800007
View details for PubMedID 24698268
Endocytic sorting of signalling receptors between recycling and degradative pathways is a key cellular process controlling the surface complement of receptors and, accordingly, the cell's ability to respond to specific extracellular stimuli. The ?2 adrenergic receptor (?2AR) is a prototypical seven-transmembrane signalling receptor that recycles rapidly and efficiently to the plasma membrane after ligand-induced endocytosis. ?2AR recycling is dependent on the receptor's carboxy-terminal PDZ ligand and Rab4. This active sorting process is required for functional resensitization of ?2AR-mediated signalling. Here we show that sequence-directed sorting occurs at the level of entry into retromer tubules and that retromer tubules are associated with Rab4. Furthermore, we show that sorting nexin 27 (SNX27) serves as an essential adaptor protein linking ?2ARs to the retromer tubule. SNX27 does not seem to directly interact with the retromer core complex, but does interact with the retromer-associated Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein and SCAR homologue (WASH) complex. The present results identify a role for retromer in endocytic trafficking of signalling receptors, in regulating a receptor-linked signalling pathway, and in mediating direct endosome-to-plasma membrane traffic.
View details for DOI 10.1038/ncb2252
View details for Web of Science ID 000291147400013
View details for PubMedID 21602791
The functional consequences of signaling receptor endocytosis are determined by the endosomal sorting of receptors between degradation and recycling pathways. How receptors recycle efficiently, in a sequence-dependent manner that is distinct from bulk membrane recycling, is not known. Here, in live cells, we visualize the sorting of a prototypical sequence-dependent recycling receptor, the beta-2 adrenergic receptor, from bulk recycling proteins and the degrading delta-opioid receptor. Our results reveal a remarkable diversity in recycling routes at the level of individual endosomes, and indicate that sequence-dependent recycling is an active process mediated by distinct endosomal subdomains distinct from those mediating bulk recycling. We identify a specialized subset of tubular microdomains on endosomes, stabilized by a highly localized but dynamic actin machinery, that mediate this sorting, and provide evidence that these actin-stabilized domains provide the physical basis for a two-step kinetic and affinity-based model for protein sorting into the sequence-dependent recycling pathway.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2010.10.003
View details for Web of Science ID 000284583500018
View details for PubMedID 21111236
Postsynaptic density 95/discs large/zonus occludens-1 (PDZ) domain-interacting motifs, in addition to their well-established roles in protein scaffolding at the cell surface, are proposed to act as cis-acting determinants directing the molecular sorting of transmembrane cargo from endosomes to the plasma membrane. This hypothesis requires the existence of a specific trans-acting PDZ protein that mediates the proposed sorting operation in the endosome membrane. Here, we show that sorting nexin 27 (SNX27) is required for efficient PDZ-directed recycling of the beta(2)-adrenoreceptor (beta(2)AR) from early endosomes. SNX27 mediates this sorting function when expressed at endogenous levels, and its recycling activity requires both PDZ domain-dependent recognition of the beta(2)AR cytoplasmic tail and Phox homology (PX) domain-dependent association with the endosome membrane. These results identify a discrete role of SNX27 in PDZ-directed recycling of a physiologically important signaling receptor, and extend the concept of cargo-specific molecular sorting in the recycling pathway.
View details for DOI 10.1083/jcb.201004060
View details for Web of Science ID 000281481800011
View details for PubMedID 20733053
trkB activation results in tyrosine phosphorylation of N-terminal Kir3 residues, decreasing channel activation. To determine the mechanism of this effect, we reconstituted Kir3, trkB, and the mu opioid receptor in Xenopus oocytes. Activation of trkB by BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) accelerated Kir3 deactivation following termination of mu opioid receptor signaling. Similarly, overexpression of RGS4, a GTPase-activating protein (GAP), accelerated Kir3 deactivation. Blocking GTPase activity with GTPgammaS also prevented Kir3 deactivation, and the GTPgammaS effect was not reversed by BDNF treatment. These results suggest that BDNF treatment did not reduce Kir3 affinity for Gbetagamma but rather acted to accelerate GTPase activity, like RGS4. Tyrosine phosphatase inhibition by peroxyvanadate pretreatment reversibly mimicked the BDNF/trkB effect, indicating that tyrosine phosphorylation of Kir3 may have caused the GTPase acceleration. Tyrosine to phenylalanine substitution in the N-terminal domain of Kir3.4 blocked the BDNF effect, supporting the hypothesis that phosphorylation of these tyrosines was responsible. Like other GAPs, Kir3.4 contains a tyrosine-arginine-glutamine motif that is thought to function by interacting with G protein catalytic domains to facilitate GTP hydrolysis. These data suggest that the N-terminal tyrosine hydroxyls in Kir3 normally mask the GAP activity and that modification by phosphorylation or phenylalanine substitution reveals the GAP domain. Thus, BDNF activation of trkB could inhibit Kir3 by facilitating channel deactivation.
View details for Web of Science ID 000177859000039
View details for PubMedID 12082117