Bio

Current Role at Stanford


Biostatistician, QSU, BMIR

Education & Certifications


  • MS, University of Minnesota, Biostatistics (2012)
  • BME, University of Minnesota, Mechanical Engineering (2009)
  • AS, Minneapolis Community and Technical College, Mathematics (2006)

Patents


  • Benjamin Arcand, Bryan N. Rolfes, Nikhil M. Murdeshwar, Joseph E. Hale, Steven M. Johnson, Luke A. Mitlyng, Joseph Mullenbach, Kristopher I. Kapphahn. "United States Patent US 8402619 B2 System and method for reducing environmental crematorial release of mercury from mercury-containing dental amalgam", Minnesota Funeral Directors Association, Mar 26, 2013

Publications

All Publications


  • Alcohol Use and Breast Cancer Survival among Participants in the Women's Health Initiative. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology Lowry, S. J., Kapphahn, K., Chlebowski, R., Li, C. I. 2016; 25 (8): 1268-1273

    Abstract

    Alcohol increases the risk of breast cancer even at moderate levels of intake. However, the relationship between alcohol consumption and mortality among breast cancer patients is less clear.This study included women from the Women's Health Initiative observational study and randomized trial diagnosed with breast cancer (n = 7,835). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate adjusted HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for overall and breast cancer-specific (BCS) mortality associated with drinking alcohol before or after a breast cancer diagnosis. We also assessed whether changes in drinking habits after diagnosis are related to mortality.Women who were consuming alcohol prior to their breast cancer diagnosis had a nonstatistically significant 24% (95% CI, 0.56-1.04) reduced risk of BCS mortality and a 26% (95% CI, 0.61-0.89) reduced risk of all-cause mortality. Some variation was observed by estrogen receptor (ER) status as alcohol consumption was associated with a 49% (95% CI, 0.31-0.83) reduced risk of BCS mortality among ER(-) patients with no change in risk observed among ER(+) patients (HR = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.31-1.54), though the difference between these risks was not statistically significant (P for interaction = 0.39). Postdiagnosis alcohol consumption, and change in consumption patterns after diagnosis, did not appear to be associated with all-cause or BCS mortality.In this large study, consumption of alcohol before or after breast cancer diagnosis did not increase risks of overall or cause-specific mortality.Coupled with existing evidence, alcohol consumption is unlikely to have a substantial impact on mortality among breast cancer patients. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(8); 1268-73. ©2016 AACR.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-16-0151

    View details for PubMedID 27197280

  • Association of Leptin with Body Pain in Women. Journal of women's health (2002) Younger, J., Kapphahn, K., Brennan, K., Sullivan, S. D., Stefanick, M. L. 2016; 25 (7): 752-760

    Abstract

    Leptin, an appetite-regulatory hormone, is also known to act as a proinflammatory adipokine. One of the effects of increased systemic leptin concentrations may be greater sensitivity to pain. We report the results of two studies examining the association between leptin and pain: a small pilot longitudinal study, followed by a large cross-sectional study. In Study 1, three women with physician-diagnosed fibromyalgia provided blood draws daily for 25 consecutive days, as well as daily self-reported musculoskeletal pain. Daily fluctuations in serum leptin were positively associated with pain across all three participants (F (1,63)?=?12.8, p?

    View details for DOI 10.1089/jwh.2015.5509

    View details for PubMedID 27028709

  • Impact of residential UV exposure in childhood versus adulthood on skin cancer risk in Caucasian, postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative CANCER CAUSES & CONTROL Ransohoff, K. J., Ally, M. S., Stefanick, M. L., Keiser, E., Spaunhurst, K., Kapphahn, K., Pagoto, S., Messina, C., Hedlin, H., Manson, J. E., Tang, J. Y. 2016; 27 (6): 817-823

