Professional Education

  • Doctor of Philosophy, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, Laboratory for Cognitive Neuroscience, Face-emotion processing (2007)
  • Doctor of Philosophy, Alliant International Universi (2007)
  • Master of Science, Canisius College (2002)

Stanford Advisors

Research & Scholarship

Lab Affiliations

  • Ian Gotlib, Stanford Mood and Anxiety Disorders Laboratory (9/17/2012)


Journal Articles

  • Shorter gaze duration for happy faces in current but not remitted depression: Evidence from eye movements(Link) Psychiatry Research Isaac, L., Vrijsen, J. N., Rinck, M., Speckens, A., Becker, E. S. 2014
  • Challenges to be overcome using population-based sampling methods to recruit veterans for a study of post-traumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury BMC Medical Research Methodology Bayley, P. J. 2014
  • Coherence Between Attentional and Memory Biases in Sad and Formerly Depressed Individuals Cognitive Therapy and Research Vrijsen, J. N., Van Oostrom, I., Isaac, L., Speckens, A., Becker, E. S. 2013

    View details for DOI 0.1007/s10608-013-9590-8

  • EEG Coherence between prefrontal and posterior cortical regions is related to negative personality traits FRONTIERS IN HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE Isaac, L., Bayley, P. J. 2012; 6

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00269

    View details for Web of Science ID 000309580900001

    View details for PubMedID 23060773

  • Verbal and facial-emotional Stroop tasks reveal specific attentional interferences in sad mood Brain & Behavior Linda Isaac, Janna N Vrijsen, Paul Eling, Iris van Oostrom, Anne Speckens, Eni S Becker 2012; 2 (1): 74-83
  • Facing the future: face-emotion processing deficits as a potential biomarker for various psychiatric and neurological disorders Frontiers in Emotion Science Linda Isaac 2012
  • Featural vs. Configural Face Processing Strategies in a rare genetic disorder: Williams Syndrome Journal of Intellectual Disability Research Linda Isaac 2011; 55 (11): 1034-1042
  • Morphed emotional faces: emotion detection and misinterpretation in social anxiety Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry Heuer K, Lange WG, Isaac L, Rinck M, Becker ES 2010; 41 (4): 418-425
  • The psychophysiology of generalized anxiety disorder: 2. Effects of applied relaxation PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY Conrad, A., Isaac, L., Roth, W. T. 2008; 45 (3): 377-388


    Muscle relaxation therapy assumes that generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients lack the ability to relax but can learn this in therapy. We tested this by randomizing 49 GAD patients to 12 weeks of Applied Relaxation (AR) or waiting. Before, during, and after treatment participants underwent relaxation tests. Before treatment, GAD patients were more worried than healthy controls (n=21) and had higher heart rates and lower end-tidal pCO2, but not higher muscle tension (A. Conrad, L. Isaac, & W.T. Roth, 2008). AR resulted in greater symptomatic improvement than waiting. However, 28% of the AR group dropped out of treatment and some patients relapsed at the 6-week follow-up. There was little evidence that AR participants learned to relax in therapy or that a reduction in anxiety was associated with a decrease in activation. We conclude that the clinical effects of AR in improving GAD symptoms are moderate at most and cannot be attributed to reducing muscle tension or autonomic activation.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1469-8986.2007.00644.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000254792100006

    View details for PubMedID 18221441

  • The psychophysiology of generalized anxiety disorder: 1. Pretreatment characteristics PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY Conrad, A., Isaac, L., Roth, W. T. 2008; 45 (3): 366-376


    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients have been reported to have more muscle tension than controls, which has provided a rationale for treating them with muscle relaxation therapies (MRT). We tested this rationale by comparing 49 GAD patients with 21 controls. Participants underwent 5-min relaxation tests, during which they either just sat quietly (QS) or sat quietly and tried to relax (R). GAD patients reported themselves to be more worried during the assessment than the controls, had higher heart rates and lower end-tidal pCO2, but not higher muscle tension as measured by multiple EMGs. QS and R did not differ on most psychological and physiological measures, indicating that intention to relax did not affect speed of relaxation. In the GAD group, self-reported anxiety was not associated with electromyographic or autonomic measures. We conclude that GAD is not necessarily characterized by chronic muscle tension, and that this rationale for MRT should be reconsidered.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1469-8986.2007.00601.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000254792100005

    View details for PubMedID 18221449


  • The Additive Impact of Clinical Depression on white matter abnormalities in Veterans with Co-morbid PTSD &Traumatic Brain Injury: a diffusion tensor imaging study (Society for Neuroscience, 2013)


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