ROS-Induced Activation of DNA Damage Responses Drives Senescence-Like State in Postmitotic Cochlear Cells: Implication for Hearing Preservation.
Reversible p53 inhibition prevents cisplatin ototoxicity without blocking chemotherapeutic efficacy.
EMBO molecular medicine
2017; 9 (1): 7-26
In our aging society, age-related hearing loss (ARHL) has become a major socioeconomic issue. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be one of the main causal factors of age-related cochlear cell degeneration. We examined whether ROS-induced DNA damage response drives cochlear cell senescence and contributes to ARHL from the cellular up to the system level. Our results revealed that sublethal concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exposure initiated a DNA damage response illustrated by increased ?H2AX and 53BP1 expression and foci formation mainly in sensory hair cells, together with increased levels of p-Chk2 and p53. Interestingly, postmitotic cochlear cells exposed to H2O2 displayed key hallmarks of senescent cells, including dramatically increased levels of p21, p38, and p-p38 expression, concomitant with decreased p19 and BubR1 expression and positive senescence-associated ?-galactosidase labeling. Importantly, the synthetic superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic EUK-207 attenuated H2O2-induced DNA damage and senescence phenotypes in cochlear cells in vitro. Furthermore, systemic administration of EUK-207 reduced age-related loss of hearing and hair cell degeneration in senescence-accelerated mouse-prone 8 (SAMP8) mice. Altogether, these findings highlight that ROS-induced DNA damage responses drive cochlear cell senescence and contribute to accelerated ARHL. EUK-207 and likely other antioxidants with similar mechanisms of action could potentially postpone cochlear aging and prevent ARHL in humans.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s12035-019-1493-6
View details for PubMedID 30693443
Impairment of Visual Function and Retinal ER Stress Activation in Wfs1-Deficient Mice
2014; 9 (5)
Cisplatin is a widely used chemotherapy drug, despite its significant ototoxic side effects. To date, the mechanism of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity remains unclear, and hearing preservation during cisplatin-based chemotherapy in patients is lacking. We found activation of the ATM-Chk2-p53 pathway to be a major determinant of cisplatin ototoxicity. However, prevention of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity is hampered by opposite effects of ATM activation upon sensory hair cells: promoting both outer hair cell death and inner hair cell survival. Encouragingly, however, genetic or pharmacological ablation of p53 substantially attenuated cochlear cell apoptosis, thus preserving hearing. Importantly, systemic administration of a p53 inhibitor in mice bearing patient-derived triple-negative breast cancer protected auditory function, without compromising the anti-tumor efficacy of cisplatin. Altogether, these findings highlight a novel and effective strategy for hearing protection in cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
View details for DOI 10.15252/emmm.201606230
View details for PubMedID 27794029
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5210089