    Abstract

    Sun exposure is a major risk factor for skin cancer; however, the relative contribution of ultraviolet (UV) exposure during childhood versus adulthood on skin cancer risk remains unclear.Our goal was to determine the impact of residential UV, measured by AVerage daily total GLObal solar radiation (AVGLO), exposure during childhood (birth, 15 years) versus adulthood (35, 50 years, and present) on incident non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and malignant melanoma (MM) in postmenopausal women.Women were followed with yearly surveys throughout the duration of their participation in the Women's Health Initiative Observational study, a multicenter study from 1993 to 2005. A total of 56,557 women had data on all observations and were included in the baseline characteristics. The main exposure, residential UV (as measured by AVGLO), was measured by geographic residence during childhood and adulthood. Outcome was risk of incident NMSC and MM.Over 11.9 years (median follow-up), there were 9,195 (16.3 %) cases of NMSC and 518 (0.92 %) cases of MM. Compared with the reference group (women with low childhood and low adulthood UV), women with low childhood and high adulthood UV had a 21 % increased risk of NMSC (odds ratio 1.21, 95 % confidence interval 1.12, 1.31). Women with high childhood and high adulthood UV had a 19 % increased risk of NMSC (odds ratio 1.19, 95 % confidence interval 1.11, 1.27). Surprisingly, women with high childhood UV and low adulthood UV did not have a significant increase in NMSC risk compared with the reference group (odds ratio 1.08, 95 % confidence interval 0.91, 1.28) in multivariable models. Residential UV exposure in childhood or adulthood was not associated with increased melanoma risk.This study reveals an increase in NMSC risk associated with adulthood residential UV exposure, with no effect for childhood UV exposure.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10552-016-0730-9

    View details for Web of Science ID 000376619500011

    View details for PubMedID 27153844

  • Relation of statin use with non-melanoma skin cancer: prospective results from the Women's Health Initiative BRITISH JOURNAL OF CANCER Wang, A., Stefanick, M. L., Kapphahn, K., Hedlin, H., Desai, M., Manson, J. A., Strickler, H., Martin, L., Wactawski-Wende, J., Simon, M., Tang, J. Y. 2016; 114 (3): 314-320

    Abstract

    The relationship between statin use and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is unclear with conflicting findings in literature. Data from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study and WHI Clinical Trial were used to investigate the prospective relationship between statin use and NMSC in non-Hispanic white (NHW) postmenopausal women.The WHI study enrolled women aged 50-79 years at 40 US centres. Among 133?541 NHW participants, 118?357 with no cancer history at baseline and complete medication/covariate data comprised the analytic cohort. The association of statin use (baseline, overall as a time-varying variable, duration, type, potency, lipophilicity) and NMSC incidence was determined using random-effects logistic regression models.Over a mean of 10.5 years of follow-up, we identified 11?555 NMSC cases. Compared with participants with no statin use, use of any statin at baseline was associated with significantly increased NMSC incidence (adjusted odds ratio (ORadj) 1.21; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-1.35)). In particular, lovastatin (OR 1.52; 95% CI: 1.08-2.16), simvastatin (OR 1.38; 95% CI: 1.12-1.69), and lipophilic statins (OR 1.39; 95% CI: 1.18-1.64) were associated with higher NMSC risk. Low and high, but not medium, potency statins were associated with higher NMSC risk. No significant effect modification of the statin-NMSC relationship was found for age, BMI, smoking, solar irradiation, vitamin D use, and skin cancer history.Use of statins, particularly lipophilic statins, was associated with increased NMSC risk in postmenopausal white women in the WHI cohort. The lack of duration-effect relationship points to possible residual confounding. Additional prospective research should further investigate this relationship.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/bjc.2015.376

    View details for Web of Science ID 000369223600011

    View details for PubMedID 26742009

  • Racial and Ethnic Variations in Lung Cancer Incidence and Mortality: Results From the Women's Health Initiative. Journal of clinical oncology Patel, M. I., Wang, A., Kapphahn, K., Desai, M., Chlebowski, R. T., Simon, M. S., Bird, C. E., Corbie-Smith, G., Gomez, S. L., Adams-Campbell, L. L., Cote, M. L., Stefanick, M. L., Wakelee, H. A. 2016; 34 (4): 360-368

