I am a second-year medical student here at Stanford. I completed my doctoral research on training and evaluation of robotic surgical techniques with the Biorobotics Lab at the University of Washington in Spring 2013. I am interested in surgical robotics, training, and technology in the OR, with special interest in cardiothoracic, urologic and general surgery.


Journal Articles

  • Preliminary Articulable Probe Designs With RAVEN and Challenges: Image-Guided Robotic Surgery Multitool System JOURNAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME Yoon, W. J., Velasquez, C. A., White, L. W., Hannaford, B., Kim, Y. S., Lendvay, T. S. 2014; 8 (1)

    View details for DOI 10.1115/1.4025908

    View details for Web of Science ID 000330355200014

  • Raven surgical robot training in preparation for da vinci. Studies in health technology and informatics Glassman, D., White, L., Lewis, A., King, H., Clarke, A., Glassman, T., Comstock, B., Hannaford, B., Lendvay, T. S. 2014; 196: 135-141


    The rapid adoption of robotic assisted surgery challenges the pace at which adequate robotic training can occur due to access limitations to the da Vinci robot. Thirty medical students completed a randomized controlled trial evaluating whether the Raven robot could be used as an alternative training tool for the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) block transfer task on the da Vinci robot. Two groups, one trained on the da Vinci and one trained on the Raven, were tested on a criterion FLS block transfer task on the da Vinci. After robotic FLS block transfer proficiency training there was no statistically significant difference between path length (p=0.39) and economy of motion scores (p=0.06) between the two groups, but those trained on the da Vinci did have faster task times (p=0.01). These results provide evidence for the value of using the Raven robot for training prior to using the da Vinci surgical system for similar tasks.

    View details for PubMedID 24732494

  • SurgTrak - A Universal Platform for Quantitative Surgical Data Capture JOURNAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME Ruda, K., Beekman, D., White, L. W., Lendvay, T. S., Kowalewski, T. M. 2013; 7 (3)

    View details for DOI 10.1115/1.4024525

    View details for Web of Science ID 000326119200023

  • Virtual Reality Robotic Surgery Warm-Up Improves Task Performance in a Dry Laboratory Environment: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SURGEONS Lendvay, T. S., Brand, T. C., White, L., Kowalewski, T., Jonnadula, S., Mercer, L. D., Khorsand, D., Andros, J., Hannaford, B., Satava, R. M. 2013; 216 (6): 1181-1192


    Preoperative simulation warm-up has been shown to improve performance and reduce errors in novice and experienced surgeons, yet existing studies have only investigated conventional laparoscopy. We hypothesized that a brief virtual reality (VR) robotic warm-up would enhance robotic task performance and reduce errors.In a 2-center randomized trial, 51 residents and experienced minimally invasive surgery faculty in General Surgery, Urology, and Gynecology underwent a validated robotic surgery proficiency curriculum on a VR robotic simulator and on the da Vinci surgical robot (Intuitive Surgical Inc). Once they successfully achieved performance benchmarks, surgeons were randomized to either receive a 3- to 5-minute VR simulator warm-up or read a leisure book for 10 minutes before performing similar and dissimilar (intracorporeal suturing) robotic surgery tasks. The primary outcomes compared were task time, tool path length, economy of motion, technical, and cognitive errors.Task time (-29.29 seconds, p = 0.001; 95% CI, -47.03 to -11.56), path length (-79.87 mm; p = 0.014; 95% CI, -144.48 to -15.25), and cognitive errors were reduced in the warm-up group compared with the control group for similar tasks. Global technical errors in intracorporeal suturing (0.32; p = 0.020; 95% CI, 0.06-0.59) were reduced after the dissimilar VR task. When surgeons were stratified by earlier robotic and laparoscopic clinical experience, the more experienced surgeons (n = 17) demonstrated significant improvements from warm-up in task time (-53.5 seconds; p = 0.001; 95% CI, -83.9 to -23.0) and economy of motion (0.63 mm/s; p = 0.007; 95% CI, 0.18-1.09), and improvement in these metrics was not statistically significantly appreciated in the less-experienced cohort (n = 34).We observed significant performance improvement and error reduction rates among surgeons of varying experience after VR warm-up for basic robotic surgery tasks. In addition, the VR warm-up reduced errors on a more complex task (robotic suturing), suggesting the generalizability of the warm-up.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2013.02.012

    View details for Web of Science ID 000319039900020

    View details for PubMedID 23583618

  • Raven-II: An Open Platform for Surgical Robotics Research IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING Hannaford, B., Rosen, J., Friedman, D. W., King, H., Roan, P., Cheng, L., Glozman, D., Ma, J., Kosari, S. N., White, L. 2013; 60 (4): 954-959


    The Raven-II is a platform for collaborative research on advances in surgical robotics. Seven universities have begun research using this platform. The Raven-II system has two 3-DOF spherical positioning mechanisms capable of attaching interchangeable four DOF instruments. The Raven-II software is based on open standards such as Linux and ROS to maximally facilitate software development. The mechanism is robust enough for repeated experiments and animal surgery experiments, but is not engineered to sufficient safety standards for human use. Mechanisms in place for interaction among the user community and dissemination of results include an electronic forum, an online software SVN repository, and meetings and workshops at major robotics conferences.

    View details for DOI 10.1109/TBME.2012.2228858

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316812200011

    View details for PubMedID 23204264

  • Content and Construct Validation of a Robotic Surgery Curriculum Using an Electromagnetic Instrument Tracker JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Tausch, T. J., Kowalewski, T. M., White, L. W., McDonough, P. S., Brand, T. C., Lendvay, T. S. 2012; 188 (3): 919-923


    Rapid adoption of robot-assisted surgery has outpaced our ability to train novice roboticists. Objective metrics are required to adequately assess robotic surgical skills and yet surrogates for proficiency, such as economy of motion and tool path metrics, are not readily accessible directly from the da VinciŽ robot system. The trakSTAR? Tool Tip Tracker is a widely available, cost-effective electromagnetic position sensing mechanism by which objective proficiency metrics can be quantified. We validated a robotic surgery curriculum using the trakSTAR device to objectively capture robotic task proficiency metrics.Through an institutional review board approved study 10 subjects were recruited from 2 surgical experience groups (novice and experienced). All subjects completed 3 technical skills modules, including block transfer, intracorporeal suturing/knot tying (fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery) and ring tower transfer, using the da Vinci robot with the trakSTAR device affixed to the robotic instruments. Recorded objective metrics included task time and path length, which were used to calculate economy of motion. Student t test statistics were performed using STATAŽ.The novice and experienced groups consisted of 5 subjects each. The experienced group outperformed the novice group in all 3 tasks. Experienced surgeons described the simulator platform as useful for training and agreed with incorporating it into a residency curriculum.Robotic surgery curricula can be validated by an off-the-shelf instrument tracking system. This platform allows surgical educators to objectively assess trainees and may provide credentialing offices with a means of objectively assessing any surgical staff member seeking robotic surgery privileges at an institution.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2012.05.005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000307551200091

    View details for PubMedID 22819403

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