    Abstract

    This study aimed to evaluate racial/ethnic differences in lung cancer incidence and mortality in the Women's Health Initiative Study, a longitudinal prospective cohort evaluation of postmenopausal women recruited from 40 clinical centers.Lung cancer diagnoses were centrally adjudicated by pathology review. Baseline survey questionnaires collected sociodemographic and health information. Logistic regression models estimated incidence and mortality odds by race/ethnicity adjusted for age, education, calcium/vitamin D, body mass index, smoking (status, age at start, duration, and pack-years), alcohol, family history, oral contraceptive, hormones, physical activity, and diet.The cohort included 129,951 women--108,487 (83%) non-Hispanic white (NHW); 10,892 (8%) non-Hispanic black (NHB); 4,882 (4%) Hispanic; 3,696 (3%) Asian/Pacific Islander (API); 534 (< 1%) American Indian/Alaskan Native; and 1,994 (1%) other. In unadjusted models, Hispanics had 66% lower odds of lung cancer compared with NHW (odds ratio [OR], 0.34; 95% CI, 0.2 to 0.5), followed by API (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.75) and NHB (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.95). In fully adjusted multivariable models, the decreased lung cancer risk for Hispanic compared with NHW women attenuated to the null (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.99). In unadjusted models Hispanic and API women had decreased risk of death compared with NHW women (OR, 0.30 [95% CI, 0.15 to 0.62] and 0.34 [95% CI, 0.16 to 0.75, respectively); however, no racial/ethnic differences were found in risk of lung cancer death in fully adjusted models.Differences in lung cancer incidence and mortality are associated with sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral factors. These findings suggest modifiable exposures and behaviors may contribute to differences in incidence of and mortality by race/ethnicity for postmenopausal women. Interventions focused on these factors may reduce racial/ethnic differences in lung cancer incidence and mortality.

    View details for DOI 10.1200/JCO.2015.63.5789

    View details for PubMedID 26700122

  • Kidney Function and Cardiovascular Events in Postmenopausal Women: The Impact of Race and Ethnicity in the Women's Health Initiative AMERICAN JOURNAL OF KIDNEY DISEASES Arce, C. M., Rhee, J. J., Cheung, K. L., Hedlin, H., Kapphahn, K., Franceschini, N., Kalil, R. S., Martin, L. W., Qi, L., Shara, N. M., Desai, M., Stefanick, M. L., Winkelmayer, W. C. 2016; 67 (2): 198-208
  • Gene by Environment Investigation of Incident Lung Cancer Risk in African-Americans. EBioMedicine David, S. P., Wang, A., Kapphahn, K., Hedlin, H., Desai, M., Henderson, M., Yang, L., Walsh, K. M., Schwartz, A. G., Wiencke, J. K., Spitz, M. R., Wenzlaff, A. S., Wrensch, M. R., Eaton, C. B., Furberg, H., Mark Brown, W., Goldstein, B. A., Assimes, T., Tang, H., Kooperberg, C. L., Quesenberry, C. P., Tindle, H., Patel, M. I., Amos, C. I., Bergen, A. W., Swan, G. E., Stefanick, M. L. 2016; 4: 153-161

    Abstract

    Genome-wide association studies have identified polymorphisms linked to both smoking exposure and risk of lung cancer. The degree to which lung cancer risk is driven by increased smoking, genetics, or gene-environment interactions is not well understood.We analyzed associations between 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with smoking quantity and lung cancer in 7156 African-American females in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), then analyzed main effects of top nominally significant SNPs and interactions between SNPs, cigarettes per day (CPD) and pack-years for lung cancer in an independent, multi-center case-control study of African-American females and males (1078 lung cancer cases and 822 controls).Nine nominally significant SNPs for CPD in WHI were associated with incident lung cancer (corrected p-values from 0.027 to 6.09 × 10(- 5)). CPD was found to be a nominally significant effect modifier between SNP and lung cancer for six SNPs, including CHRNA5 rs2036527[A](betaSNP*CPD = - 0.017, p = 0.0061, corrected p = 0.054), which was associated with CPD in a previous genome-wide meta-analysis of African-Americans.These results suggest that chromosome 15q25.1 variants are robustly associated with CPD and lung cancer in African-Americans and that the allelic dose effect of these polymorphisms on lung cancer risk is most pronounced in lighter smokers.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ebiom.2016.01.002

    View details for PubMedID 26981579

  • Weight loss on low-fat vs. low-carbohydrate diets by insulin resistance status among overweight adults and adults with obesity: A randomized pilot trial OBESITY Gardner, C. D., Offringa, L. C., Hartle, J. C., Kapphahn, K., Cherin, R. 2016; 24 (1): 79-86

    View details for DOI 10.1002/oby.21331

    View details for Web of Science ID 000367189800014

  • Leading Causes of Death among Asian American Subgroups (2003-2011) PLOS ONE Hastings, K. G., Jose, P. O., Kapphahn, K. I., Frank, A. T., Goldstein, B. A., Thompson, C. A., Eggleston, K., Cullen, M. R., Palaniappan, L. P. 2015; 10 (4)
  • Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Asian Americans JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Jose, P. O., Frank, A. T., Kapphahn, K. I., Goldstein, B. A., Eggleston, K., Hastings, K. G., Cullen, M. R., Palaniappan, L. P. 2014; 64 (23): 2486-2494

    Abstract

    Asian Americans are a rapidly growing racial/ethnic group in the United States. Our current understanding of Asian-American cardiovascular disease mortality patterns is distorted by the aggregation of distinct subgroups.The purpose of the study was to examine heart disease and stroke mortality rates in Asian-American subgroups to determine racial/ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease mortality within the United States.We examined heart disease and stroke mortality rates for the 6 largest Asian-American subgroups (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese) from 2003 to 2010. U.S. death records were used to identify race/ethnicity and cause of death by International Classification of Diseases-10th revision coding. Using both U.S. Census data and death record data, standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), relative SMRs (rSMRs), and proportional mortality ratios were calculated for each sex and ethnic group relative to non-Hispanic whites (NHWs).In this study, 10,442,034 death records were examined. Whereas NHW men and women had the highest overall mortality rates, Asian Indian men and women and Filipino men had greater proportionate mortality burden from ischemic heart disease. The proportionate mortality burden of hypertensive heart disease and cerebrovascular disease, especially hemorrhagic stroke, was higher in every Asian-American subgroup compared with NHWs.The heterogeneity in cardiovascular disease mortality patterns among diverse Asian-American subgroups calls attention to the need for more research to help direct more specific treatment and prevention efforts, in particular with hypertension and stroke, to reduce health disparities for this growing population.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2014.08.048

    View details for Web of Science ID 000345962400007

    View details for PubMedID 25500233

  • Impact of San Francisco's Toy Ordinance on Restaurants and Children's Food Purchases, 2011-2012 PREVENTING CHRONIC DISEASE Otten, J. J., Saelens, B. E., Kapphahn, K. I., Hekler, E. B., Buman, M. P., Goldstein, B. A., Krukowski, R. A., O'Donohue, L. S., Gardner, C. D., King, A. C. 2014; 11

    Abstract

    In 2011, San Francisco passed the first citywide ordinance to improve the nutritional standards of children's meals sold at restaurants by preventing the giving away of free toys or other incentives with meals unless nutritional criteria were met. This study examined the impact of the Healthy Food Incentives Ordinance at ordinance-affected restaurants on restaurant response (eg, toy-distribution practices, change in children's menus), and the energy and nutrient content of all orders and children's-meal-only orders purchased for children aged 0 through 12 years.Restaurant responses were examined from January 2010 through March 2012. Parent-caregiver/child dyads (n = 762) who were restaurant customers were surveyed at 2 points before and 1 seasonally matched point after ordinance enactment at Chain A and B restaurants (n = 30) in 2011 and 2012.Both restaurant chains responded to the ordinance by selling toys separately from children's meals, but neither changed their menus to meet ordinance-specified nutrition criteria. Among children for whom children's meals were purchased, significant decreases in kilocalories, sodium, and fat per order were likely due to changes in children's side dishes and beverages at Chain A.Although the changes at Chain A did not appear to be directly in response to the ordinance, the transition to a more healthful beverage and default side dish was consistent with the intent of the ordinance. Study results underscore the importance of policy wording, support the concept that more healthful defaults may be a powerful approach for improving dietary intake, and suggest that public policies may contribute to positive restaurant changes.

    View details for DOI 10.5888/pcd11.140026

    View details for Web of Science ID 000343522200006

    View details for PubMedID 25032837

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